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Third generation NGO strategies: A key to people-centered development

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Abstract

Dealing with a number of current development crises will ultimately require facing up to the challenge of democratization. The types of reform indicated involve complex organizational changes that the large official donors have little capability to address. The central leadership role must be assumed by organizations with the potential to serve as catalysts of institutional and policy change. Some NGOs have demonstrated the potential to serve in such roles and many others have the potential—if they chose to develop the necessary technical and managerial capabilities.

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... Since the post-war era, INGOs have played an increasingly significant role in relief and development aid and have generally evolved through a series of identifiable stages as they mature and adapt to changing global dynamics. This progression has been understood through Korten's (1987) taxonomy of three (and, later on, four) "generations", which identifies eras of activities and analyzes the strategy of particular organizations. These generations consist of: 1) Welfare and relief; 2) Local self-reliance; 3) Sustainable systems development; and, more recently, 4) Supporting people's movements. ...
... The hierarchy of the taxonomy privileges third and fourth generation strategies focused on the structural causes of marginalization and poverty to achieve sustainable contributions to poverty reduction, whereas first generation strategies are believed to be largely outdated. Korten (1987) argues that INGOs generally move through these generations in a linear process, each incrementally reducing the role of hands-on northern staff working in the global South. They begin with a top-down welfare approach directly relieving immediate needs acting as service deliverers (First). ...
... A greater understanding of effective development work leads to a community-based approach focused on capacity-building (Second) to targeting systemic causes of poverty and marginalization (Third) and supporting people's movements through global solidarity (Fourth). While Korten (1987) offers a linear progression, in reality, most INGOs are active in multiple generations simultaneously. As INGOs "graduate" from one generation to the next, they rarely leave completely behind their activities in the previous generation. ...
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International NGOs (INGOs) in the global North have rapidly grown in number over the past two decades, the majority of which are grassroots organisations (GINGOs). Despite an abundance of research on “professionalised” INGOs, little empirical data is available to characterise GINGOs. This study constructs a dataset of 607 Canadian GINGOs based on the Canada Revenue Agency T3010 forms and organisation websites to answer three broad questions of GINGOs: Who are they? What is their programmatic foci? Where do they operate? The results offer a rich portrayal of GINGOs and situates their current and potential contributions towards international development goals.
... Participatory development (PD) has gained prominence in the world of development since the 1990s (Chambers 1994;Kapoor 2002). Due to its assumptions of traditional communities as isolated, homogeneous, and relatively free of power relations (Mansuri and Rao 2004;Williams 2004), and a weak state unable to address development needs around health care, transportation, food, and education (Bratton 1989;Puplampu and Tettey 2000), PD puts development agencies (usually international development institutions and domestic non-governmental organizations (NGOs)) at the center of the community development process (Kapoor 2002;Korten 1987). Additionally, PD has increasingly emphasized participatory governance -primarily in democratic states -as an important piece of it (Fung and Wright 2001;Gaventa 2004). ...
... Nonetheless, the lack of development capacity in weak states has popularized NGO-led community participation as an optimal alternative to state-directed development (Korten 1987), and this idea is promoted by the World Bank and other international development institutions (Nelson 1995). But inadequate state capacity may still undermine the effectiveness of PD (Burde 2004;Jütting et al. 2005), and the relationships between NGOs and the state are not clear-cut (Clarke 1998). ...
... On the other hand, consolidating state legitimacy requires controllable public participation (Midgley 1986), which is difficult to accomplish. Strong states may allow service NGOs to embark on relief and welfare aid, but it is unclear how they deal with NGOs emphasizing "empowerment" (Korten 1987), particularly in relation to community development. ...
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Participatory development (PD) has historically treated communities as isolated, homogeneous, relatively free of power relations, and governed by weak states. More recently PD has emphasized participatory governance in democratic state contexts. But how might PD work in a strong state? Our action research of four years in a community stricken by the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China finds that the disaster temporarily weakened the state, allowing room for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to operate and engage residents in reconstruction. But, as basic services returned, strong state control was restored, marginalizing development agencies. Still, the temporary power of NGOs and community organizations offers lessons for expanding participatory local governance. We argue that, if PD agencies act strategically at such moments, they can at least temporarily build community power and potentially open up opportunities for further community participation. We offer suggestions for using PD in a strong state context.
... Given the abortive track record of the traditional development approach focused on ESCRs, it is time to evaluate the HRBA, which is concerned with the eradication of structural obstacles to opportunity in order to achieve sustainable development goals. Along these lines, advocacy for the empowerment, human rights, and particularly the CPRs of marginalized local groups has recently surfaced as a focal point in development schemes (Korten, 1987;Sengupta, 2001;Schmitz, 2012). ...
... Such aid NGOs are divided into two groups based on distinct sets of practices; some focus on humanitarian emergency relief, while others pursue sustainable development. The former type, traditionally recognized as charitable relief organizations, have mainly sought to improve the economic well-being of those in urgent need by immediately delivering goods and services to recipient countries (Korten, 1987). However, the fundamental problem of traditional NGOs is that they have not attempted to eradicate the root causes of such destitution, like the social, religious, or political obstacles that structurally deprive local people of development opportunities. ...
... The HRBA focuses on sustainability in development by taking human rights promotion into serious consideration. The HRBA mainly purports to help the marginalized become self-reliant by restructuring the political landscape to promote their basic rights and dignity, i.e., their CPRs, such that they can access equal opportunity (Cornwall and Nyamu-Musembi, 2004;Kindornay et al., 2012). 2 This development approach originated with Korten (1987), who proposes people-centered development practices that galvanize permanent changes in the social structure of local communities. He prioritizes political transitions such as democratization that lay the foundation for equitable and sustainable development. ...
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International aid non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have generally been seen as emergency relief organizations that help people in dire conditions survive. Beginning in the late 1980s, this idea began to change when a new development scheme called the human rights-based approach (HRBA) emerged; this approach promotes the civil and political rights of marginalized people to achieve sustainable development ends. This HRBA has become the new norm, and NGOs have begun to undertake political activities in the hope of producing long-term development effects. However, some NGOs have maintained their traditional missions limited to humanitarian relief. What caused the divergent responses of NGOs to the changing development norms? The research employs large-N logit regression modeling to identify the factors that determined the divergence in NGOs’ activities. The findings reveal that the following variables matter: contact with human rights norms, the civic culture of the home country, and the religiosity of the original mission.
... There is no doubt that the involvement of NGOs in the plight of day labourers fundamentally keeps them going. Korten (1987) describes four generations [stages] of strategic orientation and voluntary development for NGOs, and we argue that these are appropriate as a basis for assisting day labourers and ultimately sustaining their livelihood practice: ...
... First-generation strategies involve the NGO in the direct delivery of services to meet an immediate deficiency or shortage experienced by the beneficiary population, such as needs for food, healthcare or shelter (Korten, 1987). In this study, the direction that the local churches take in the East London area in supporting the day labourers through offering food and hand-outs is congruent with the first generation's notion of immediate support to the vulnerable groupings. ...
... The second-generation strategies are developmental in concept, and are often referred to as community development strategies (Korten, 1987). Second-generation strategies focus the energies of the NGO on developing the capacities of the people to better meet their own needs through self-reliant local action. ...
Article
In South Africa and in other parts of the world, day labourers are often faced with contingencies owing to the unregulated nature of their work. The activities of the day labourers fall within the informal sector, with difficult working conditions. This study sought to investigate and assess the coping strategies that day labourers in East London adopt in order to survive. This study utilised a qualitative research approach to gather data from 18 day labourers who were recruited at six hiring sites to participate in the study using semi-structured individual interviews appropriately. Resilience theory provided the theoretical basis for the investigation. The data that the interviews generated was analysed by means of thematic analysis. The findings revealed day labourers' reliance on various sources of support (including churches), willingness to work according to the requirements of prospective employers, and alternative means of generating income are the key survival strategies adopted by the day labourers through their daily endeavours within the context of their work. The findings underscored the need for coordination among NGOs and government institutions in order to provide a fit-for-purpose combination of strategies to alleviate the immediate material needs of day labourers as well as to enhance their resilience to ensure a just transition to social justice in the long run.
... The article 'Third generation NGO strategies: a key to people-centered development' by David Korten (1987) has been extremely influential in pushing the thinking on the evolution of non-governmental organisations (NGOs). In this article, Korten proposes three generations -1) relief and welfare organisations, 2) community development organisations and 3) sustainable system development organisations -and suggests that NGOs during their lifetime evolve from one generation to the next. 1 In the follow-up book published in 1990, Korten introduces a fourth generation of NGOs, people's movement organisations. 2 This generational thinking has been embraced by many other scholars (e.g. ...
... Although it is recognised in the literature that non-profit organisations do not always neatly move from one generation to the next, prominent work on lifecycle and generational theory (e.g. Stevens, 2001;Korten, 1987) does rely on models that forecast advancement through a series of subsequent stages. While the concept about the organisational lifecycle was already introduced in the 1970s, the theory took hold in the non-profit sector only in the 1990s, with perhaps the most influential thinking by Susan Kenny Stevens (2001). ...
... According to Davis (2020), '[s]ince the post-war era, INGOs have played an increasingly significant role in relief and development aid and have generally evolved through a series of identifiable stages as they mature and adapt to changing global dynamics' (739). This advancement has been interpreted through Korten's (1987) taxonomy of generations (Davis, 2020), with INGOs generally moving through these generations in a linear manner, where each subsequent stage is associated with the evolution of NGOs' strategies (Davis, 2020;Musa, 2008;Korten, 1987;Korten, 1990). ...
Article
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According to 'generational' thinking, traditional, non-participatory service-delivery oriented organisations are expected to gradually evolve into participatory organisations aiming for structural change. Strikingly, it appears that this conventional wisdom has never been tested rigorously. This research seeks to help address this gap, employing a unique longitudinal study design, tracing the evolution of Dutch small-scale development initiatives in Kenya. We found that the overwhelming majority changed neither strategy nor manner of intervention. Our analysis highlights various, often mutually reinforcing factors that form an impediment to change. Only a few of these organisations were able to overcome the constraints, with additional financial resources being a key determinant. Although this research has various limitations stemming from the specific character of the sample, it does at least suggest consideration of the need for a nuancing in generational thinking and a more open understanding of NGOs' potential change trajectories.
... For example, organisations operating in the market are identified to be competitive and efficient, state institutions are assumed to be impartial and accountable and organisations operating within the community are assumed to be based on principles of solidarity. However these assumptions are largely unexamined and blindly accepted (Korten, 1987;Buvinic, 1989;Fowler, 1990). The common assumption that Non Governmental Organisations are more receptive than state bureaucracies to the problems of the poor in general and especially to those of poor women has been challenged by research (Rao and Kelleher, 1995;Rao and Stuart, 1997 (Young et al., 1980quoted by Kabeer, 1994. ...
... All development administrations are identified to have sharply gendered organisational structures and cultures, which is derived from, and in turn reinforce gender inequality in the communities, where they operate (Korten, 1987;Buvinic, 1989;Fowler, 1990;Goetz, 1992Goetz, , 1997Rao and Kelleher, 1995). Based on this understanding the Social Relations ...
... This decision is made on the basis of the assumption that NGOs are receptive to the problems of the community and women in particular (World Bank, 1996a). Little heed is taken of past observations that NGOs, like all other development organisations have gendered structures and cultures, which is derived from and reinforces gender inequality amongst the communities where they operate (Korten, 1987;Buvinic, 1989;Fowler, 1990;Goetz, 1992Goetz, , 1997Rao and Kelleher, 1995). ...
Thesis
p>The objective of this research is to identify discrepancies berween policy statements, institutional capacities and field experiences in the consideration of gender issues in the management of water projects, on the basis of these contradictions. This study argues that there is little clarity in domestic water policy and planning on the institutional construct of gender inequality in the domestic water sector. What the water sector interprets as gender and as gender success are discredited when these interpretations are examined according to the theory of gender and evidence of gender inequality observed in the field. This study analysed official and non-governmental domestic water sector interventions in three states in India, over a period of four years. The emphasis of this study was to qualitatively analyse social relations, and the impact of social relations on people's access to resources across the institutions of households, community, organisations and policy, in relation to domestic water sector interventions. The findings reveal that there is explicit but incoherent and rhetorical mention of gender in water policies. Gender is misinterpreted as women and gender equity, at best and in rhetoric, is only taken into account in the consideration of women and men's specific water needs. Field analyses reveal that implementation of such policies continue to: Restrict women in their domestic roles as water producers; Homogenise women as a unitary social category; Separate and isolate women from the context of social relations; and ignore the other social variables that influence gender inequality in access to and control of water. There is little information on gender issues at other institutional levels of the domestic water sector, as water policy and planning ignores the institutional construct of gender inequality in the distribution of resources, responsibilities and power. There is a blue-print approach of addressing gender in water policy and practice, which does not enable analysis of gender inequality structured across different institution levels, more so because policy aims and practice interventions do not relate to the variations of unequal social relations in different social contexts. The so-called gender interventions structure in coherently in policy and compartmentalised at the community level have merely resulted in a tinkering with a history of institutional gender inequality in water management.</p
... Dado que el Estado tiene imagen de no ser eficaz (Korten , 1987), hay recorte de la inversión social del Estado y privatización de servicios, por lo que las ONG´s adquieren un rol relevante en el ciclo de vida de las políticas públicas. Ese tipo de organizaciones aumentan su participación en el diseño y ejecución de actividades que antes eran de ejecución estatal (Fowler, 2000a), se organizan y constituyen asociaciones de ONG´s locales con el objetivo de promover la participación y facilitar la manifestación de las expectativas de la sociedad civil (Salamon & Anheier, 1998a) así como redes con entidades multilaterales, y una relación con el Estado debido al financiamiento de actividades con los impuestos de los ciudadanos (Fowler, 2000b). ...
... En la década de los años 90, se plantea como estrategia la generación de sostenibilidad de las acciones (intervenciones sociales), basándose en el trabajo conjunto con los gobiernos y las organizaciones locales; por ello, las ONG's cambian su rol. Se convierten en organizaciones de apoyo a instituciones locales enfatizando en el mejoramiento de su capacidad institucional (Korten , 1987). Al finalizar esta década, la globalización y el neoliberalismo incidieron en las teorías del desarrollo internacional del momento, al enfatizar la inclusión de principios como la equidad, capacidad, empoderamiento, autodeterminación y sostenibilidad; esto generó un rol protagónico de las ONG's, el cual fortaleció las propuestas de la sociedad civil desde el tercer sector (Brinkerhoff & Coston, 1999). ...
... La intervención social es un proceso caracterizado por ser transformador y generador de acción para alcanzar metas, por consiguiente, la acción sobre una comunidad se considera posible, si hay acuerdos cognitivos entre los actores que permitan darle sentido, ello implica los principios de quién interviene y de quién es sujeto de intervención. Según la literatura de la década de los años 90, se han configurado nuevas maneras de definir la intervención social, específicamente en torno al campo del desarrollo social (Korten, 1981) (Korten , 1987) (Fowler, 2000a) (Lewis, 2003), y, la coalición de los individuos y los grupos en la acción comunitaria (Butterfoss & Kegler, 2002); introduciendo la perspectiva de las coaliciones comunitarias que implican movilización social. ...
Thesis
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En Colombia la adopción del modelo neoliberal por el Estado trasladó la prestación de servicios y bienes a las Organizaciones no Gubernamentales de Desarrollo social (ONGD´s). Esta investigación tiene por objetivo analizar cómo se constituye una organización no gubernamental de desarrollo – ONGD- local que implementa exitosamente políticas públicas sociales; a partir de la descripción de su proceso de intervención social y la(s) estrategia(s) de gestión comunitaria, de igual manera, la caracterización de la relación de empoderamiento con la comunidad intervenida. La estrategia de análisis es inductiva con base en la información recopilada en las entrevistas semi-estructuradas. La evolución de la ONGD estudiada desde el Marco de análisis de estructuración trifuncional y la Teoría del empoderamiento permitieron identificar tres períodos: consolidación, consolidación-acompañamiento y empoderamiento, así como, las características del proceso y resultado de empoderamiento obtenidos en los niveles psicológico, organizacional y comunitario.
... Within the literature on public and private provision during the era of state retrenchment, there are two pervasive narratives. 1 In the first, non-state providers meet the demand generated by the absence of or limitations in state provision (Batley & Rose, 2011;Brett, 1993;Brinkerhoff, 2002;Douglas, 1987;Korten, 1987;Sood, 2000). In the second, the growth in non-state provision offers higher quality options for those who can afford to pay, and those who cannot must rely on underfunded, inadequate government facilities (Adésínà, 2009;MacLean, 2011). ...
... Organizational theory suggests that the less hierarchical, more flexible, and more democratic structure of NSPs (compared to government bureaucracies) allows them to be more innovative and aware of and responsive to the needs of local communities, and thus more effective in service delivery (Brett, 1993;Brinkerhoff, 2002;Douglas, 1987;Sood, 2000). Because the NSP literature focuses mainly on non-profit NGOs, the lack of profit-seeking motivation and widespread perception of these organizations as altruistic and committed to serving the poor lead proponents to argue that non-state providers are more capable than the state of addressing the myriad problems with social welfare provision observed across the developing world (Brinkerhoff, 2002;Douglas, 1987;Korten, 1987;Sood, 2000). ...
Thesis
Over the past thirty years, the provision of social welfare changed dramatically in much of the developing world. Economic and political reforms limited the role of the state and promoted private sector involvement in service delivery. Explosive growth in the number of non-governmental organizations and community-based organizations followed, as non-state actors attempted to fill gaps in social service provision left by state retrenchment. This dissertation explores how the increase in non-state provision and the ceding of what is traditionally viewed as the responsibility of the state to a diverse group of actors has affected poor households’ access to health and education services. Using data from an original survey of 1,054 households in Kibera and Korogocho, two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, the study deviates from conventional theoretical and empirical approaches to research on service provision in developing countries. I adopt a multi-dimensional conceptualization of access that expands on standard indicators and includes perceptions of accessibility and quality and satisfaction with services. Furthermore, I explore the relational and contextual nature of service provision through a multi-level analysis that includes micro- and meso-level sociopolitical factors and meso-level organizational factors. This approach yields several findings relevant to research and policy. First, perceptions matter; health and education outcomes depend on both service quality and households’ service-seeking behavior, and behavior is shaped by perceptions. This work argues for the consideration of social demand factors in the development of policies and interventions. Second, in contrast to narratives in public and scholarly discourses, I find broad support for public health services; in the fragmented service environment in the settlements, the state plays an important role in ensuring access to care for the most impoverished households. Access to state services also depends less on households’ social positionality. These findings suggest that efforts to improve equity and access should focus on strengthening state capacity and improving public provision rather than supporting a fragmented system of non-state providers. Finally, the community-level sociopolitical and organizational context shapes households’ perceptions and experiences. A multi-level approach is needed to more effectively improve health and education outcomes in low-income urban communities.
... Mnanji (1999) is also of the viewpoint that, since NGOs are always in dire need of financial resources, it is easy for them to become co-opted by donors and consequently mimic their agenda. To guard against this, NGOs should be careful and not lend legitimacy to organisations and programs that are, inherently, a part of the problem (Korten, 1987). NGOs should seek to secure positive international assistance that does not threaten to dilute their voluntary care for the poor. ...
... NGOs should work with the government and challenge it when it strays from its stated commitments. There are some instances, like the third generation, that Korten (1987) refers as development which occurs within national boarders and is thus subject to state control. Graff and Louw (1992) point out that conflict is inevitable where different classes, interests, strategies and target populations are represented by their state, on one hand, and NGOs on the other. ...
... Las que hemos denominado como ONGD jóvenes son más recientes y cuentan con menos financiación y relaciones con otras entidades, al tiempo que su principal ámbito de intervención es la cooperación para el desarrollo y sus acciones son de tipo asistencialista. En relación con la tipología de Korten (1987), este perfil presenta características de la primera generación, cuyas acciones de tipo asistencial son impulsadas y lideradas únicamente por la propia ONGD. ...
... En buena parte de los casos, se recurre a tipologías basadas en la naturaleza de las ONGD (religiosas, sindicales, solidarias, profesionales, universitarias o empresariales), o bien en función del tipo de actividades que llevan a cabo (proyectos de desarrollo, ayuda humanitaria y de emergencia, sensibilización y educación para el desarrollo, investigación o incidencia política). Sin embargo, una de las tipologías más compartida es la que popularizóOrtega (1994) en España, a partir del trabajo deKorten (1987), que clasifica las ONGD en tres grupos (primera, segunda y tercera generación), de acuerdo con el papel de los beneficiarios y la concepción del desarrollo. Siguiendo esta última tipología, las organizaciones de primera generación tendrían un carácter asistencial, las de segunda generación buscarían la autosuficiencia de los beneficiarios de las acciones, y las de tercera generación se caracterizarían por promover cambios estructurales. ...
Article
Full-text available
Las organizaciones no gubernamentales de desarrollo se han convertido en actores fundamentales de la cooperación internacional y han adquirido, a lo largo de los años, un papel destacado en la sociedad civil española. El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar el perfil actual de las ONGD en nuestro país. Para ello, empleamos los datos obtenidos a partir de una amplia encuesta realizada dentro de un proyecto de investigación financiado por la convocatoria Retos de la Sociedad en el año 2016. Los resultados de dicha encuesta nos han permitido construir una tipología que da cuenta de la diversidad del campo de las ONGD, a diferencia de otros estudios previos que mostraron un sector mucho más compacto.
... Las que hemos denominado como ONGD jóvenes son más recientes y cuentan con menos financiación y relaciones con otras entidades, al tiempo que su principal ámbito de intervención es la cooperación para el desarrollo y sus acciones son de tipo asistencialista. En relación con la tipología de Korten (1987), este perfil presenta características de la primera generación, cuyas acciones de tipo asistencial son impulsadas y lideradas únicamente por la propia ONGD. ...
... En buena parte de los casos, se recurre a tipologías basadas en la naturaleza de las ONGD (religiosas, sindicales, solidarias, profesionales, universitarias o empresariales), o bien en función del tipo de actividades que llevan a cabo (proyectos de desarrollo, ayuda humanitaria y de emergencia, sensibilización y educación para el desarrollo, investigación o incidencia política). Sin embargo, una de las tipologías más compartida es la que popularizóOrtega (1994) en España, a partir del trabajo deKorten (1987), que clasifica las ONGD en tres grupos (primera, segunda y tercera generación), de acuerdo con el papel de los beneficiarios y la concepción del desarrollo. Siguiendo esta última tipología, las organizaciones de primera generación tendrían un carácter asistencial, las de segunda generación buscarían la autosuficiencia de los beneficiarios de las acciones, y las de tercera generación se caracterizarían por promover cambios estructurales. ...
Preprint
Las organizaciones no gubernamentales de desarrollo se han convertido en actores fundamentales de la cooperación internacional y han adquirido, a lo largo de los años, un papel destacado en la sociedad civil española. El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar el perfil actual de las ONGD en nuestro país. Para ello, empleamos los datos obtenidos a partir de una amplia encuesta realizada dentro de un proyecto de investigación financiado por la convocatoria Retos de la Sociedad en el año 2016. Los resultados de dicha encuesta nos han permitido construir una tipología que da cuenta de la diversidad del campo de las ONGD, a diferencia de otros estudios previos que mostraron un sector mucho más compacto.
... Indeks kebahagiaan merupakan salah satu ukuran yang bersifat subjektif yang berdasarkan pada persepsi penduduk Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut di atas, maka tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas SDM OAP dari perspektif OAP. Untuk itu, maka tulisan ini menggunakan pendekatan people-centered yang dikembangkan oleh Korten (1987) untuk menggali cara pandang dan persepsi mereka terhadap kehidupan dan lingkungannya. Paradigma people-centered tersebut menggambarkan adanya ruang untuk manusia sebagai pelaku yang menentukan tujuan, menguasai sumber daya, dan mengarahkan proses yang menentukan hidupnya (Korten, 1987;1990). ...
... Untuk itu, maka tulisan ini menggunakan pendekatan people-centered yang dikembangkan oleh Korten (1987) untuk menggali cara pandang dan persepsi mereka terhadap kehidupan dan lingkungannya. Paradigma people-centered tersebut menggambarkan adanya ruang untuk manusia sebagai pelaku yang menentukan tujuan, menguasai sumber daya, dan mengarahkan proses yang menentukan hidupnya (Korten, 1987;1990). Kualitas OAP dalam tulisan ini mengacu pada konsep kapabilitas (Nussbaum, 2013) yang menggunakan penilaian kesejahteraan untuk memberikan gambaran kualitas SDM. ...
Article
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Kualitas sumber daya manusia Orang Asli Papua saat ini belum banyak dibahas. Indeks Pembangunan Manusia yang selama ini digunakan sebagai alat ukur untuk mengetahui gambaran kualitas sumber daya manusia merupakan gambaran agregat di tingkat provinsi. Berdasarkan angka Indeks Pembangunan Manusia atau IPM, Provinsi Papua Barat dan Papua merupakan terendah di Indonesia. Pertanyaannya adalah apakah hal tersebut menunjukkan kualitas sumber daya manusia OAP memang rendah dan bagaimana jika tidak dilakukan perbandingan dengan daerah lain yang memiliki latar belakang sosial budaya dan ekonomi yang berbeda? Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk memahami lebih mendalam kualitas OAP dengan menggunakan pendekatan yang berfokus pada OAP atau people-centered. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam dan diskusi terpumpun serta observasi lapangan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sumber daya manusia OAP tidak terlepas dari persepsi mereka terkait dengan kesejahteraan. Kecukupan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan dasar dan dapat melakukan aktivitas rutin dengan baik merupakan gambaran penilaian OAP terhadap kesejahteraan dan kemudian mempengaruhi motivasi untuk mendapatkan pendidikan tinggi. Peningkatan kualitas pendidikan dan kesehatan banyak ditemui di daerah yang sudah terpapar pembangunan infrastruktur dan juga hidup berdampingan dengan migran dari luar Papua. Tulisan ini menyimpulkan bahwa penting memahami kualitas SDM berdasarkan karakter wilayah dan budaya setempat. Sehingga upaya meningkatkan kualitas SDM tidak semata bersifat instruksi tetapi lebih partisipatif dan kolaboratif. Tulisan ini memberikan gambaran yang signifikan terkait dengan keadilan dalam menilai kondisi kualitas SDM kelompok masyarakat tertentu.
... programmes will be implemented. Their progress should always be monitored for learning from error (Korten, 1980(Korten, , 1987Rondinelli, 1983). 2) Ladejinsky has been described as a 'rural development tourist' by Chambers (1983, p.65 Harriss, 1982;Lea and Chaudhri, 1983;Misra, 1985). ...
Thesis
Rural development programmes are normally regarded as necessary for alleviating mass rural poverty in the Developing World, but to be successful they must reach small farmers and the landless. The available evidence suggests that major rural development programme instituted by the Bangladesh Government in the 1960s, the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), has failed to assist the poorer sections of the rural community to any great extent. Although recently re-designed to provide better access to its services for small farmers and the landless, it will be argued that the main reason for its continuing failure to meet their needs arises from their variable access to land and other private resources which together limit the advantages to be acquired from the goods and services provided under the IRDP. Understanding the process by which access is differentiated is, therefore, crucial to designing improvements to existing programmes and to developing appropriate institutions for those who lack access. This study is an attempt to understand this process. Data have been collected through interviews with officials responsible for the IRDP at all levels of its operation and from the Sherpur Upazila Central Cooperative Association (UCCA) in Bogra District of north-west Bangladesh. Farmers and landless people in two villages in that upazila (sub-district), one employing the IRDP and the other not, have been interviewed. The surveys show that in principle the IRDP can work effectively on behalf of the rural poor but its impact is greatly reduced in practice by a complex and poorly supervised administration at the local level and weak links with potential recipients. The ownership of material assets, especially land, and the individual's position in the local power structure, remain the determining factors in the receipt of benefits from the IRDP.
... Sin embargo, lejos de tener un recorrido lineal, la propia educación para el desarrollo ha tenido un devenir de carácter acumulativo en el que en "las actividades de un actor determinado se pueden encontrar simultáneamente rasgos de una u otra generación" (Mesa, 2000: 12). Siguiendo el modelo propuesto inicialmente por Korten (1987) y expandido a posteriori por otros autores y autoras (Mesa, 2000;Ortega, 2007;ONGAWA, 2018), en la actualidad podemos diferenciar seis generaciones. ...
Conference Paper
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Derivado dunha tese sobre a dimensión socioeducativa do movemento social agroecolóxico en Galicia, estase a desenvolver un estudo de casos múltiple baseado na identificación de boas prácticas socioeducativas en canles e espazos alternativos de consumo responsable de alimentos na provincia da Coruña. Deste xeito, a unha mostra inicial extraída da devandita tese, composta por grupos e cooperativas de consumo, asociacións e cooperativas de produtoras/es, mercados autoxestionados, cooperativas de comercialización e unha rede de produción e consumo (n=20), engádense outros formatos alternativos á gran distribución organizada, como pequenos comercios especializados, proxectos produtivos que practican a venda directa, iniciativas de transformación alimentaria colectiva, eco-comedores escolares, mercados de produtoras/es de xestión municipal ou un plan alimentario local, ampliando a base da mostra a arredor de 50 casos. A través da aplicación de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, o obxectivo é identificar e valorar boas prácticas socioeducativas de promoción do consumo responsable de alimentos desenvolvidas nestes espazos dende a perspectiva da eco-cidadanía e da cultura da sustentabilidade, co fin de deseñar, en base a estas, unha guía de iniciativas e un material didáctico de educación do consumo territorial e axioloxicamente situado. Nesta comunicación preséntanse as bases epistemolóxicas e metodolóxicas, así como os resultados preliminares, deste traballo.
... In fact, the possibility that power can be expanded is seen as a necessary precondition for successful empowerment (Page and Czuba 1999). Studies on empowerment by grassroots movements (Perkins 1995), and development literature (Women and Development (WAD) and Women in Development (WID)) (Jaquette 1990;Tinker 1990) perspectives emphasize the expandable nature of power (e.g., "relational power" (Pratto 2016), "integrative power" (Korten 1987)), where power takes different forms in different contexts (Rappaport 1987). Aligned with this, Pettit (2012) conceives power as the interdependence between actors and culture as a representation of an invisible form of power. ...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship in collective societies is, in our view, insufficiently examined. Accepted definitions of empowerment and the assumptions underlying programs and research designs based on them result in outcomes that self-fulfil and, as a result, disappoint. Several issues are prevalent: the empowerment potential of programs is overestimated and the dominant view of what constitutes an ‘empowered self’ does not go deep enough to explore, and reframe, the self and its relationship to agency—two issues at the core of empowerment definitions and formulations. In this conceptual article, we examine the entrepreneurship and empowerment literature to suggest ways forward for the future health and relevance of the subject area. We highlight a serious methodological and perceptual issue within the literature, which offers many opportunities for theory development in the field.
... While many NGOs have been effective in providing extension and advisory services, the majority of stakeholders working in agricultural extension believe that NGOs and government organizations should work together for delivering extension and outreach services (de Janvry et al., 1989;Jordan, 1989;Korten, 1987). However, many of these NGOs want to keep their own autonomy and identity and focus on their priorities. ...
... In terms of areas of focus, these organizations tend to work on specific development-related activities. The work of GINGOs frequently falls into what Korten (1987) describes as "first-generation" development strategies, which includes a predominant focus on providing relief and welfare services through the provision of goods and services. For example, recent research exploring the programmatic foci of GINGOs (specifically in the case of Canadian GINGOs) has shown that these organizations most frequently engaged in education, health, and social service-related activities and tended to not work in areas requiring large investments and governmental relationships (Davis 2020). ...
Article
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Discussions surrounding participation in development projects often frame knowledge exchanges in a unilateral manner. However, in the implementation of participatory activities by grassroots international nongovernmental organizations (GINGOs), community members frequently serve not only as beneficiaries but have essential impacts on the organizations guiding these participatory engagements. In this study, we examine these reciprocal engagement dynamics through a case study analysis of GINGOs based in the US working on development projects with communities in the Global South. Our analysis details ways these organizations are learning and applying knowledge from communities, and the importance of addressing questions of beneficiaries and power dynamics.
... Lembaga swadaya masyarakat dalam perkembangannya di elaborasi dalam beberapa generasi. Pertama, adalah LSM yang bergerak dalam bantuan kemanusiaan terutama berkaitan dengan bencana alam, Kedua, LSM yang bergerak dalam pemberdayaan dan pembangunan dalam tingkat lokal, serta Ketiga, LSM yang bekerja dalam isu-isu keberlanjutan pembangunan termasuk pada isu-isu advokasi kebijakan (Korten, 1987). Berangkat dari perkembangan LSM generasi terakhir, Eldridge (1988) menyebutnya sebagai bentuk LSM mobilisasi, yang memainkan peran sangat penting dalam gerakan demokrasi melalui pemberdayaan masyarakat dengan melakukan kerja pendampingan, pembelaan dan penyadaran. ...
Article
Lembaga swadaya masyarakat ini berupaya memperjuangkan hak komunitas lokal dalam isu kebijakan penetapan kawasan taman nasional. Tujuan penulisan ini mengidentifikasi peran dan strategi Yayasan Tanah Merdeka (YTM) dalam memperjuangkan hak komunitas Orang Katu atas penetapan Kawasan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu Sulawesi Tengah. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan metode kualitatif dan disajikan secara deskriptif. Studi mengungkapkan YTM memainkan peran strategis dalam menciptakan hegemoni tandingan atas kebijakan penetapan kawasan Taman nasional Lore Lindu di wilayah komunitas Orang Katu. Hal ini dilakukan dengan membentuk kesadaran kolektif, melibatkan komunitas dalam gerakan akar rumput, mengembangkan strategi perjuangan melalui penyusunan dokumen pengelolaan sumber daya alam berbasis pengetahuan lokal serta, penggunaan terminologi masyarakat adat sebagai instrumen perjuangan yang dihubungkan dengan wacana hak global sehingga menjadi kekuatan yang konstitutif dalam arena politik pengelolaan sumber daya alam pada tingkat lokal. Kata kunci: Lembaga swadaya masyarakat, gerakan masyarakat adat, kebijakan taman nasional This non-governmental organization seeks to fight for the rights of local communities in the policy issue of setting the national park area. This paper aims to identify the role of Yayasan Tanah Merdeka (YTM) in the struggling rights of the Orang Katu community for the establishment of the Lore Lindu National Park Area. Data is collected using qualitative methods and presented descriptively. The study revealed that YTM played a strategic role in creating counter-hegemony over the policy of establishing Lore Lindu National Park in the Katu community area. Conducted by establishing collective awareness, involving communities in grassroots movements, the strategy is developed through the preparation of documents on the management of natural resources based on local knowledge as well as, the use of indigenous terminology that is connected with global rights discourse to become a constitutive force in the political arena of natural resource management at the local level. Keywords: non-government organization, indigenous movement, national park policy
... This failure of the state and free-market in providing services and opportunities for the poor opened space for NGOs to fulfil these roles, at a scale never before attempted (see Figure 1). Many kinds of NGOs emerged from this boom and can be categorized into 4 groups: 1) relief and welfare NGOs that provide humanitarian relief in times of major emergencies (e.g., Catholic Relief Services); 2) local self-reliance NGOs that provide capacity building projects to communities to meet their needs (e.g., Pact, RETOS, Water for People); 3) NGOs involved in larger institutional and policy formation (e.g., Amnesty International); and 4) NGOs supporting larger social movements such as those against international trades regimes (e.g., Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International -FLO) [4]. This paper focuses mostly in NGOs that work in community development through technology development and capacity building (Group 2) in which most engineering teams participate, while recognizing that engineers also participate in the three other types of NGOs. ...
... Sin ir más lejos, la posibilidad misma de que el poder pueda extenderse es vista como una precondición necesaria para un empoderamiento exitoso (Page and Czuba 1999). Tanto los estudios acerca del empoderamiento llevados a cabo por movimientos de base (Perkins 1995) como la literatura acerca del desarrollo (mujeres y desarrollo (Women and Development (WAD)), y mujeres en desarrollo (Women in Development (WID)) (Jaquette 1990;Tinker 1990) rescatan la importancia de la naturaleza ampliable del poder (esto es, el "poder relacional" (Pratto 2016), el "poder integrador" (Korten 1987)), donde el poder se manifiesta en diferentes formas según el contexto (Rappaport 1987). En consonancia con lo anterior, Pettit (2012) concibe al poder como la interdependencia entre actores, y a la cultura como la representación de una forma invisible de poder. ...
Article
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Conceptualizaciones acerca del empoderamiento en el emprendedorismo (entrepreneurship) y su pertinencia en culturas colectivistas Resumen: Desde nuestro punto de vista, la relación entre el empoderamiento ("empowerment") y el emprendedorismo ("entrepreneurship") en las culturas colectivistas ha sido insuficientemente examinada. Las definiciones más difundidas de empoderamiento y los supuestos en los que se basan los programas y los diseños de investigación basados en ellas dan lugar a resultados que se auto cumplen y, en consecuencia, resultan decepcionantes. Hay varias cuestiones problemáticas que prevalecen: primero, se sobreestima el potencial empoderamiento que puede alcanzarse a partir de los programas. Luego, la visión dominante acerca de lo que constituye un "ego empoderado" no profundiza lo suficiente como para explorar y replantear la relación misma que existe en el ego (self) y la agencia. Estas dos últimas cuestiones resultan centrales para la definición teórica del empoderamiento. En el presente artículo conceptual, se examinan tanto la literatura sobre del emprendedorismo (entrepreneurship) y el empoderamiento a fin de recomendar avances para la vitalidad y relevancia de esta área temática. Asimismo, resaltamos la importancia de una grave cuestión metodológica y perceptual que notamos existe en la literatura, que ofrece muchas oportunidades para el desarrollo de la teoría en este campo.
... Sin embargo, lejos de tener un recorrido lineal, la propia educación para el desarrollo ha tenido un devenir de carácter acumulativo en el que en "las actividades de un actor determinado se pueden encontrar simultáneamente rasgos de una u otra generación" (Mesa, 2000: 12). Siguiendo el modelo propuesto inicialmente por Korten (1987) y expandido a posteriori por otros autores y autoras (Mesa, 2000;Ortega, 2007;ONGAWA, 2018), en la actualidad podemos diferenciar seis generaciones. ...
Chapter
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Aunque todas y todos hoy en día dedicamos una parte significativa de nuestras jornadas laborales a la interacción a través de la tecnología, existe escasa formación y recursos para la generación de redes y alianzas de colectivos que permitan crear comunidades virtuales transformadoras y empoderadas, procurando un avance en la construcción de comunidades educativas con mayores índices de éxito entendido como un mayor número de niñas y niños que permanecen en la escuela y acceden a educación superior independientemente de su género, localización geográfica o cualquier otra situación de vulnerabilidad. En esta comunicación se presenta el caso de conectandoescuelas. org en el que más de 500 docentes y agentes sociales de 8 países de Latinoamérica y Euskadi se conectan a través de diferentes plataformas y recursos digitales para compartir experiencias y proyectos para la inclusión en la escuela. En esta experiencia se han desarrollado diferentes acciones síncronas y asíncronas sobre sobre el valor de la diversidad en la escuela, el diseño universal de aprendizaje, conectando con la voz del alumnado, fortaleciendo las competencias digitales de los agentes sociales y docentes que participan y generando redes para la Educación para la Transformación Social (EpTS).
... It is therefore somewhat paradoxical that capacity development-what the Paris Declaration described as 'respect[ing] partner country leadership and help[ing] strengthen their capacity to exercise it' (Monye et al., 2010, p. 763)-flowing from North to South, has become central to fostering equal partnerships. Indeed, for reasons of sustainability, many INGOs transitioned from implementing projects and providing services to helping to build and develop local capacity (in line with the issues facing earlier generations of NGOs; see Korten, 1987). NGOs have been considered more adaptable than state agencies in terms of this shift. ...
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Partnership is ubiquitous in international development discourse, but it is unclear whether development relationships have become less hierarchical. This study looks beyond the usual North–South inter-organizational partnerships, to examine within-organizational dynamics. It examines participation in the context of two South Korean non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Cambodia. Findings based on qualitative interviews with Korean leaders and local Cambodian managers show shortfalls yet overall improvements in participation, with a shift from a managerialist to a more praxis approach. The study shows that examining within-organizational power relations provides an important window into the real nature of participation, empowerment and partnership in development cooperation practices.
... In fact, the possibility that power can be expanded is seen as a necessary precondition for successful empowerment (Page and Czuba 1999). Studies on empowerment by grassroots movements (Perkins 1995), and development literature (Women and Development (WAD) and Women in Development (WID)) (Jaquette 1990;Tinker 1990) perspectives emphasize the expandable nature of power (e.g., "relational power" (Pratto 2016), "integrative power" (Korten 1987)), where power takes different forms in different contexts (Rappaport 1987). Aligned with this, Pettit (2012) conceives power as the interdependence between actors and culture as a representation of an invisible form of power. ...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship in collective societies is, in our view, insufficiently examined. Accepted definitions of empowerment and the assumptions underlying programs and research designs based on them result in outcomes that self-fulfil and, as a result, disappoint. Several issues are prevalent: the empowerment potential of programs is overestimated and the dominant view of what constitutes an ‘empowered self’ does not go deep enough to explore, and reframe, the self and its relationship to agency—two issues at the core of empowerment definitions and formulations. In this conceptual article, we examine the entrepreneurship and empowerment literature to suggest ways forward for the future health and relevance of the subject area. We highlight a serious methodological and perceptual issue within the literature, which offers many opportunities for theory development in the field.
... Sebagaimana (Korten, 1987) menjelaskan bahwa pilihan pendekatan pembangunan yang berorientasi pada pertumbuhan ekonomi bukan saja telah Peluang dan Tantangan Program Studi Pendidikan Nonformal dalam Pembangunan Masyarakat Pasca Implementasi UU Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 tentang Pemerintah Daerah di Era Ekonomi Digital mengakibatkan berbagai bentuk ketimpangan sosial tetapi juga menimbulkan berbagai persoalan lain seperti timbulnya akumulasi nilai-nilai hedonistik, ketidakpedulian sosial, erosi ikatan kekeluargaan dan kekerabatan, lebih dari itu pendekatan pembangunan tersebut telah menyebabkan ketergantungan masyarakat pada birokrasi-birokrasi sentralistik yang memiliki daya absorpsi sumber daya yang sangat besar, namun tidak memiliki kepekaan terhadap kebutuhan-kebutuhan lokal, dan secara sistematis telah mematikan inisiatif masyarakat lokal untuk memecahkan masalah-masalah yang mereka hadapi. Ini yang terjadi pada kegagalan orde baru yang terlalu top down dalam perencanaan pembangunan di desa. ...
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UU Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 tentang Pemerintah Daerah membuka ruang Pendidikan Non Formal untuk berperan lebih terkhusus dalam menampung warga yang tidak tuntas mendapatkan pendidikan formal. Di tengah era Revolusi Industri 4.0 telah memicu pergeseran sistem pembangunan SDM baik dalam Pendidikan Formal, Informal, dan Non Formal untuk beradaptasi di era digital. Pengentasan kemiskinan yang menjadi salah satu tujuan Prioritas Nasional dalam Rencana Kerja Pemerintah tahun 2019 mendorong Prodi PNF untuk memiliki sistem pembangunan SDM terkhusus SDM yang tidak terakomodir pendidikan formal, masyarakat kelas pekerja, perempuan, anak putus sekolah, dan etnis minoritas maupun kelas sosial yang terkucilkan. Ekonomi digital menawarkan solusi dengan berbagai spesifikasi pekerjaan baru dan menghilangkan 50 juta peluang kerja dalam beberapa waktu ke depan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dan menggunakan metode literatur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Prodi PNF berpeluang menjadi wadah pemikir dengan melakukan riset untuk mengidentifikasi kebutuhan masyarakat dan tren ekonomi digital yang terus berkembang. Temuan penelitian bahwasanya Prodi PNF dapat menjadi wadah pemikir untuk menghasilkan riset yang berdaya guna bagi kementerian dan lembaga. Kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dalam hal pengentasan kemiskinan peran Prodi PNF sejalan dengan Prioritas Nasional dalam Rencana Kerja Pemerintah yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembangunan masyarakat.
... Sin embargo, lejos de tener un recorrido lineal, la propia educación para el desarrollo ha tenido un devenir de carácter acumulativo en el que en "las actividades de un actor determinado se pueden encontrar simultáneamente rasgos de una u otra generación" (Mesa, 2000: 12). Siguiendo el modelo propuesto inicialmente por Korten (1987) y expandido a posteriori por otros autores y autoras (Mesa, 2000;Ortega, 2007;ONGAWA, 2018), en la actualidad podemos diferenciar seis generaciones. ...
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La comunicación presenta a una comunidad feminista de investigadoras, Ez Donk Oraindik, ubicada en la Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV-EHU), pero a su vez esparcida por Europa y América del Sur. Se plantea la posibilidad de enfrentar la soledad del programa doctoral en un ambiente cada vez más competitivo, a través de la solidaridad, compartiendo información e ideas y ofreciendo apoyo tanto práctico como afectivo. Unirnos en la tarea solitaria de escribir una tesis tiene el doble objetivo de facilitar el tránsito por la aridez académica, favoreciendo la cohesión. A la vez pretende aportar al pensamiento crítico y autocrítico, con el fin de transformar las dinámicas académicas actuales. En 2020, durante el confinamiento pandémico del covid-19, surge la necesidad de compartir sentires a través del juego experimental y surrealista llamado Corps Exquis. Una práctica de resistencia feminista inspirada por el concepto de joyful insurrection de la filósofa Rosi Braidotti. Desde el juego, lo surreal y la creatividad, esa mirada se plasma en un artículo a nueve manos. Un ensayo autoetnográfico de cada compañera que busca integrarse en un ente que nos recoja y nos transcienda. El confinamiento y la vocación de insurrección alegre animan un cuerpo exquisito nuevo, consciente de su ser y potencialidad.
... 15). Such service consolidation-anddelivery projects do not speak to the type of democratic engagement evident in community development theory as expressed by, for example, the co-operative movement, which seeks to promote leadership, civic participation and alternative governance models (Nembhard, 2004, p. 10-11), or the international NGO community, which increasingly equates citizen engagement with community sovereignty, including the right to define, reform and reject public services (Korten, 1987). As an example of how this objective can be appropriated, one need look no further than the aforementioned Saskatchewan community schools framework, largely abandoned by government and supplanted by school board-authored handbooks that guide school community councils toward a narrow mandate to support their school's Learning Improvement Plan (Regina Public Schools, 2007, p. 6), which is derived from a data-driven provincial Continuous Improvement Framework, itself derived from the management-speak of Japanese auto manufacturers (Zangwill & Kantor, 1988, p. 911). ...
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Supported by a growing body of research, the idea that schools have an essential role to play in local community cohesion and development has gained currency among urban and rural school advocates alike. Yet moving theory into action often grinds to a halt in the face of a recalcitrant bureaucracy. To understand why, it is important to step back and examine the theoretical framework of progress that has driven school consolidation and bureaucratization over the past century. Knowing these underlying power dynamics will help community advocates understand where their power is weakest, and where it is strongest, leading to more effective community action in defence of local schools.Keywords: school consolitation; community action; community school
... Perubahan menyolok ini tentu saja kontras dengan corak aktivisme NGOs Indonesia di era sebelumnya, sebagaimana tergambarkan dalam sejumlah kategorisasi dari David C. Korten (1987), Philipe Eldridge (1989Eldridge ( , 1996, Mansour Fakih (1996), Anders Uhlin (1998), dan Setiawan (2000) berikut. ...
Thesis
In two decades of post-authoritarian Indonesia, the power relations of NGOs with the state, grassroots communities, donors, and the private sector experienced significant changes. The emergence of a new development agenda, namely democratization combined with neo-liberal economic policies or often known as “good governance”, has become the dominant discourse in constructing the identity of workers / staff and NGOs institutions. In the authoritarian era, the discursive formation of NGOs took place in the dominant practice of "activism" or social movements to respond to the failure of the state in development which ignored the rights of citizens. Shifting to the post-authoritarian era, the discursive formation of NGOs took place in the dominance of the practice of “managerialism” as the power and disciplinary practice of the neoliberal discourse for accountability, transparency, efficiency, and effectiveness in the management of development, democracy, and security projects. Using a Critical Discourse Analysis approach and a Foucaultian conceptual framework, this study will explain the following two issues: first, how the power of the “regime of truth” of neoliberal governmentality in postauthoritarian Indonesia has shaped NGO activists as managerial subjects; and how the subject NGO activists create techniques, tactics, and strategies of resistance (counter-conduct) against the normalizing power of managerialism which reduces grassroots activism of NGOs. Based on the findings of the experiences of three Indonesian NGOs, this study shows how global cooperation networks, either directly or indirectly, with UN agencies, Bretton Wood Institution, multilateral organizations (OECD), MNCs-TNCs, donor agencies, INGOs, NGOs Forum, NGOs that are consolidated in “good governance” have formed neoliberal governmentality, “managerial subjects” and “entrepreneurial subjects” among workers/staff and NGO institutions. The effect of the normalizing power of "managerialism" in NGOs produces various forms of particular power, resistance (tactical reversal), "the tactical polyvalence of discourse". Particular forms of power productively produce an unstable, changing, and contingent orientation and spectrum of power relations, both in internal NGOs and between NGOs and the state, donors, and grassroots communities.
... We found that all PDIs and local organisations started off responding to direct, observable needs or problems by implementing interventions around service delivery. The initial strategy undertaken by PDIs and their local counterparts can hence be typified as direct poverty reduction or first-generation type interventions (Korten 1987). Except for two of these, over time all of them continued to hold on to this strategy. ...
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This article presents the results of the first ex-post sustainability study among 93 development interventions implemented between 1990 and 2008 in Kenya, India, South Africa, and Ghana. The interventions were undertaken by 42 different local organisations with support from an equal number of Dutch small-scale, voluntary development organisations. We find that a large number of interventions still achieve the intended output and outcome results. The results show no differences between interventions that took place 5, 10, or 15 years before the study. Financial dependency on the Dutch partner organisations remains large. The levels of sustainability differed significantly between the four countries, with Kenya and South Africa portraying the most positive picture. In addition, the results indicate that the majority of the interventions are focusing on the direct reduction of poverty: offering concrete support to people through the provision of basic needs. While many local organisations expect that these interventions will also contribute to more structural change, the findings of this study question this supposed transformative effect.
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Municipal waste is a challenge to every developed or developing or under developed countries. Due to its harmful effects to humans and to the environment as well, it becomes important to manage these waste. An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created, also known as waste reduction. Environmental sensitivity in country can only grow through a major public awareness campaign. This has several tools-the electronic media the press, school and college education adult education, which are all essentially complementary to each other. Public awareness is therefore essential to protect environment in time of rapid industrialization compromising on the environmental aspects. The Problem of Solid Waste management cannot be solved until and unless every citizen is aware of the solid waste disposal and its effects. This is the time to make aware and motivate each and every individual for environmental consciousness. Present study stress to know about views of the people regarding disposal of this household waste and their awareness about the Problems associated with solid waste disposal.
Article
This research explores philanthropic transfers and exchanges between and among the North and the South, namely, through grassroots international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), which tend to fall outside of the aid industry. The broad research question that frames this study is as follows: How do these organizations, grassroots INGOs in the global North and their partner organizations in the global South, represent and legitimize their work within the larger realm of development aid in Africa? The research conducts a comparative case study through the analysis of the narratives via organizational stories and artifacts produced and used by grassroots INGOs in the United States and partner organizations in Kenya. The findings show how grassroots INGOs distinguish themselves from what are the traditional images of global philanthropic exchanges and development aid, producing disassociative claims. The research derives a set of properties of grassroots INGOs to explain these perceived distinctions.
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This article traces the trajectory of different initiatives to address unfree labour and their impact on workers’ capacity to aspire to and exercise their rights in India. We attempt to understand the dimensions and effects of different ‘ways of seeing’ precarity and exploitation within the larger context of economic policies, social structures such as caste-based discrimination, gender-based violence, and state indifference. In a caste and gender-unequal society such as India, with deep regional disparities, we examine how different lenses have impacted on development-led historical processes of informalisation and flexibilisation of work. We do this by contrasting two different ‘models’ in the country, one in the north in a rural setting and the other in the west in an urban context. Context is important, but the organisations and activists involved in our two case studies saw their role and that of workers differently, operating according to distinct goals and working practices. Our research demonstrates that ‘ways of seeing’ matter, as they lead to disparate results in terms of workers’ capacity to mobilise and claim their rights.
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Chapter 15. Asset Based Community Driven Development
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The aim of this paper is to improve our understanding of the roles of individuals and the importance of their social contexts in shaping the dynamics of technological diffusion in the agricultural sector. When justifying the different rates of innovation adoption, existing literature reviews overemphasize either the drivers of technological changes enacted by farmers' agentic behaviour or the cognitive processes of individual farmers and their social contexts (structures). However, they continue to have a fragmented view of how local social systems and the agentic behaviour of individual actors influence the evolution of technological regimes, and they lack the ability to describe a purposeful interplay between agency and structures. We present an integrative review of the most relevant papers published in the last 20 years and discuss the impact of structures and agency emerging from local social systems on the local innovation process and, as a result, the evolution of technological regimes. The identified macro categories describe the main processes affecting individuals' abilities to mobilize and manage local resources for innovation, allowing us to critically assess the stock of previous developments from a new perspective and identify novel research avenues.
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This chapter advances the argument that development NGOs are ideal candidates to fill the cosmopolitan agency gap. Many international NGOs envision a world without poverty and have decades of experience and extensive expertise in poverty reduction and development. Moreover, they have built a good reputation in the global North and are skilled at engaging the general public. I examine the history of five NGOs to represent the sector and three global events that NGOs have organised to evidence their competence. However, I also caution against over-simplification and undue optimism: NGOs have tried to advocate radical change for decades to little avail. I agree with many NGO practitioners that change to this sector is necessary, before real change can happen to global poverty.
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This study aims to examine changes in the roles of Korean development civil society organizations (CSOs) in the historical path of Korean development cooperation since the 1990s. In particular, it focuses on analyzing the government–civil society relationship. Korea's international development cooperation activities began in earnest in the 1990s and have grown dramatically over the past 30 years. Korean development CSO activities also increased significantly in service delivery when short-term international emergency relief beginning in the 1990s was extended into development cooperation programs in the 2000s. In this process, as CSOs have become important actors in that they influence government policy directions and lead norms, the government–civil society relationship in the field of development cooperation has also changed.
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