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Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination

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Abstract

This article reports two studies exploring the academic procrastination of 456 undergraduates. Study 1 explores the relationships among academic procrastination, self-regulation, academic self-efficacy, self-esteem, and self-efficacy for self-regulation. Results reveal that although other self-variables are related to procrastination, self-efficacy for self-regulation is most predictive of procrastination tendencies. Study 2 examines academic and motivation characteristics of “negative procrastinators,” the undergraduates who are most adversely influenced by procrastination. The 25% of 195 participants in Study 2 who were classified as negative procrastinators had significantly lower GPAs, higher levels of daily and task procrastination, lower predicted and actual class grades, and lower self-efficacy for self-regulation. After controlling for GPA, daily procrastination and self-efficacy for self-regulation significantly predicted the negative impact of procrastination. The article concludes with a discussion of the importance that self-efficacy for self-regulation holds for procrastination research, and with suggestions for practitioners who work with students who are adversely affected by procrastination.

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... Procrastination can occur in all possible areas but is especially prevalent in the academic context (i.e., academic procrastination; Steel, 2007). Poor academic achievement, perceived stress, depression, and anxiety are among the potential outcomes of students' tendency to procrastinate (Steel, 2007;Klassen et al., 2008;Kim and Seo, 2015;Rozental et al., 2015;Sirois, 2016). To the best of our knowledge, only few studies have investigated the role of procrastination in academic attrition. ...
... According to the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997), high self-efficacy should increase students' effort and persistence devoted to a task. Hence, a negative relationship between self-efficacy and procrastination characterized by reduced effort and persistence is not unexpected (Van Eerde, 2003;Klassen et al., 2008;Wu and Fan, 2017). In addition, experimental evidence shows that altering students' negative and irrational thoughts (e.g., low self-efficacy) may be effective in reducing procrastination (Visser et al., 2017). ...
... In the present study, we investigated if procrastination is one of such mechanisms. Self-efficacy beliefs are relatively strongly related to procrastination (Van Eerde, 2003;Klassen et al., 2008) which, in turn, is related to students' dropout intentions (Bäulke et al., 2018). As discussed, low self-efficacy may incline students to delay and devote less effort to academic tasks facilitating students' attrition intentions (Van Eerde, 2003;Klassen et al., 2008;Hovdhaugen, 2009;Wu and Fan, 2017). ...
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Why do students leave universities? The current study addresses the problem of academic attrition from the perspective of students’ intentions. Specifically, we focus on the roles of academic self-efficacy and procrastination in exploring their relationships with attrition intentions. Based on existing research, we expected a negative relationship between academic self-efficacy and attrition intentions, with procrastination as a possible mediator. Furthermore, it was expected that this relationship would differ depending on the type of attrition (i.e., drop-out, transfer university, transfer study field). These hypotheses were investigated among Norwegian students in a questionnaire study ( N = 693). Results showed that procrastination partially mediated the relationship between academic self-efficacy and three attrition intentions categories. Although procrastination was a significant mediator of self-efficacy for all types of intentions, the sizes of the direct and indirect effects were different. We conclude that academic procrastination is important in understanding the relationship between students’ self-efficacy beliefs and attrition intentions.
... Students who delay tasks have less preparation and working time in order to meet deadlines; they might have poorer academic performance compared to students who do not procrastinate [107,109]. Other consequences involve emotions, such as stress and anxiety, and procrastinators may experience health issues and problem behaviors [31,61,38]. ...
... Bandura found that students who mastered self-management tried to accomplish tasks on time in different ways while students who lacked these skills kept procrastinating [2]. Self-regulated students use relevant methods, such as setting reasonable goals and applicable plans [100,61,119]. Their strategies related to their academic performance: Senécal, Koestner & Vallerand found that students who regulated their behaviors had higher academic outcomes [99]. ...
... Academic procrastinators lacked confidence in their tasks. Students with an optimistic belief that they can complete tasks on time do successfully tend to procrastinate less [124,61]. Chu and Choi mentioned that when it came to some difficulties, students with high self-efficacy usually found ways to overcome the challenges actively while students with lower self-efficacy often chose to delay or avoid challenges [11]. ...
... Azfal and Jami recommended that university instructors explore different possibilities to promote time management and self-regulation skills to increase student motivation for homework completion [1]. Klassen et al. recommended that building students' confidence is also an efficient way to address procrastination after assessing students' responses from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire [18]. ...
... We designed the reminder messages using a broad set of models from work on the implementation intentions theory [11] and with an emphasis on self-efficacy [18]. Implementation intentions involve explicitly stating a goal that supports the transformation of good intentions into concrete behaviour change [11]. ...
... We used psychologically-grounded principles to create the emails in a way that they are helpful and encouraging to students. One of the psychological theories that we used to design these reminder messages and make them more motivating is the implementation intentions strategy [11,18], where students were asked to reflect on a plan with information on when and how to improve to transform good intentions into behavioural change. Furthermore, we also used practices motivated by self-efficacy and sharing mastery experiences with students. ...
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Email communication between instructors and students is ubiquitous, and it could be valuable to explore ways of testing out how to make email messages more impactful. This paper explores the design space of using emails to get students to plan and reflect on starting weekly homework earlier. We deployed a series of email reminders using randomized A/B comparisons to test alternative factors in the design of these emails, providing examples of an experimental paradigm and metrics for a broader range of interventions. We also surveyed and interviewed instructors and students to compare their predictions about the effectiveness of the reminders with their actual impact. We present our results on which seemingly obvious predictions about effective emails are not borne out, despite there being evidence for further exploring these interventions, as they can sometimes motivate students to attempt their homework more often. We also present qualitative evidence about student opinions and behaviours after receiving the emails, to guide further interventions. These findings provide insight into how to use randomized A/B comparisons in everyday channels such as emails, to provide empirical evidence to test our beliefs about the effectiveness of alternative design choices.
... However, little research has empirically explored the influence of motivation on procrastination, including academic achievement as a relevant outcome variable. Of important note, several reports have suggested that motivation impacts procrastination, which would negatively affect the students' performance (e.g., Klassen et al., 2008;Lindt et al., 2014;Schraw et al., 2007). Nevertheless, the specifics of these sequential relations have not been thoroughly tested within a self-determination theory framework. ...
... Further, procrastination stems from a failure or a lack of self-regulation -defined as the way individuals use internal or external cues to initiate, maintain, or terminate specific actions -(e.g., Haghbin et al., 2012;Klassen & Kuzucu, 2009;Lee, 2005;Steel, 2007;Tuckman, 1998;Tuckman & Sexton, 1989). Procrastination may also be posited as a result of a deficit in motivation (e.g., Haghbin et al., 2012;Klassen et al., 2008;Klingsieck et al., 2013;Senecal et al., 1995;Yurtseven & Dogan, 2019). Thus, an increased comprehension of the link between procrastination and motivation would result in a more precise depiction of the role of both constructs within the higher education environment (Rakes & Dunn, 2010). ...
... These findings align in part with several reports (e.g., Chang 2014; Rebetez et al., 2015;Yurtseven & Dogan, 2019). They also follow accounts of procrastination as associated with a motivational deficit and negative emotions such as guilt and anxiety (e.g., Haghbin et al., 2012;Klassen et al., 2008;Klingsieck et al., 2013;Steel, 2007). It would seem that motivational orientations related to emotional avoidance (EM-introjected) prove equivalently maladaptive as the lack of motivation (amotivation) in terms of their impact on academic dilatory behaviors. ...
Article
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This study aimed to analyze the influence of academic motivation on procrastination and, in turn, to examine the impact of procrastination on academic achievement, on the grounds of self-determination theory. Undergraduate students (N = 928) completed a sociodemographic and academic survey, the Tuckman Procrastination Scale, and the Academic Motivation Scale. Path-analysis findings revealed procrastination was negatively and significantly predicted by intrinsic motivation toward stimulating experiences, intrinsic motivation towards achievement, and extrinsic motivation external regulation. Further, procrastination was positively predicted by intrinsic motivation to know, extrinsic motivation identified regulation, extrinsic motivation introjected regulation, and amotivation. In turn, procrastination negatively predicted academic achievement. Overall, combining components of motivational interventions could aid in tailoring higher education interventions that seek to decrease procrastination and reduce the impact of this variable on academic achievement. Discussion of findings continues in light of previous literature concerning the relationship between motivation and procrastination.
... Effort refers to the amount of time or energy expended in academic tasks, and persistence refers to continuous efforts toward solving problems rather than giving up, especially when confronted with challenges (Elliot et al., 1999). In contrast, academic procrastination refers to delay in starting or completing academic tasks, despite the awareness of potential negative outcomes (Klassen et al., 2008). Approximately over half of college students procrastinate, which suggests that it may be the most common approach used by them to disengage from academic work (Steel, 2007;Özer et al., 2009). ...
... Self-control is of great importance in enabling students to engage in academic activities, especially when they are challenging and unpleasant (King and Gaerlan, 2014). Lacking self-control is one of the most crucial reasons for procrastination (Steel, 2007;Klassen et al., 2008). Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that students with a strong hedonic orientation will show less academic behavioral engagement and more procrastination, whereas students with a strong eudaimonic orientation will display the reverse. ...
Article
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The question of how the pursuit of happiness affects an individual’s actual well-being has received much scholarly attention in recent years. However, few studies have investigated the associations of happiness orientation with people’s subjective experience and objective functioning simultaneously. The current research examines the possibility that hedonic and eudaimonic orientations have different relationships with college students’ affective well-being and academic achievement, while taking into consideration the behavioral mechanism that underlies the process. We conducted online surveys to collect data including hedonic and eudaimonic orientations at the beginning of the semester and academic behavioral engagement, procrastination, and affective well-being at the end of the semester with a final sample of 566 Chinese undergraduate students. Their official grade point average for the semester was extracted from the university records system. The results confirmed that overall hedonic orientation was negatively associated with affective well-being and academic achievement, whereas eudaimonic orientation was positively associated with these outcomes. The study further found that both academic behavioral engagement and procrastination played mediating roles in the associations of happiness orientation with positive affect and academic achievement. However, only procrastination mediated the relationship between happiness orientation and negative affect. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
... Al respecto, existe un amplio consenso teórico al concebir a la conducta procrastinadora como un fallo autorregulatorio (Chan-Bazalar, 2011;Ferrari, 2001; Garzón-Umerenkova y Gil-Flores, 2017), sin embargo, esta perspectiva resulta incompleta, pues deja de lado el elemento motivacional que posibilita que una persona se autorregule efectivamente y evite incurrir en patrones de postergación de actividades. Es en este punto donde la autoeficacia adquiere un rol fundamental, pues para la implementación de procesos autorregulatorios de aprendizaje no basta con conocer sobre las estrategias cognitivas y metacognitivas que pueden utilizarse, se requiere también contar con la suficiente confianza para ejecutarlas y sostenerlas en el tiempo (Bandura, 1997;Klassen et al., 2008). En otras palabras, para que un individuo pueda seleccionar estrategias adecuadas de aprendizaje, evaluar su propio conocimiento, automonitorear y comprender la importancia del uso de estrategias concretas, primero requiere de la firme creencia en que podrá gestionar esos elementos para impulsar su aprendizaje (Klassen et al., 2008). ...
... Es en este punto donde la autoeficacia adquiere un rol fundamental, pues para la implementación de procesos autorregulatorios de aprendizaje no basta con conocer sobre las estrategias cognitivas y metacognitivas que pueden utilizarse, se requiere también contar con la suficiente confianza para ejecutarlas y sostenerlas en el tiempo (Bandura, 1997;Klassen et al., 2008). En otras palabras, para que un individuo pueda seleccionar estrategias adecuadas de aprendizaje, evaluar su propio conocimiento, automonitorear y comprender la importancia del uso de estrategias concretas, primero requiere de la firme creencia en que podrá gestionar esos elementos para impulsar su aprendizaje (Klassen et al., 2008). En este sentido, la autoeficacia para autorregularse, entendida como las creencias individuales en la propia capacidad para emplear estrategias autorregulatorias (Usher y Pajares, 2008), es clave para que el estudiante pueda hacer frente a las demandas de la formación académica, favoreciendo la implementación sistemática de las habilidades y estrategias necesarias para controlar y organizar de forma más autónoma su proceso de aprendizaje. ...
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El estudio de los factores no cognitivos que influyen en el éxito académico se ha posicionado como un tópico de creciente interés para la investigación educativa. En este marco, este estudio se propone el objetivo de examinar la relación entre el rendimiento académico universitario y dos factores no cognitivos específicos: la autoeficacia y la procrastinación académica. De igual manera, se explora el rol mediador que la procrastinación académica desempeña en la relación entre la autoeficacia y el rendimiento académico. El estudio cuantitativo se realizó en el contexto ecuatoriano y se basó en una muestra conformada por 788 estudiantes matriculados en universidades públicas y privadas del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito. La estrategia analítica consistió en la formulación de modelos de ruta, fundamentados en la metodología de ecuaciones estructurales. Los principales resultados del análisis empírico son los siguientes: a) tanto la autoeficacia como la procrastinación académica afectan directamente el desempeño académico de los estudiantes universitarios; b) la autoeficacia se relaciona indirectamente en el rendimiento académico a través de la procrastinación académica; c) estos factores no cognitivos son más determinantes para el desempeño estudiantil en la etapa inicial de carrera, especialmente en el caso de universidades privadas. Finalmente se discuten las implicaciones de los hallazgos efectuados, considerando el desarrollo potencial de estrategias de promoción del éxito académico mediante intervenciones que favorezcan el sentido de autoeficacia y la autorregulación del estudiantado.
... Academic procrastination can be viewed as a failure of self regulation (Steel, 2007;Steel & Klingsieck, 2016) concretized in the process by which the student utilizes and maintains thoughts, feelings and behaviors to obtain personal goals (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2011). Differing conduct among students creates various degrees of academic procrastination (Grunschel et al., 2013;Klassen et al., 2008). Procrastination, in an academic environment which requires meeting schedules, expresses procrastination as purposeful delay of learning assignments (Kim & Seo, 2015;Rabin et al., 2011;Rosental et al., 2014;Steel & Klingsieck, 2016). ...
... Those with a high degree of self efficacy will expend greater effort and persevere longer when facing difficulties than those who doubt their abilities (Bandura, 1997). A lower degree of self-efficacy projects high instances of procrastination (Klassen et et al., 2008;Klassen & Kuzucu, 2009;Liu, et al., 2020;Przepiorka et al., 2019;Yerdelen, McCaffrey & Klassen, 2016;Ziegler & Opdenakker, 2018). Self-efficacy projects future behavior because it indicates the efforts students would be willing to expend in challenging situations. ...
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This qualitative study examines academic procrastination among Israeli Master of Education students writing their theses. The majority of the the participants (80% of the 145) reported behaving differently on this task than on other assignments. One of the primary factors influencing procrastination derives from the complexity of the assignment. Considering the research literature describes tight relationships between academic procrastination and academic achievement, one surprising finding concerns the fact that respondents saw no relationship between their procrastination and their final grade. A gap was found between students' self-perception and their actual performance. Approximately 75% of the students perceive themselves as academic procrastinators, but in actuality nearly half of them completed the assignment on time. The starting date was found to be significant. Students who immediately began work upon receiving the assignment strongly tended to submit it on time. Students who did not begin early completed the project later than the scheduled date, if at all. Practitioner Notes Practitioner Notes 1. There are challenges to responding to student procrastination 2. Procrastination has a direct effect on student achievement 3. There is a gap between students' self-perception and their actual performance. 4. The complexity of the assignment has an effect on procrastination
... Much of the literature demonstrates that procrastination is common in educational and academic settings (e.g., Cassady & Johnson, 2002;Klassen et al., 2008;Yang et al., 2019). Specifically, academic procrastination appears to be a significant cause of problematic behavior for college students (Haycock et al., 1998) and it is specifically associated with higher levels of social anxiety (Ko & Chang, 2019), lower levels of academic self-efficacy, a loss of academic control (Haycock et al., 1998;Yazıcı et al., 2016), reduced motivation (Lee, 2010), lower academic performance, success and self-confidence (Chun Chu & Choi, 2005;Kim & Seo, 2015). ...
... Specifically, academic procrastination appears to be a significant cause of problematic behavior for college students (Haycock et al., 1998) and it is specifically associated with higher levels of social anxiety (Ko & Chang, 2019), lower levels of academic self-efficacy, a loss of academic control (Haycock et al., 1998;Yazıcı et al., 2016), reduced motivation (Lee, 2010), lower academic performance, success and self-confidence (Chun Chu & Choi, 2005;Kim & Seo, 2015). Academic procrastination is not only a problem for academic success (Chun Chu & Choi, 2005), but is also a cause of reduced self-confidence (Klassen et al., 2008). Students tend to procrastinate when they feel the task is boring or meaningless, or due to a fear of being evaluated (Zarick & Stonebraker, 2009). ...
Article
Research has revealed that problematic smartphone use is a cause of procrastination. This study investigated the predictive role of problematic smartphone use on procrastination with consideration of the mediating effect of psychological flexibility. The moderating role of gender in the frequency of checking smartphones was also tested in this mediational model. Of total, 471 undergraduate students (369 female, 102 male) with a mean age of 20.65 participated in the study. The study was conducted face to face in classroom settings, and the results of the analysis revealed that psychological flexibility indeed affected the relationship between problematic smart phone use and procrastination. In addition, moderated mediation analysis suggested that female university students were significantly impacted. Finally, it was observed that psychological flexibility played a significant role amongst the female university students surveyed in the relationship between problematic smart phone use and procrastination.
... 70 In the same vein of the ego-depletion theory, controlling emotions may deplete the pool of internal limited cognitive resources, so a high level of stress may predict subsequent poor self-regulatory behavior, 71,72 and procrastination is a typical behavioral outcome of those who are unwilling to exercise self-control and tend to choose short-sighted, short-term benefits over long-term ones. [73][74][75][76] Why do people engage in more bedtime procrastination after a stressful day? According to the socalled ego-depletion theory, there are two plausible explanations. ...
Article
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Purpose: Although bedtime procrastination is prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic, little is known about the relationship between COVID-19 related emotional stress and bedtime procrastination. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between COVID-19 related emotional stress and bedtime procrastination and examined the mediating role of negative affect and the moderating role of rumination among Chinese college students. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional, and quantitative research was conducted in China from August 11, 2021, to August 27, 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sampling method used in the study is the convenience sampling method. A total of 913 college students (aged 18-24 years) participated and completed online self-reported questionnaires. Their levels of COVID-19 related emotional stress, negative affect, rumination, and bedtime procrastination were measured by the Coronavirus Stress Measure, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Ruminative Responses Scale, and the Bedtime Procrastination Scale, respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlations and moderated mediation analysis. Results: COVID-19 related emotional stress was positively associated with bedtime procrastination. Meanwhile, the association could be mediated by negative affect (Effect = 0.33, Boot 95% CI = [0.26, 0.39]) and moderated by rumination (Effect = 0.05, Boot 95% CI = [0.03, 0.07]) through its moderation in the link between COVID-19 related emotional stress and negative affect. This indicated that the mediation effect of negative affect was stronger in college students with high levels of rumination than in those with low levels of rumination. Conclusion: The findings of this study shed light on a correlation between COVID-19 related emotional stress and bedtime procrastination. Moreover, this study suggests that interventions could be targeted at alleviating negative affect and rumination to reduce the bedtime procrastination of college students with high levels of COVID-19 related emotional stress.
... In the distance learning process, procrastination means postponing such academic tasks as timely completion of school assignments, preparing reports and essays, punctuality when submitting assignments, preparing for tests and exams, or postponing the taking of timely decisions due to a negative learning experience or fear of a negative result (Ferrari and Díaz-Morales 2007). Procrastination increases anxiety and dissatisfaction with studies and reduces social integration, which has a negative effect on current and future academic achievements of students (Klassen, Krawchuk, and Rajani 2008). ...
Article
In distance learning, the negative effect of procrastination on the academic activity and results of students calls for more attention to the study of predictors of this phenomenon. This study was carried out to explore the role of academic motivation and time perspective in predicting procrastination in students during distance learning. Two-hundred thirty students from different higher education institutions in Latvia were randomly selected for the study. The Tuckman Procrastination Scale, the Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory were used. The data were analyzed using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient, multiple regression, and factor analysis. The results have shown a positive correlation between procrastination and authority expectations, fear of failure, and present hedonism, as well as a negative correlation with peer acceptance and the future perspective. When the procrastination score is lower, a positive correlation with power motivations and a negative correlation with mastery goals appears. When the procrastination score is higher, a correlation with present hedonism and present fatalism manifests as acceptance of the imminence of the situation and of the high expectations of authority figures. Moreover, regression analysis has shown that fear of failure and expectations predetermine procrastination, whereas peer support and acceptance can help decrease procrastination in academic activity. As a result, common latent factors show a relationship between procrastination and future perspective, as well as with hedonistic motives, which can reduce the postponing of academic tasks by eliminating the students’ fear of uncertainty in the distance learning process and by improving internal control.
... The findings indicate that self-efficacy positively influenced resource management including time and study environment management as well as effort regulation in both groups. This result supports previous research findings about the influence of self-efficacy on time and study environment management (Klassen, Krawchuk, & Rajani, 2008;Lee et al., 2020;Li & Zheng, 2018;Lynch & Dembo, 2004;Schunk & Usher, 2011;Wäschle et al., 2014;Wolters & Hussain, 2015). In addition, our research finding about the influences of self-efficacy on effort regulation supports Cho and Shen (2013) and Sungur and Tekkaya (2006). ...
Article
This study examined the structural relationships among self-efficacy, resource management, and learning engagement during the COVID-19 era based on self-regulation theory. We also investigated whether the level of depression moderates the structural relationships among the factors by comparing a non-depressed group and a moderate-to-high depressed group. This study confirmed that resource management influenced learning engagement regardless of the depression level. Self-efficacy for learning also influenced resource management. The implications of this study are that self-efficacy is a prerequisite for resource management for learning. However, the direct influences of self-efficacy on learning engagement were observed only in the non-depressed group. Self-efficacy for learning indirectly influenced learning engagement through resource management in the depressed group. The self-regulated behaviors, such as resource management should be encouraged to enhance learning engagement of depressed students. Students' depression should also be monitored on a regular basis to help improve learning engagement during as well as after the COVID-19 era.
... As a result, a significant negative relationship between self-regulation and academic procrastination was found. The result is consistent with other similar studies which examine the particular relationship (Akinsola et al., 2007;AlJarrah et al., 2018;Klassen et al., 2008;Park & Sperling, 2012;Rakes & Dunn, 2010;Tan et al., 2008). ...
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To understand the relationships between flipped learning, self-regulated online learning and academic procrastination, this study constructs a mediation model to examine the impact of flipped learning on pre-service teachers’ self-regulated online learning behaviors and academic procrastination. A total of 396 pre-service teachers enrolled in a university in Turkey participated in the study, 306 (77.3%) of the participants were female and 90 (22.7%) were male. Three different data collection tools were used in the study: Flipped Learning Scale, Self-Regulated Online Learning Questionnaire, and The Scale of Academic Procrastination. Path analysis technique was used to analyze the data. The study found that while learning support, the dimension of the flipped learning scale, predicts self-regulated online learning in a significant and positive way, self-regulated online learning predicts academic procrastination in a significant and negative way. One unit increase in learning support increases students’ self-regulated online learning by 0.25 units (t = 5.05; p < .001). On the other hand, a one-unit increase in self-regulated online learning decreases students’ academic procrastination by 0.54 units (t = -12.80; p < .001). In addition, self-regulated online learning has a full mediating effect in the relationship between learning support and academic procrastination.
... As reported in previous studies, we also found self-efficacy was negatively correlated with academic procrastination [40][41][42]. It is possible that individuals with high levels of self-efficacy are more confident in their abilities, and therefore are more motivated to work harder to achieve their goals, more persistent when confronted with obstacles, and more likely to finish academic tasks on time instead of procrastinating [43]. ...
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Previous studies have suggested that physical activity may decrease academic procrastination; however, few studies have explored the underlying mechanisms of how physical activity exerts an effect on academic procrastination. This study aimed to examine the mediating effects of self-control and self-efficacy in the relationship between physical activity and academic procrastination among Chinese university students. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. The sample comprised 564 university students from a university in Zhejiang, China. The physical activity rating scale-3 (PARS-3), self-control scale (SCS), generalized self-efficacy scale (GSES), and procrastination assessment scale-students (PASS) were used to investigate university students' physical activity, self-control, self-efficacy, and academic procrastination respectively. The Percentile-Bootstrap technique was performed to examine the mediating effects of self-control and self-efficacy on the association between physical activity and academic procrastination. Results: Physical activity significantly predicted higher levels of self-control and self-efficacy, as well as lower levels of academic procrastination. Self-control and self-efficacy were significant mediators between physical activity and academic procrastination. Conclusion: This study indicated that physical activity interventions targeting the improvement of self-control and self-efficacy may reduce academic procrastination in university students.
... Studies have shown that self-efficacy for selfregulated learning can affect academic achievement. Scholars such as Klassen et al. began to study the effect of self-regulation learning efficacy on learning procrastination since 2008 and found that self-regulation learning efficacy can significantly predict students' learning procrastination behavior [30]; Wang et al. used a group counseling format to intervene in college students' self-regulated learning efficacy and found that increasing individuals' self-regulated learning efficacy reduced their procrastination behaviors and poor academic outcomes [31]. Jia Silei took postgraduates as the survey object, and the results also proved that there is a significant negative correlation between postgraduate academic procrastination and self-regulation learning efficacy. ...
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Academic procrastination is a common problem among current master’s degree students in their research activities and is an important factor that hinders academic progress. Based on the cognitive theory perspective, this study conducted a web-based questionnaire survey on full-time master’s students enrolled in a teacher training university in southwest China. The data collected were analyzed by using SPSS software with hierarchical regression and PROCESS macroprogramming techniques to investigate the relationship between stress perception and academic procrastination and the moderating effects of self-regulated learning efficacy and self-control among master’s students. The study showed that stress perception was a significant positive predictor of academic procrastination, and both self-regulated learning efficacy and self-control played a moderating role in the relationship between stress perception and academic procrastination. The study suggests that, firstly, to stimulate the personal potential of graduate students with reasonable perception of stress; secondly, to enhance the action ability of graduate students by strengthening metacognitive strategies; finally, to establish a two-way promotion mechanism by enhancing self-regulation and impulse control.
... Several studies have shown that academic procrastination is present in all cultures, at all academic levels, and between genders (Steel, 2007;Klassen et al., 2008Klassen et al., , 2010Özer and Ferrari, 2011). In Turkey, a study on 784 university students showed that 52% frequently procrastinate (Özer et al., 2009). ...
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The objective of the study was to determine if sex plays a moderating role in the relationship between executive functions and academic procrastination in 106 university students of both genders (28.3% male and 71.7% female) between the ages of 18 and 30 years (M = 19.7; SD = 2.7). The Academic Procrastination Scale and the Neuropsychological Battery of Executive Functions and Frontal Lobes (BANFE-2) were used to measure the variables. The results of the study showed that the degree of prediction of the tasks linked to the orbitomedial cortex (involves the orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and the medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]) on academic procrastination is significantly moderated by the sex of the university students (β3 = 0.53; p < 0.01). For men, the estimated effect of the tasks linked to the orbitomedial cortex on the degree of academic procrastination is −0.81. For women, the estimated effect of the tasks linked to the orbitomedial cortex on the degree of academic procrastination is −0.28. In addition, it was shown that sex does not play a moderating role in the relationship between the tasks linked to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and academic procrastination (β3 = 0.12; p > 0.05). It was also determined that sex does not play a moderating role in the relationship between the tasks linked to the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) and academic procrastination (β3 = 0.05; p > 0.05). It is concluded that only the executive functions associated with the orbitomedial cortex are moderated by the sex of the university students, where the impact of the tasks linked to the orbitomedial cortex on academic procrastination in men is significantly greater than in women.
... 8 Üniversite öğrencileri üzerinde yapılan bir başka çalışmaya göre; erteleme davranışının, genel ağırlıklı not ortalaması (GANO), özdenetim, akademik özyeterlik ve benlik saygısıyla negatif yönde anlamlı ilişkili olduğu bulunmuştur. 9 Bir başka çalışma ise mükemmeliyetçiliğin, kişilerde erteleme davranışını tetiklediğini belirlemiştir. 10 Eğitim fakültesi öğrencileriyle yürütülen bir çalışmada ise mükemmeliyetçilik bazında kadınlar için yordayıcı değişkenler kendine yönelik mükemmeliyetçilik ve başkalarına yönelik mükemmeliyetçilik olarak bulunurken; erkekler için tek yordayıcı değişkenin kendine yönelik mükemmeliyetçilik olduğu saptanmıştır. ...
... In this case, anxiety can be evaluated as an active emotional state both as a cause and as a result of procrastination. According to studies based on theoretical foundations, the causes of procrastination are anxiety about failure (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984;Zarick & Stonebraker, 2009), social anxiety (Ferrari, 1992), cognitive test anxiety (Cassady & Johnson, 2002), lack of self-regulation (Klassen et al., 2008), laziness (Senecal et al., 1997), perceiving the task as an imposition (Milgram et al., 1988), learned helplessness (McKean, 1994), low self-esteem (Beswick et al., 1988;Meyer, 2001), low self-confidence (Beswick et al., 1988), self-focused perfectionism (Klingsieck, 2013;Seo, 2008), and external locus of control (Deniz et al., 2009). Along with all these causes, internet addiction has a direct and indirect effect via core self-evaluations on procrastination (Gang et al., 2018), although this result does not explain whether internet addiction is predicted by procrastination or not. ...
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... Self-efficacy beliefs describe the subjective convictions of an acting person based on their own available competence to handle difficult or new situations and challenges (Bandura, 1977;Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 2002). Numerous studies have shown that selfefficacy enhances resilience, motivation (regulation), and persistence in the face of adversities, while it further reduces maladaptive studying behaviors, such as procrastination(e.g., Author, 2020;Bandura, 1977;Honicke & Broadbent, 2016;Klassen et al., 2008;Wolters & Benzon, 2013). ...
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... Academic procrastination has been shown to be related to some important variables, such as students' learning motivation and learning strategies (Dewitte and Lens, 2000;Ferrari and Scher, 2000;Dewitte and Schouwenburg, 2002;Klingsieck et al., 2013). In particular, past studies have found that selfefficacy, learning motivation, effort regulation, perfectionism (fear of failure) and time management are all reflective characteristics of academic procrastination (Van Eerde, 2003;Howell and Watson, 2007;Klassen et al., 2008;Rakes and Dunn, 2010;Closson and Boutilier, 2017;Wolters et al., 2017); and these factors are all negatively related to academic performance. For example, Christopher (1998) reported that intrinsically motivated students usually procrastinated less than their externally motivated peers; hence suggesting that a lack of learning motivation contributes to more procrastination behaviors (Senecal et al., 1995;Steel, 2007). ...
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The procrastination assessment scale for students (PASS) has been used widely in evaluating the patterns of university students’ procrastination on academic tasks and their procrastination behavior. The present study validated the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the PASS (PASS-C) by recruiting two representative independent sample of Hong Kong Chinese university students (S1 used in the EFA study: 506; S2 used in the CFA study: 506). The results confirmed that this modified Chinese version is a valid and appropriate tool to assess university students’ procrastination tendencies in Chinese educational settings.
... mood-regulation perspective, Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). However, self-efficacy (Klassen et al., 2008) and neuroticism (Brown, 1991) were found to only moderately correlate with procrastination when measured by these scales (Steel, 2007). We suggest that correlations between self-efficacy and procrastination, and between neuroticism and procrastination, are due to the emotional aspects shared by the constructs. ...
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Procrastination is the irrational delay of an intended task and is common among students. A delay can only be defined as procrastination when it is voluntary, the action was intended but not implemented, and the delay is accompanied by subjective discomfort. Established scales of procrastination cover mainly behavioral aspects but have neglected the emotional aspect. This inaccuracy concerning the construct validity might entail misconceptions of procrastination. Accordingly, we developed and validated the Behavioral and Emotional Academic Procrastination Scale (BEPS), which covers all aspects of the definition of procrastination. The 6-item scale measuring self-reported academic procrastination was tested in three studies. Study 1 ( N = 239) evaluated the psychometric qualities of the BEPS, indicating good item characteristics and internal consistency. Study 2 ( N = 1,441) used confirmatory factor analysis and revealed two correlated factors: one covering the behavioral aspect and the other reflecting the emotional aspect. Measurement invariance was shown through longitudinal and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Study 3 ( N = 234) provided evidence for the scale’s convergent validity through correlations with established procrastination scales, self-efficacy, and neuroticism. The BEPS thus economically operationalizes all characteristics of academic procrastination and appears to be a reliable and valid self-report measure.
... Thus, the results highlight the relevance and complementary nature of the cognitive, motivational, and emotional dimensions of self-regulated learning in predicting students' procrastination, as well as the direct effects of the self-regulation dimensions and procrastination on students' personal well-being, academic stress, and academic achievement (e.g., Richardson et al., 2012). More specifically, there are significant effects of the three dimensions of self-regulated learning on academic procrastination (e.g., Klassen et al., 2008Klassen et al., , 2011, with metacognitive strategies showing the greatest effects (β = -.317; p < .01). ...
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هراس اجتماعی عموماً یک تخریب اساسی در فرایند پردازش اطلاعات افکار نگرش ها و اعتقادات در نظر گرفته شده که باعث تحریک و نگهداری عواطف و رفتارهای وابسته به هراس اجتماعی می‌شود. پژوهشگران تحریف های فکری معینی چون بی‌کفایتی ادراک شده و ترس از ارزیابی منفی را از عوامل ایجاد هراس اجتماعی معرفی کردند اما انتظار می‌رود که اگر فردی محیط را حمایتگر ارزیابی کند در شرایط تنش زا بتواند به طور موثرتری با موقعیت کنار آمده و راهکارهای لازم را اتخاذ کند. بر این اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر رابطه بین جهت گیری زندگی و هراس اجتماعی در دانشجویان می باشد. ۱۱۸ دانشجو (۶۶ دختر و ۵۲ پسر) که به روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند مقیاس جهت گیری زندگی و مقیاس هراس اجتماعی را تکمیل نمودند. اعتبار و روایی ابزار های مورد استفاده احراز گردیده است. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده از تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه به‌روش همزمان مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد که جهت گیری زندگی قادر به پیش بینی منفی و معنادار هراس اجتماعی است. همچنین بین دختران و پسران از لحاظ جهت گیری به زندگی تفاوتی مشاهده نشد. نتیجه اینکه هر چه افراد نگرش مثبت تری به زندگی داشته باشند موقعیت های اجتماعی یا غیر اجتماعی را بیشتر موافق با خواسته خود ارزیابی کرده و بنابراین هراس اجتماعی کمتری را تجربه میکنند
Article
Temporary school lockdowns and physical distancing practices due to the Covid‐19 pandemic have led to the risk of problematic social media use (PSU) in students who need to socialize. The effect of PSU on students' academic commitment and the mechanisms that moderate this effect spark interest in researchers. For this reason, the present study sought answers to the following two research questions: (a) Whether PSU positively predicts academic procrastination (AP), (b) Whether this relation is moderated by self‐control and gender. Employing the additive multiple moderation model, the study was carried out with 370 Turkish middle school students (female: 65.1%, Mage: 12.82). The findings indicate that PSU positively affects AP. The positive effect of PSU on AP is higher in boys than in girls. Self‐control acts as a buffering moderator in the positive effect of PSU on AP. As students' self‐control levels increase, the positive effect of PSU on AP weakens. Self‐control plays a greater role as a buffering moderator in girls than in boys. Regarding the context of middle school students' PSU and AP, the results extend the literature, which states that boys tend to act more impulsively. Also, this study adds new empirical evidence to the literature regarding the importance of high levels of self‐control in minimizing the negative effects of PSU, which has become more common among middle school students after the Covid‐19 pandemic, on AP.
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La procrastinación académica (PA) se define como un defecto en el desempeño de actividades académicas caracterizada por dilatar hasta el último minuto tareas que necesitan finalizarse. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron evaluar relaciones entre la Intolerancia a la frustración (IF) y la PA y con variables sociodemográficas en alumnos universitarios de Argentina. La muestra, intencional, fue conformada por 171 estudiantes de 18 a 49 años (M=26.13, DE=6.9). Se administraron la Escala de Intolerancia a la Frustración (EIF), la Escala de Procrastinación Académica (EPA) y un cuestionario sociodemográfico. Hubo correlaciones directas y significativas entre la EPA con Intolerancia emocional (rho= .262, p<.001), Derechos (rho=.41, p< 0001), Intolerancia a la incomodidad (Rho= .62, p<.0001) y con IF total (Rho= .47, p<.0001). Un análisis de regresión lineal considerando como variable dependiente a la EPA y las independientes a las dimensiones de la EIF arrojó un r cuadrado de .44. La Intolerancia a la incomodidad (Beta= .53, t=7.59, p<.0001) y Derechos (Beta= .73, t=2.13, p<.03) explican el 44% de la varianza de EPA. Estos resultados replican los hallados en otros países; sugiere que las asociaciones entre IF y PA no están muy influenciadas por factores culturales.
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This study investigates the relationship among defense styles and learning through academic procrastination and psychological well-being. The sample comprises 628 social science students from a Greek university. Path analysis is used to explore associations and interactions among the variables. The results show that academic procrastination and psychological well-being mediate the relationship between defense styles and approaches to learning, indicating the expected direct and indirect effects. Defense styles are directly related to approaches to learning. Mature defense styles are associated with learning through psychological well-being in a positive way, and immature defense styles are associated with learning through academic procrastination in a negative way. This study supports the current line of research in associations between defense styles and learning and the importance of linking mental health variables with learning.
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While procrastination is a widely recognised phenomenon, current research sometimes contends that it is not by definition negative or that absence of procrastination is necessarily positive. Accordingly, a characterological distinction has been made between passive procrastinators and active procrastinators; the latter resembling non-procrastinators. The basis of this study derives from quantitative research, using three questionnaires in the survey method. A theoretical model whereby students’ perception of self-efficacy impacts procrastination was used to study 145 Master of Education (M.Ed) students in the process of writing their thesis in two Israeli Orthodox educational institutions. The findings revealed that the score for meeting deadlines was higher among non-procrastinators when compared to both types of procrastinators. No differences were found between students who actively procrastinate and those passively procrastinating, either with reference to self-efficacy or by measuring achievement. Procrastination strategies were identified as correlating with perceptions of self-efficacy (both general and academic) and final grades. Additionally, active procrastinators were found to be more academically procrastinators than passive procrastinators, while less studious. The declined hypotheses may be explained by reference to terms popular in Israeli culture, the inference being that active Israeli procrastinators do not plan their procrastination as carefully as do other westerners. Positive correlation was found between the theoretical model and the empirical data obtained from the questionnaires. However, self-efficacy, whose relationship to academic achievement is frequently emphasised, was not found to be a direct influence; rather it represents a factor mediated through procrastination.
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Durante a vida acadêmica é necessária a criação de estratégias para o bom desempenho nos estudos, porém questões como a procrastinação poderiam dificultar este fato. Dessa forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi discutir o ato postergador em estudantes universitários e o papel da autorregulação da aprendizagem como possível variável mediadora, a partir da Teoria Social Cognitiva de Albert Bandura. A metodologia utilizada se deu por uma revisão bibliográfica do tipo revisão narrativa. O artigo está dividido em 4 seções: introdução, metodologia, resultados e discussão e Considerações finais. Na introdução foi apresentado os motivos para a realização deste trabalho; nos resultados estão destacados os aspectos gerais da Teoria estudada, a autorregulação da aprendizagem e a procrastinação no ensino superior, esta observada com suas possíveis relações ao construto da Teoria de Bandura através da gestão do tempo e de fatores ambientais e cognitivos; por fim, foram discutidas algumas conclusões pelos autores. Os principais resultados mostram a necessidade de consciência da procrastinação como problemática, a demanda por criação de formas para enfrentá-la, como a autorregulação da aprendizagem e o carecimento de divulgação da temática através maior produção textual.
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
Article
Academic procrastination is a phenomenon that many students do in school. Lack of the effective communication between student and teacher can be one of the reasons who increase the academic procrastination on students. The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between the effective of interpersonal communication student and teacher with academic procrastination on the student. Population in this research is a student in XI and XII class with 678 students. This research using 233 sample obtained by cluster random sampling technique. Data retrieved by using two scales of effective interpersonal communication with 35 items (α= 0,916) and academic procrastination scale with 41 items (α= 0,908). The result of simple regression analysis showed there is a significant negative relationship between effective interpersonal communication with academic procrastination rxy= -0,490 (p<0,001). Which mean the higher effective interpersonal communication between students and teacher, getting lower academic procrastination on students. The effective of interpersonal communication contributed 24% to academic procrastination and 76% determined by other factor which is not discussed in this research.
Article
Purpose The study aimed to examine the relationship between self-regulation failure and academic achievement in an emergency remote teaching (ERT) and learning environment compared to a face-to-face setting. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to investigate the impact of students falling behind (as proxy for self-regulation failure) on their final course mark. The sample comprised students from four undergraduate modules offered at a South African university in a face-to-face setting ( N = 1,604), as well as an ERT setting ( N = 1,478). Students falling behind were measured as the days behind, relative to the academic program, using learning management system (LMS) log data. The study further explored whether self-regulation failure had a greater effect on academic achievement in ERT as opposed to a face-to-face context. Findings The results indicated a negative correlation between self-regulation failure, evidenced by falling further behind in the academic program, and students' final course marks. Furthermore, the negative impact of falling behind was found to be greater on a student's final course mark during ERT compared to a face-to-face setting. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature on ERT by highlighting the increased negative effect of self-regulation failure on academic achievement in ERT as opposed to face-to-face teaching and learning. Findings of this research may be of value to educators and policymakers in identifying ways of supporting self-regulated learning in future ERT situations to ensure that academic success is maintained.
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This research was conducted to determine the relationship between school well-being and academic procrastination in Mardisiswa Senior High School Semarang students. Academic Procrastination is a behavior carried out by students which deliberately delaying matters related to academic activities because it is considered difficult or unpleasant for them. School well-being is a student's subjective assessment of the school environment related to basic needs of students while carrying out academic and non-academic activities at school. The population in this research amounted to 211 students of Mardisiswa SHS, with 104 students as a sample which were taken through cluster random sampling technique. The measuring instruments used in this study were school well-being Scale (26 items, α = 0.893) and Academic Procrastination Scale (23 items, α = 0.863). Data analysis was performed with Spearman's Rho, showing a significant negative relationship between school well-being and academic procrastination in Mardisiswa SHS Semarang students (rxy =-0.498 and p = 0.000). The negative relationship implies that the higher of the school well-being levels, the lower of academic procrastination levels. Researcher's suggestions for the participants of this research would be improvement of time management to doing task and arrange priority scale related to doing task.
Conference Paper
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خودکارآمدی و اجتماعی به باور افراد در مورد توانایی هایشان برای صحیح عمل کردن در موقعیت های اجتماعی اشاره دارد. افرادی که دارای نگرش مثبتی به زندگی هستند به ارزیابی آنچه می توانند به دست آورند در برابر آنچه قادر به کسب آن نیستند، می‌پردازند. اینگونه افراد موفقیت های اجتماعی خود را به توانایی های درونی خود نسبت می‌دهند که همین مسئله می‌تواند زمینه‌ساز افزایش میزان خودکارآمدی اجتماعی در این افراد باشد. بر این اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه بین جهت گیری زندگی و خودکارآمدی اجتماعی در دانشجویان میباشد. ۱۱۸ دانشجو (۶۶ دختر و ۵۲ پسر) که به روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند مقیاس جهت گیری زندگی و پرسشنامه خودکارآمدی در موقعیت های اجتماعی را تکمیل نمودند. پایایی و روایی ابزار های مورد استفاده احراز گردیده است. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده از تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه به‌روش همزمان مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد که جهت‌گیری به زندگی قادر به پیش بینی مثبت و معنادار خودکارآمدی اجتماعی است. همچنین بین دختران و پسران از لحاظ خودکارآمدی اجتماعی تفاوتی مشاهده نشد. نتیجه اینکه هر چه افراد نگرش مثبت تری به زندگی داشته باشند موقعیت های اجتماعی یا غیر اجتماعی را بیشتر موافق با خواست خود ارزیابی کرده و بنابراین خودکارآمدی اجتماعی بیشتری را احساس می کنند
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هراس اجتماعی عموماً یک تخریب اساسی در فرایند پردازش اطلاعات، افکار، نگرش ها و اعتقادات در نظر گرفته شده که باعث تحریک و نگهداری عواطف و رفتارهای وابسته به هراس اجتماعی می‌شود. پژوهشگران تحریف های فکری معینی چون بی‌کفایتی ادراک شده و ترس از ارزیابی منفی را از عوامل ایجاد هراس اجتماعی معرفی کرده اند اما انتظار می‌رود که اگر فردی محیط را حمایتگر ارزیابی کند در شرایط تنش زا بتواند به طور موثرتری با موقعیت کنار آمده و راهکارهای لازم را اتخاذ کند. بر این اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه بین حمایت جتماعی ادراک شده و هراس اجتماعی در دانشجویان میباشد. ۱۱۸ دانشجو (۶۶ دختر و ۵۲ پسر) که به روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند مقیاس چند وجهی حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده و مقیاس هراس اجتماعی را تکمیل نمودند .اعتبار و روایی ابزار های مورد استفاده احراز گردیده است. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده از تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه به‌روش همزمان مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد که حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده و قادر به پیش بینی منفی و معنادار هراس اجتماعی می باشد. همچنین بین میانگین نمرات دانشجویان دختر و پسر از لحاظ هراس اجتماعی نیز تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نگردید. نتیجه اینکه ادراک محیط اجتماعی و خانواده به عنوان محیطی حمایتگر پیش بینی کننده کاهش میزان هراس اجتماعی در دانشجویان است
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Araştırmanın amacı, üniversite öğrencilerinin akademik özyeterlik, akademik motivasyon, sosyal bağlılık ve erteleme eğilimi düzeylerini belirlemektir. Araştırmada nicel araştırma yöntemlerinden ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini 2019-2020 eğitim öğretim yılında Bingöl Üniversitesi Fen Edebiyat Fakültesinde uzaktan eğitim yoluyla öğrenim gören üniversite öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemi seçkisiz olmayan örnekleme yöntemlerinden uygun örnekleme yöntemiyle belirlenmiştir. Bu araştırmada ölçekler, Fen Edebiyat Fakültesinde öğrenim gören tüm öğrencilerin e-posta adreslerine gönderilmiştir. Araştırmaya gönüllü olarak 546 öğrenci katılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonucunda, öğrencilerin akademik özyeterlik düzeylerinin ortalamanın üzerinde, akademik motivasyon düzeylerinin orta düzeyde, sosyal bağlılık düzeylerinin), ortalamanın altında ve erteleme eğilimlerinin ise orta düzeyde olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Öğrencilerin akademik özyeterlik düzeyleri ile akademik motivasyon düzeyleri arasında pozitif yönde, düşük düzeyde anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Akademik motivasyon akademik özyeterlik algısının anlamlı bir yordayıcısıdır. Akademik motivasyon öğrencilerin akademik özyeterliklerine ilişkin varyansın yaklaşık %6’sını açıklamaktadır. Öğrencilerin akademik motivasyon düzeyi ile sosyal bağlılık düzeyi arasında pozitif yönde, düşük düzeyde anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Akademik motivasyon ve sosyal bağlılık değişkenleri birlikte akademik özyeterlik algısına ilişkin varyansın %11’ini açıklamaktadır. Akademik motivasyon düzeyi ile erteleme eğilimi düzeyi arasında pozitif yönde, düşük düzeyde anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Akademik özyeterlik düzeyi ile sosyal bağlılık düzeyi arasında negatif yönde, düşük düzeyde anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Öğrencilerin sosyal bağlılık düzeyi ile erteleme eğilimi düzeyi arasında pozitif yönde, düşük düzeyde anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Öğrencilerin akademik özyeterlik algıları ile erteleme eğilimleri arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunamamıştır. Bulgularımız, akademik ertelemenin önlenmesi ve azaltılmasının kapsamlı bir eğitim yaklaşımının parçası olması gerektiğini göstermektedir.
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It is possible that procrastination may be related to an inability to stay focused on a task and a need for frequent sensory stimulation. In the present correlational study, 142 young adults (80 women, 62 men: M age = 21.1, SD = 4.7) self-reported procrastination tendencies (avoidance, arousal, and decisional), attention deficits, boredom proneness, intelligence and self-esteem. Partial correlates (controlling for intelligence) indicated that all three forms of procrastination were related to boredom proneness, attention deficits, and low self-esteem. Factor analysis, however, indicated that no procrastination type loaded with attention deficits or intelligence, and only decisional procrastination loaded with self-esteem and boredom proneness. These results suggest that only cognitive forms of procrastination (indecision) may be related to a need for sensory stimulation, and that among normal adults procrastination is not associated with attention deficits.
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Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals.
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No systematic study has examined the global prevalence of chronic procrastination-the purposive delay in starting or completing tasks. In the present study, adult samples from the United States (122 women, 85 men), United Kingdom (143 women, 96 men), and Australia (124 women, 90 men) completed reliable and valid self-report measures of arousal procrastination (delays motivated by a "last-minute" thrill experience) and avoidant procrastination (delays related to fears of failure or success). Both men and women from the United Kingdom reported higher rates of arousal and avoidance procrastination compared to adults from the United States and Australia. However, when both procrastination types were separated statistically into "pure types" there were no significant differences across countries: 11.5% of adults self-identified as arousal procrastinators, and 9.9% of adults as avoidant procrastinators. Results indicated that chronic procrastination prevalence is common among westernized, individualistic, English-speaking countries; further epidemiological cross-cultural studies are needed. It has been estimated that procrastination (i.e., frequent delays in starting and/or completing tasks to deadline: Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995) is common by around 70% of college students for academic-specific tasks (Ellis & Knaus, 1977), yet as high as 20% among normal adult men and women for everyday, daily life events such as paying bills and planning for personal health issues (Harriott & Ferrari, 1996). While it seems that procrastination rates decrease with age, Ferrari et al. (1995) proposed that these rates reflect different forms of procrastination, with the former an exanqjle of situational-specific task delays and the latter indicative of chronic, dispositional delay behavior patterns. That is, college students may engage in delay of studying but
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Procrastination can have a negative effect on learning. Many previous studies have examined personality factors that contribute to procrastination. This study examines selected assignment characteristics controllable by the instructor that might influence student procrastination. Results found less procrastination on assignments that were perceived as interesting, that required students to use a variety of skills, for which students perceived social norms and rewards for starting promptly, and for which the instructor provided clear instructions. Procrastination was not affected by fear, deadline pressure from other assignments, or the degree to which the task was perceived as difficult or time consuming.
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This paper reports on a new self-report, Likert-scaled instrument that was designed to assess motivation and use of learning strategies by college students. The motivation scales tap into three broad areas: (1) value (intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation, task value), (2) expectancy (control beliefs about learning, self-efficacy); and (3) affect (test anxiety). The learning strategies section is comprised of nine scales which can be distinguished as cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management strategies. The cognitive strategies scales include (a) rehearsal, (b) elaboration, (c) organization, and (d) critical thinking. Metacognitive strategies are assessed by one large scale that includes planning, monitoring, and regulating strategies. Resource management strategies include (a) managing time and study environment; (b) effort management, (c) peer learning, and (d) help-seeking. Scale reliabilities are robust, and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated good factor structure. In addition, the instrument shows reasonable predictive validity to the actual course performance of students.
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The role of autonomous self-regulation as a predictor of academic procrastination was assessed. French-Canadian students from a junior college (N = 498) completed the Academic Motivation Scale as well as an academic procrastination scale and other measures (anxiety, self-esteem, and depression) that have been found to be related to fear of failure. Correlation results indicated that students with intrinsic reasons for pursuing academic tasks procrastinated less than those with less autonomous reasons (external regulation and amotivation). Regression results indicated that the measures of depression, self-esteem, and anxiety accounted for 14% of the variance in academic procrastination, whereas the self-regulation variables accounted for 25%. These results support the notion that procrastination is a motivational problem that involves more than poor time management skills or trait laziness.
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Procrastination is variously described as harmful, innocuous, or even beneficial. Two longitudinal studies examined procrastination among students. Procrastinators reported lower stress and less illness than nonprocrastinators early in the semester, but they reported higher stress and more illness late in the term, and overall they were sicker. Procrastinators also received lower grades on all assignments. Procrastination thus appears to be a self-defeating behavior pattern marked by short-term benefits and long-term costs.
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The causal role of students' self-efficacy beliefs and academic goals in self-motivated academic attainment was studied using path analysis procedures. Parental goal setting and students' self-efficacy and personal goals at the beginning of the semester served as predictors of students' final course grades in social studies. In addition, their grades in a prior course in social studies were included in the analyses. A path model of four self-motivation variables and prior grades predicted students 'final grades in social studies, R = .56. Students' beliefs in their efficacy for self-regulated learning affected their perceived self-efficacy for academic achievement, which in turn influenced the academic goals they set for themselves and their final academic achievement. Students' prior grades were predictive of their parents' grade goals for them, which in turn were linked to the grade goals students set for themselves. These findings were interpreted in terms of the social cognitive theory of academic self-motivation.
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It is possible that procrastination may be related to an inability to stay focused on a task and a need for frequent sensory stimulation. In the present correlational study, 142 young adults (80 women, 62 men; mean age = 21.1 yrs) self-reported procrastination tendencies (avoidance, arousal, and decisional), attention deficits, boredom proneness, intelligence and self-esteem. Partial correlates (controlling for intelligence) indicated that all three forms of procrastination were related to boredom proneness, attention deficits, and low self-esteem. Factor analysis, however, indicated that no procrastination type loaded with attention deficits or intelligence, and only decisional procrastination loaded with self-esteem and boredom proneness. These results suggest that only cognitive forms of procrastination (indecision) may be related to a need for sensory stimulation, and that among normal adults procrastination is not associated with attention deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Students ( n = 319) enrolled in associate degree programs at a small college completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as well as measures of academic procrastination (PCT), self-efficacy, and locus of control. Frequent PCT and reasons for PCT were, overall, not significantly related to the typologies nor locus of control, but were negatively related to general self-efficacy. Task aversiveness as a motive for PCT also was negatively related to general self-efficacy. Multiple regression analyses of self-reported scores indicated that only general self-efficacy was predictive of PCT frequency, PCT reasons, and task aversiveness. Results suggest that among traditional age, academically disadvantaged college students, the belief that one may not be effective at mastering general life events seems to be reflective of college students who engage in frequent procrastinatory behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the frequency of 342 college students' procrastination on academic tasks and the reasons for procrastination behavior. A high percentage of Ss reported problems with procrastination on several specific academic tasks. Self-reported procrastination was positively correlated with the number of self-paced quizzes Ss took late in the semester and with participation in an experimental session offered late in the semester. A factor analysis of the reasons for procrastination Ss listed in a procrastination assessment scale indicated that the factors Fear of Failure and Aversiveness of the Task accounted for most of the variance. A small but very homogeneous group of Ss endorsed items on the Fear of Failure factor that correlated significantly with self-report measures of depression, irrational cognitions, low self-esteem, delayed study behavior, anxiety, and lack of assertion. A larger and relatively heterogeneous group of Ss reported procrastinating as a result of aversiveness of the task. The Aversiveness of the Task factor correlated significantly with depression, irrational cognitions, low self-esteem, and delayed study behavior. Results indicate that procrastination is not solely a deficit in study habits or time management, but involves a complex interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and affective components. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present study compared chronic procrastination tendencies claimed by “whitecollar” working adults (n = 141) with rates reported by Harriott and Ferrari ( 1996) of “blue-collar” working adults (n - 211). Participants completed reliable and valid measures of everyday procrastination tendencies (decisional, arousal, and avoidant), and socio-demographic items at one of several public forums. Results showed no significant difference between classes of working adults on age, gender, marital status, or the number of children, although “white-collar” workers claimed higher levels of education than “blue-collar” workers. “White-collar” workers also reported significantly higher scores on all three forms of chronic procrastination than “blue-collar” workers. It seems that professional employees report procrastination more frequently than unskilled workers. Further research is needed to explore the causes and consequences associated with differences in chronic procrastination by occupational group.
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A new measure that focused explicitly on the cognitive dimension of test anxiety was introduced and examined for psychometric quality as compared to existing measures of test anxiety. The new scale was found to be a reliable and valid measure of cognitive test anxiety. The impact of cognitive test anxiety as well as emotionality and test procrastination were subsequently evaluated on three course exams and students' self-reported performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test for 168 undergraduate students. Higher levels of cognitive test anxiety were associated with significantly lower test scores on each of the three course examinations. High levels of cognitive test anxiety also were associated with significantly lower Scholastic Aptitude Test scores. Procrastination, in contrast, was related to performance only on the course final examination. Gender differences in cognitive test anxiety were documented, but those differences were not related to performance on the course exams. Examination of the relation between the emotionality component of test anxiety and performance revealed that moderate levels of physiological arousal generally were associated with higher exam performance. The results were consistent with cognitive appraisal and information processing models of test anxiety and support the conclusion that cognitive test anxiety exerts a significant stable and negative impact on academic performance measures.
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For five consecutive days, at either the beginning or the end of a term, college students (30 women, 7 men) listed daily academic and nonacademic tasks they intended to complete and whether they actually completed them. Students reported nonacademic tasks (e.g., household chores, making telephone calls, exercising. and playing sports) as completed most often regardless of the time within the term. Results from 2 (early vs. later sessions) by 2 (completed vs. not completed tasks) by 2 (academic vs. nonacademic tasks) ANOVAs found that procrastinated tasks early in the term were more effortful and anxiety provoking than any other task during the term. Procrastinated academic tasks (e.g., homework, reading assignments, studying) in the early part of a term were rated as unpleasurable, while students reported later in the term that pleasantness of the task did not affect whether it was procrastinated or completed. These results imply that academic and nonacademic tasks should be challenging, yet fun, to heighten the likelihood that they are completed by students. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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This theoretical article provides a perspective on procrastination along with testable hypotheses and change ideas for people interested in understanding and treating this ancient nemesis. It introduces Exoneration Theory to explain blame avoidance in procrastination, and describes a five-phase framework for treating people with persistent forms of procrastination.
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Academic procrastination includes failing to perform an activity within the desired time frame or postponing until the last minute activities one ultimately intends to complete. As such, high levels of procrastination appear inconsistent with the behaviors typically attributed to self-regulated learners. However, research exploring the relation between these 2 constructs is lacking. Two studies (N = 168 and N = 152) examining procrastination and its relation to several key components of self-regulated learning using self-report surveys are reported here, Results indicate that procrastination was related to college students' self-efficacy and work-avoidant goal orientation and, to a lesser extent, their use of metacognitive strategies. Findings are discussed with regard to prior research on self-regulated learning and procrastination and to future research.
Chapter
Procrastination is defined typically as an irrational tendency to delay tasks that should be completed (Lay, 1986). Procrastination is believed to be associated with several cognitive, behavioral, and affective correlates and is regarded as a “dysfunction of important human abilities” in routine tasks and critical life tasks (Milgram, Sroloff, & Rosenbaum, 1988, p. 210). The extent of the dysfunction is reflected by estimates indicating that at least 25% of students suffer from severe levels of procrastination (see Hill, Hill, Chabot, & Barrall, 1978; McCown, Johnson, & Petzel, 1989b). Given the potential importance of the procrastination construct, it is perhaps not surprising that it is a topic that has been discussed at length by clinicians and by counselors (e.g., Burka & Yuen, 1983; Ellis & Knaus, 1977; Rarer, 1983).
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Presents a collection of essays discussing the theories and models of writing research.
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Effects of cognitive load, objective self-awareness and time limits on the self-regulation of performance speed and accuracy were investigated between procrastinators and non-procrastinators. In experiment 1 chronic procrastinators completed fewer items (slow speed) and made more errors (less accuracy) than non-procrastinators under high but not low cognitive load conditions when the time span was limited and brief. In experiment 2 chronic procrastinators performed slower than non-procrastinators under a 2 second, but not under no limit, 1 second, or 4 second time limit conditions. Chronic procrastinators compared to non-procrastinators also performed more slowly and made more performance errors under objective self-awareness conditions regardless of the length of time. These experiments indicate that chronic procrastinators regulate ineffectively their performance speed and accuracy when they ‘work under pressure’ (defined by high cognitive load, objective self-awareness, and imposed time limitations). Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Using a series of computer-based assignments, we examined whether students’ submission patterns revealed a hyperbolic pattern of temporal discounting, such that few assignments are submitted far ahead of the deadline and submission of assignments accelerates at an increasing rate as the deadline becomes imminent. We further examined whether variables related to self-regulation – namely, self-reported procrastination, implementation intentions, say-do correspondence, and perceived academic control – correlated with behavioural postponement. Results revealed strong behavioural evidence of temporal discounting, especially among those who identified themselves as procrastinators. Among the self-regulation measures, only say-do correspondence consistently correlated with procrastination.
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This study examined the relation between academic procrastination tendency and student writing success. We found that the tendency to procrastinate on writing tasks was associated with general anxiety, anxiety about writing the paper, writing the paper later than usual, less satisfaction with writing the paper, and lower grades. Additionally, receipt of feedback on writing was associated with better writing outcomes for high procrastinators. These results have implications for understanding academic procrastination and the use of academic interventions to address procrastination.
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For five consecutive days, at either the beginning or the end of a term, college students (30 women, 7 men) listed daily academic and nonacademic tasks they intended to complete and whether they actually completed them. Students reported nonacademic tasks (e.g., household chores, making telephone calls, exercising, and playing sports) as completed most often regardless of the time within the term. Results from 2 (early vs. later sessions) by 2 (completed vs. not completed tasks) by 2 (academic vs. nonacademic tasks) ANOVAs found that procrastinated tasks early in the term were more effortful and anxiety provoking than any other task during the term. Procrastinated academic tasks (e.g., homework, reading assignments, studying) in the early part of a term were rated as unpleasurable, while students reported later in the term that pleasantness of the task did not affect whether it was procrastinated or completed. These results imply that academic and nonacademic tasks should be challenging, yet fun, to heighten the likelihood that they are completed by students. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of procrastination tendencies and to investigate its relationship to a behavioral measure of procrastination and to a self-report measure of general self-efficacy. In a pilot study, the 72-item scale in a 4-point Likert-type response format was developed and administered to 50 college juniors and seniors. A factor analysis of the results yielded two factors which formed the basis for reducing the scale to 35 items with a resulting reliability of .90. The relationship between scores on the 35-item instrument and performance on a self-regulated performance task called the Voluntary Homework System (VHS) yielded a correlation of -.54, and a coefficient of -.47 was observed between the 35-item scale and the General Self-Efficacy Test (GSE; both correlations of p < .001). The correlation between GSE and VHS scores was .29 (p < .05). In a subsequent study of 183 college students, a factor analysis of scores on the 35-item scale yielded a single-factor structure and a condensed scale of 16 items with a reliability of .86. This shortened version of the procrastination scale was recommended for use as a means of detecting students who may tend to procrastinate in the completion of college requirements.
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The purpose of this article is to examine the contribution made by the self-efficacy component of Bandura’s (1986) social cognitive theory to the study of self-regulation and motivation in academic settings. The difference between self-efficacy beliefs and other expectancy constructs is first explained, followed by a brief overview of problems in self-efficacy research. Findings on the relationship between self-efficacy, motivation constructs, and academic performances are then summarized. These findings demonstrate that particularized measures of self-efficacy that correspond to the criterial tasks with which they are compared surpass global measures in the explanation and prediction of related outcomes. The conceptual difference between the definition and use of expectancy beliefs in social cognitive theory and in expectancy value and self-concept theory is then clarified. Last, strategies to guide future research are offered.
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Methods variance and its effects are at the center of a debate in organizational science. Most of the debate, however is focused an the prevalence of common methods variance and ignores common methods bias, or the divergence between observed and true relationships among constructs. This article assesses the level of common methods bias in all multitrait-multimethod correlation matrices published over a 12–year period in a set of 6 social science journals using a combination of structural equation modeling and meta-analysis. The results indicate that only 46% of the variation in measures is attributable to the constructs, that 32% of the observed variation in measures is attributable to common methods variance, and that common methods variance results in a 26% bias in the observed relationships among constructs. This level of bias is cause for concern but does not invalidate many research findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article, I review the diverse ways in which perceived self-efficacy contributes to cognitive development and functioning. Perceived self-efficacy exerts its influence through four major processes. They include cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes. There are three different levels at which perceived self-efficacy operates as an important contributor to academic development. Students' beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and to master academic activities determine their aspirations, level of motivation, and academic accomplishments. Teachers' beliefs in their personal efficacy to motivate and promote learning affect the types of learning environments they create and the level of academic progress their students achieve. Faculties' beliefs in their collective instructional efficacy contribute significantly to their schools' level of academic achievement. Student body characteristics influence school-level achievement more strongly by altering faculties' beliefs in their collective efficacy than through direct affects on school achievement.
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Two studies assessed self-consciousness and self-handicapping predictors of academic procrastination and the impact of this behavior on exam performance of undergraduates. In Exp 1, 411 high dispositional self-handicappers and procrastinators studied less, delayed more on exam preparation, and scored lower on course exams. In Exp 2, 169 high-dispositional self-handicapping and high self-esteem led to delays in exam preparation. The detrimental effects of procrastination varied as a function of lecture attendance and cognitive ability. In both studies, academic procrastination and self-handicapping were highly correlated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the relationships among procrastination, efficacy expectations, anxiety, gender, and age for 141 university students (ages 18–54 yrs). The study was concerned with the extent to which procrastination could be predicted by variables theoretically or empirically tied to the construct. Participants were asked to think about a major project and to rate their efficacy regarding the skills needed to accomplish the project. Ss completed a Self-Efficacy Inventory, a modified version of Form G of the Procrastination Inventory, and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Bivariate correlations showed that efficacy expectations and anxiety had significant, individual relationships with procrastination. When these variables were entered into a regression model, only cumulative efficacy strength was a significant predictor of procrastination. Implications for counseling practice and research suggestions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
summarize extant research on procrastination and maladjustment / the chapter is organized into 3 sections / 1st section consists of a brief review of past and current research on procrastination and maladjustment, with a particular emphasis on research showing that most procrastinators suffer from a tendency to evaluate the self in a negative manner / this section focuses on contemporary research on procrastination in anxiety and depression, as well as work on procrastination and the self-concept / the 2nd section contains a description of research [from the authors'] laboratory on procrastination, life stress, and adjustment / in the 3rd section, [the authors] conclude by discussing the available evidence within the context of a preliminary model of procrastination and maladjustment (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors conducted a grounded theory study of academic procrastination to explore adaptive and maladaptive aspects of procrastination and to help guide future empirical research. They discuss previous research on the definition and dimensionality of procrastination and describe the study in which interview data were collected in 4 stages, identifying 33 initial categories and 29 macrothemes. Findings were validated by member checks. The authors describe in detail informants' perceptions of procrastination, which were used to construct a 5-component paradigm model that includes adaptive (i.e., cognitive efficiency, peak experience) and maladaptive (i.e., fear of failure, postponement) dimensions of procrastination. These dimensions, in turn, are related to conditions that affect the amount and type of procrastination, as well as cognitive (i.e., prioritizing, optimization) and affective (i.e., reframing, self-handicapping) coping mechanisms. The authors propose 6 general principles and relate them and the paradigm model to previous research. Limitations of the research are discussed, as well as implications for future theory development and validation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Academic procrastination includes failing to perform an activity within the desired time frame or postponing until the last minute activities one ultimately intends to complete. As such, high levels of procrastination appear inconsistent with the behaviors typically attributed to self-regulated learners, However, research exploring the relation between these 2 constructs is lacking. Two studies (N = 168 and N = 152) examining procrastination and its relation to several key components of self-regulated learning using self-report surveys are reported here. Results indicate that procrastination was related to college students' self-efficacy and work-avoidant goal orientation and, to a lesser extent, their use of metacognitive strategies. Findings are discussed with regard to prior research on self-regulated learning and procrastination and to future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Methods variance and its effects are at the center of a debate in organizational science. Most of the debate, however, is focused on the prevalence of common methods variance and ignores common methods bias, or the divergence between observed and true relationships among constructs. This article assesses the level of common methods bias in all multitrait-multimethod correlation matrices published over a 12-year period in a set of six social science journals using a combination of structural equation modeling and meta-analysis. The results indicate that only 46% of the variation in measures is attributable to the constructs, that 32% of the observed variation in measures is attributable to common methods variance, and that common methods variance results in a 26% bias in the observed relationships among constructs. This level of bias is cause for concern but does not invalidate many research findings.