Article

Violence Against Transgender People: A Review of United States Data

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Abstract

Transgender people face many challenges in a society that is unforgiving of any system of gender that is not binary. However, there are three primary sources of data in the United States for discerning the rates and types of violence that transgender people face throughout their lives — self-report surveys and needs assessments, hot-line call and social service records, and police reports. Data from each of these sources are discussed in length, as well as some of the methodological issues for these types of data sources. All three sources indicate that violence against transgender people starts early in life, that transgender people are at risk for multiple types and incidences of violence, and that this threat lasts throughout their lives. In addition, transgender people seem to have particularly high risk for sexual violence. Future research considerations, such as improving data collection efforts, are discussed.

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... As a consequence of being positioned as "other", trans people often encounter a range of negative lived experiences, including stigma, various forms of social oppression and exclusion, limited access to healthcare, discrimination and violence (Fernández-Rouco, Fernández-Fuertes, Carcedo, Lázaro-Visa, & GÓmez-Pérez, 2017;Moolchaem, Liamputtong, O'Halloran, & Muhamad, 2015;Reisner et al., 2016;Stotzer, 2009;White Hughto, Reisner, & Pachankis, 2015). Sexual violence is a significant human rights and public health issue, which has serious consequences across every level of society around the world (Dartnall & Jewkes, 2013;Fernández-Rouco et al., 2017;Wilson, 2015). ...
... These overall rates are similar to those found in United Statesbased studies. For example, a review of violence against trans people conducted by Stotzer (2009) reported that around 50 percent of trans individuals reported experiencing sexual violence across studies, with "a high prevalence of sexual assault and rape starting at a young age" (p. 171). ...
... Research in multiple international healthcare settings confirms that discrimination against trans women of colour in relation to the quality of care they receive is common (Adams & Vincent, 2019;Gómez & Freyd, 2018;Hendriks, Anke Marie-Josée Aimé, Peeters, Roelens, & Keygnaert, 2018). Medical professionals and ancillary staff can behave in openly transphobic, hostile and dismissive ways and, in some instances, trans women of colour are refused medical treatment altogether (Global Rights, 2018;Infante et al., 2009;Lanham et al., 2019;Leyva-Flores et al., 2019;Stotzer, 2009;Wylie et al., 2016;Xavier et al., 2013). ...
... Though the alarming rates of violence against sex workers around the world are well known (Deering et al., 2014;Stotzer, 2009), information regarding the prevalence and correlates of police-perpetrated harassment and violence against transgender and gender diverse (TGD) sex workers in the United States remains extremely limited (Fehrenbacher et al., 2020;Sherman et al., 2019). Previous research based in the United States has revealed that among cisgender female sex workers, police interaction is associated with higher rates of police violence and incarceration (Fehrenbacher et al., 2020;Platt et al., 2018;Shannon et al., 2009), and that police violence often prevents sex workers from reporting violence to police and/or accessing necessary services (Deering et al., 2014;Volkmann et al., 2011). ...
... In their study, Cohan and colleagues noted that trans women sex workers and sex workers working in in-person settings were significantly more likely to report sex work-related police violence when compared to their cisgender male and female counterparts (Cohan et al., 2006). Though this research has suggested that TGD sex workers may be at a particularly heightened risk for police violence (Stotzer, 2009), there remains a lack of empirical studies using large sample sizes, which examine police-perpetrated violence against TGD sex workers in the United States. Further, as sex work remains illegal in the United States, fear of arrest, retribution, and the unlikelihood of justice for TGD sex workers may contribute to underreporting of police-perpetrated violence (Moran & Sharpe, 2002;Stotzer, 2009;Xavier et al., 2007). ...
... Though this research has suggested that TGD sex workers may be at a particularly heightened risk for police violence (Stotzer, 2009), there remains a lack of empirical studies using large sample sizes, which examine police-perpetrated violence against TGD sex workers in the United States. Further, as sex work remains illegal in the United States, fear of arrest, retribution, and the unlikelihood of justice for TGD sex workers may contribute to underreporting of police-perpetrated violence (Moran & Sharpe, 2002;Stotzer, 2009;Xavier et al., 2007). Given these current gaps, further research is critical to both understanding the phenomena of as well as to begin urgent intervention to eliminate policeperpetrated harassment and violence in the United States. ...
Article
Sex workers continue to experience high rates of abuse and violence around the world. However, information regarding police-perpetrated harassment and violence against transgender and gender diverse (TGD) sex workers in the United States remains extremely limited. The current study is the first known examination of police interaction, harassment, and violence among TGD sex workers in the United States using a large nationwide dataset. Data from 23,372 TGD people were used. Results revealed that sex workers were more likely to experience police interaction, harassment, and violence compared to non-sex workers. Among sex workers with police interaction while doing sex work, 89.2% reported experiencing at least one type of harassment and/or violence. Regression analyses revealed that individuals with no reported income and trans women were more likely to experience multiple types of police harassment/violence. Taken together, TGD sex workers continue to experience alarming rates of interaction, harassment, and violence from police in the United States. Urgent, and effective intervention is needed to eliminate police harassment and violence toward TGD sex workers and provide support for TGD sex workers who survive this violence.
... However, for TGD people, this rate has shown to be close to one in two; that is, in a large national sample of transgender individuals, 47% reported having been sexually assaulted at least once during their lifetime (James et al., 2016). The high rates of sexual assault identified in this national survey are supported by findings from additional studies that report TGD people are victimized at high rates, especially when compared to their cisgender counterparts (Coulter et al., 2017;Langenderfer-Magruder et al., 2016;Stotzer, 2009). ...
... Because TGD people experience high rates of sexual violence (Grant et al., 2011;James et al., 2016;Stotzer, 2009), it is rational to assume that they can also experience growth following their unwanted sexual experiences given that PTG is born out of adversity. ...
... Additionally, some participants in the present study believed that the motive behind their unwanted sexual experiences was partly because of their TGD identity and consequently, was a product of transphobia. This finding is supported by Stotzer (2009) who reported on increased evidence for negative attitudes toward TGD people being a motive for perpetrators of sexual violence. ...
Article
Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people represent a small percent of the population and yet, they experience sexual violence at disproportionately high rates compared to their cisgender counterparts (Grant et al, 2011; James et al., 2016). The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study is to gain a more nuanced understanding of the role that unwanted sexual experiences play in the lives of transgender and gender diverse people, particularly in relation to how they conceptualize their gender identity and the construct of posttraumatic growth (PTG). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight TGD participants who met the inclusion criteria. Two superordinate (i.e., negative impacts on self and factors that facilitated recovery) and ten subordinate (i.e., systemic oppression, mental health outcomes, gender dysphoria and transitioning, difficulties with disclosure, lack of resources, physical intimacy, advocacy, connection and support, strengths, personal growth, affirming resources, and hope) themes emerged from the data. Contextual factors were reported on. Limitations of the present study were also discussed. Implications for practice include the use of gender-affirming and culturally appropriate interventions, examination of power dynamics within the therapeutic relationship, understanding the potential interplay between gender dysphoria, oppression, and trauma, and exploration of strengths and avenues for growth. Implications for policy include the implementation of comprehensive policies that protect the human rights of TGD people, such as protections from being refused access to public places and insurance coverage of gender-affirming services. Future research should focus on diverse samples of TGD survivors, a more direct examination PTG within the TGD community, the impact of previous trauma on TGD survivors, and intimate partner violence (IPV) within the TGD community. Advisor: Michael Scheel
... Surveys that utilize convenience samples, such as the widely used U.S. Transgender Survey, cannot be generalized to the entire population since they tend to undercount certain populations. Additionally, data sources on transgender people's experiences of violence often have small sample sizes, making it difficult to attend to intersectionality in their analysis (Hill, 2002;Stotzer, 2009). As these data sources rarely include cisgender respondents, little is known about how experiences of violence differ (or not) between transgender and cisgender people. ...
... Historically, these forms of violence have been linked to risk of HIV and other STD acquisition (Heintz & Melendez, 2006;Risser et al., 2005). As such, they have been of interest to public health funding providers and scholars (Peitzmeier et al., 2020;Stotzer, 2009). Moreover, IPV and sexual violence against LGBT people have recently become focuses of public health scholarship in and of themselves (i.e., not just because of their association with disease transmission), resulting in a substantial increase in scholarship on these forms of violence in the last 5 years. ...
Article
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Violence against transgender people is a prevalent but understudied form of gender‐based violence. In recent years, this body of literature has expanded substantially. However, analysis of violence experienced by transgender people has been hampered by a shortage of good data. This article explores those data dilemmas and details what is and is not currently known about violence against transgender people in the United States. National surveys with sample sizes large enough to facilitate comparisons between transgender and cisgender respondents as well as attend to diversity with the category of transgender tend to not ask questions that count transgender respondents. Moreover, when they do, surveys often do not follow established best practices. Additionally, qualitative research on this topic is underfunded, resulting in small sample sizes with similar constraints. Therefore, although there is increased knowledge around rates of violence for transgender versus cisgender people, differences in risk related to gender and race, and intimate partner and sexual violence, this knowledge is flawed and does not cover the range of violence that transgender people experience. To better address this topic, data collection and analysis must be improved and scholars should attend to ways to prevent violence against transgender people.
... While less studied, there is an increasing body of literature documenting that trans and other gender diverse (TGD) individuals have especially high rates of sexual assault victimization. For example, research suggests that 43-50% of TGD individuals report experiencing a sexual assault (Clements-Nolle et al., 2006;Risser et al., 2005;Stotzer, 2009). Finally, research suggests that SGM individuals experience higher rates of childhood sexual abuse compared to heterosexual, cisgender individuals (Friedman et al., 2011;Roberts et al., 2012). ...
... The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic literature review on disclosure of sexual assault victimization among SGM individuals. Previous research (Walters et al., 2013;Clements-Nolle et al., 2006;Risser et al., 2005;Stotzer, 2009) suggests that SGM individuals experience high rates of sexual assault, especially when compared to heterosexual, cisgender individuals. There are various reasons that SGM victims may or may not disclose their sexual assault, and, if they do, they may face a variety of social reactions to their disclosure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual assault is common in sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals, but few studies have examined SGM victims’ disclosure experiences. This systematic review identified 13 studies through searches of research databases on SGM populations with sexual victimization. These studies showed wide variation in disclosure rates, various barriers to disclosure, and psychological impacts of social reactions to disclosure on SGM individuals. Bisexual women were more likely to disclose to formal (e.g., police, healthcare providers) and informal (e.g., friends, family members) sources than other women, and SGM victims disclose to mental health professionals at particularly high rates. Sexual and gender minority victims also reported numerous barriers to disclosure, including those unique to SGM individuals (e.g., fear of being outed). Impacts of negative social reactions appear to be more negative on psychological symptoms of SGM victims, whereas positive reactions are helpful to recovery. Future research is needed taking an intersectional perspective to studying disclosure and social reactions to SGM individuals from both college and community samples, by examining both sexual minority and racial/ethnic identities in the context of intersectional minority stress theory. Studies are needed of both correlates and consequences of disclosures to both informal and formal support sources to better understand SGM individuals’ reasons for telling and not telling various support sources and the impacts of their disclosure experiences on their recovery. Such data is also needed to inform interventions seeking to identify and intervene with support network members and professionals to reduce negative social reactions and their psychosocial impacts and to increase positive social reactions and general social support from informal support sources.
... Second, we had small cell sizes for non-gender-binary individuals (i.e., those that do not identify as "man" or "woman"). This limits the generalizability of our results to individuals who are gender minorities, a group who has been found to experience very high rates of sexual harassment and other types of victimization [56,57]. Similarly, future investigations may benefit from oversampling individuals who identify as racial and ethnic minorities, given that racial and ethnic minorities often experience greater rates, and more severe types, of both workplace sexual and general harassment in the workplace [58][59][60]. ...
Article
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Workplace sexual harassment is associated with negative psychological and physical outcomes. Recent research suggests that harmful institutional responses to reports of wrongdoing-called institutional betrayal-are associated with additional psychological and physical harm. It has been theorized that supportive responses and an institutional climate characterized by transparency and proactiveness-called institutional courage-may buffer against these negative effects. The current study examined the association of institutional betrayal and institutional courage with workplace outcomes and psychological and physical health among employees reporting exposure to workplace sexual harassment. Adults who were employed full-time for at least six months were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform and completed an online survey (N = 805). Of the full sample, 317 participants reported experiences with workplace sexual harassment, and only this subset of participants were included in analyses. We used existing survey instruments and developed the Institutional Courage Questionnaire-Specific to assess individual experiences of institutional courage within the context of workplace sexual harassment. Of participants who experienced workplace sexual harassment, nearly 55% also experienced institutional betrayal, and 76% experienced institutional courage. Results of correlational analyses indicated that institutional betrayal was associated with decreased job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and increased somatic symptoms. Institutional courage was associated with the reverse. Furthermore, results of multiple regression analyses indicated that institutional courage appeared to attenuate negative outcomes. Overall, our results suggest that institutional courage is important in the context of workplace sexual harassment. These results are in line with previous research on institutional betrayal, may inform policies and procedures related to workplace sexual harassment, and provide a starting point for research on institutional courage.
... Bununla birlikte, heteroseksüel olmayan mahpusların, heteroseksüel mahpuslara kıyasla belirgin olarak daha fazla cinsel şiddet ile karşı karşıya kaldıkları gösterilmiştir (Meyer ve ark., 2017; Beck ve ark, 2013). Erken yaşam dönemlerinden beri translar farklı ve tekrarlayan şiddet tipleri ile hayatları boyunca karşı karşıya kalabilmekte olup bunlarla hapishane koşullarında da yüksek oranda karşılaşmaktadırlar (Stotzer, 2009). Ulusal Mahkum Anketi üç trans bireyden birinin saldırıya uğradığını bildirmektedir (Beck ve ark., 2013); bu diğer cinsel azınlık gruplarıyla karşılaştırıldığında çok yüksek bir orandır. ...
... Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, TGD people experienced enduring and significant hardships fundamentally rooted in stigma as well as sociocultural and economic inequality. These manifest at interpersonal as well as structural levels (Puckett et al., 2022a) including imposing substantial barriers to accessing healthcare (Puckett et al., 2018), high levels of economic hardship and houselessness (James et al., 2016), heightened exposure to violence and discrimination, and other stressors related to gender-based marginalization (Hughto et al., 2015;Stotzer, 2009). These experiences have negative impacts on health and well-being including mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicidality (Puckett et al., 2020), and heightened risk for embodied effects including chronic physical disease (Brown & Jones, 2016;DuBois et al., 2017DuBois et al., , 2021. ...
Article
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Introduction Social isolation and reduced access to public life in response to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) challenges health and well-being for many. Marginalized communities, including transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people, have been disproportionally impacted. Experiences of TGD people should be centered in pandemic-related research to better inform policy. Methods A diverse sample of TGD people (N = 158) were recruited from Michigan, Nebraska, Oregon, and Tennessee to participate in the Trans Resilience and Health Study. Participants ranged from 19 to 70 years old (M = 33.06; SD = 12.88) with 27.2% identifying as trans men/men, 26% identifying as trans women/women, and remaining identifying with terms like genderqueer and nonbinary. Thirty percent identified as people of color. Participants completed a monthly COVID-19-related questionnaire April 2020–March 2021 including open-ended questions to learn what contributed to resilience during this time. Thematic analyses of responses enabled identification of salient themes. Results Analyses revealed pandemic-related changes in social experiences of marginalization and mask-wearing. Twenty-six participants mentioned face masks as contributing to resilience while also elaborating the influence of masks on experiences of misgendering. Participants identifying as trans women reported decreased misgendering while trans men and nonbinary participants reported increased misgendering. Conclusions and Policy Implications Mask-wearing helps reduce transmission of COVID-19. For some trans women, masks also reduce the threat of misgendering and possibly other forms of enacted stigma. However, increased risk for misgendering, as noted by trans men in our study, should be considered and increased supports should be provided.
... An email explaining the purpose of the study and containing a link to the questionnaire was sent to these associations, which in turn redistributed it among their members and workers. This strategy has been used in other studies with hidden or low visibility groups such as sex workers, drug consumers or trans people (56)(57)(58). The completely anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was also spread by posting recruitment advertisements in social media (e.g., Twitter and Facebook). ...
Article
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Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) harassment disparities have become a public health issue due to discrimination and the effects on these people’s health and wellbeing. The purpose was to compare harassment disparities within the Spanish adult LGBT population according to age, gender identity, sexual orientation and the context of perpetration and to describe the harassment risk profile. A sample of 1,051 LGBT adults participated in a cross-sectional study. Frequencies, percentages and Chi-square tests of independence for stablishing significant differences (p < 0.05) were calculated. The corrected standardized residuals allowed to identify the categories in which significant differences emerged. Binomial logistic regression was used to define the probability of the main LGBT groups of suffering harassment. Results show that 54.4% of the participants had experienced harassment. Young adults presented a higher prevalence than the older group. There were significant harassment differences between transgender (67.2%) and cisgender (52.7%) groups, and also between the subgroup of trans women (75.8%) and the subgroups of cis men (60.2%) and cis women (42.9%). The main disparities according to sexual orientation emerged between lesbian trans and the other LGB groups. Most harassment occurred in educational contexts and public spaces. Trans-women and trans non-binary reported a higher rate of harassment than cis LGB persons in all contexts. Trans people with different orientations (especially lesbian and gay trans) differed in harassment from LGB cis in four of the six contexts analyzed. Harassment is likely to diminish between 2 and 3% each year as LGBTs get older in educational contexts and public spaces but increases 1.07 times in the workplace. Trans women, trans non-binary, lesbian cis and trans-men were more likely to suffer harassment than bisexual cis persons. Trans women present the highest risk of harassment in three contexts (workplace, family and public spaces) and trans non-binary in the other three contexts (education, health and sport). Harassment is a serious problem for LGBT adults in Spain, especially among trans people, which differ in characteristics from those of the sexual minorities mainstream. Programs and policies targeted for improving health should therefore consider the differences that came to light in this study.
... Empirically, the relationship between trans people and criminal legal actors is unsatisfactory (Buist & Stone, 2014;Gatehouse et al., 2018;Stotzer, 2014). Extant research demonstrates that trans people are subject to unequal treatment by the criminal legal system compared to their cisgender 2 counterparts (Buist & Stone, 2014;Stotzer, 2009Stotzer, , 2014. Estimates are that of the total U.S. population, 1.3 million adults (0.5%) identify as trans, 16% (1 in 6) of whom have been incarcerated in their lifetime (Herman et al., 2022;Lambda Legal, 2014;NCTE, 2012). ...
Article
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In this article, I review the literature on trans people’s experiences with the criminal legal system using an intersectional lens to highlight how their multiple marginalized identities shape their treatment by criminal legal actors. The literature suggests that the intersectional contexts of trans people’s experiences must be considered and recognized when seeking to understand and apply this knowledge to improve interactions with the legal system, either in terms of victimization or system-involvement. An intersectional approach may not explain the full extent of trans people’s experiences. Still, it provides a glimpse into the multiplicative effects overlapping forms of oppression have on trans people’s daily lives and, subsequently, their system involvement.
... Research on the prevalence of IPV and sexual violence victimization for trans people is sparse, as large-scale surveys generally focus on the experiences of cisgender survivors (Calton et al., 2015). However, extant research indicates transgender people are at an increased risk for IPV and sexual violence (Stotzer, 2009). Indeed, in their survey of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender youth in the United States, Dank et al. (2014) found transgender youth 'reported some of the highest victimization rates of physical dating violence, psychological dating abuse, cyber dating abuse, and sexual coercion' compared with the other groups (p. ...
Chapter
Transgender people are at an increased risk for violent victimization, particularly intimate partner (IPV) and sexual violence (Stotzer, 2009). For transgender women, many of whom express distrust of police (Wolff & Cokely, 2007), contacting authorities may not be viewed as a viable option. Moreover, involving police may force a transgender victim to “come out” in a way that may amplify, rather than mitigate, their distress (Miles-Johnson, 2015; Wolff & Cokely, 2007). Victims of IPV or sexual violence may need secure housing as they flee their abusers, but transgender women may feel unsafe in shelters designed for IPV survivors. Moreover, many shelters are viewed as cis-woman-only spaces and may not welcome transgender people (Shelton, 2015), and those that do may not be sensitive to the unique needs of transgender service users (Seelman, 2015; Tesch & Bekerian, 2015). Moreover, cisgender women who utilize shelter services may feel unsafe in spaces where male bodies are present, regardless of the individual’s gender identity and expression. However, by excluding transgender women from these spaces, the safety and well-being of cisgender women is privileged over transgender women. Transgender women are more vulnerable to harm and have fewer resources for coping.
... Such debates can be read as the latest turn of emphasis in a British anti-trans* discourse, one that seeks to redraw or reinscribe the gendered spaces where trans* people are permitted to occupy and where they are excluded. Here, prior academic research serves a tart reminder that trans* people experience disproportionately high rates of violence, harassment and discrimination in, for example, workplaces, schools, health-care institutions and child welfare systems (Bauer et al., 2009;Budge et al., 2010;Dispenza et al., 2012;Stotzer, 2009). In addition, McLean (2021) tracks the recent growth in the anti-trans* movement in the UK, noting how it has taken its cue from similar movements in the USA, to oppose trans*-inclusive amendments that are currently proposed to the UK Gender Recognition Act (2004). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to challenge the cisnormative and binary assumptions that underpin the management and gender scholarship. Introducing and contextualising the contributions that comprise this special issue, this paper critically reflects on some of the principal developments in management research on trans* and intersex people in the workplace and anticipates what future scholarship in this area might entail. Design/methodology/approach A critical approach is adopted to interrogate the prevailing cisnormative and binary approach adopted by management and gender scholars. Findings The key finding is the persistence of cisnormativity and normative gender and sex binarism in academic knowledge production and in society more widely, which appear to have hindered how management and gender scholars have routinely failed to conceptualise and foreground the array of diverse genders and sexes. Originality/value This paper foregrounds the workplace experiences of trans* and intersex people, which have been neglected by management researchers. By positioning intersexuality as an important topic of management research, this paper breaks the silence that has enwrapped intersex issues in gender and management scholarship. There are still unanswered questions and issues that demand future research from academics who are interested in addressing cisnormativity in the workplace and problematising the sex and gender binaries that sustain it.
... This concealment, which is related to fears of discrimination and retaliation, such as loss of employment, contributes to the under-reporting of hate crimes perpetrated against individuals within the TG community. Moreover, there is significant heterogeneity in hate crimes depending on geographical area, which would confound the generalisability of available research and provide adequate estimations of the real extent of this problem (Stotzer, 2009). In one study, survey participants reported experiencing physical abuse due to their gender identity or expression, with up to one in ten TG individuals suffering sexual assault due to biases against them (Grant et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Several lines of evidence indicate the prevalence of mental health disorders in Transgender (TG) individuals is higher than that of cisgender individuals or the general population. In this systematic review, we aim to propose a summary of some of the most significant research investigating mental health disorders' prevalence among this population. We performed a double-blind systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses reporting (PRISMA) on PUBMED/MEDLINE and SCOPUS, specifically using peer-reviewed articles examining the mental health status of transgender (TG) individuals. This review did not exclude any research based on publication date. The last search was performed in February 2022. The employed search strategy led to the selection of 165 peer-reviewed articles. The majority of these papers presented a cross-sectional design with self-reported diagnoses and symptoms, signaling a significant prevalence of mental health disorders amongst TG Individuals. Of the reviewed articles, 72 examined the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders; 8 examined eating disorders; 43 examined the prevalence of suicidal or self-harm ideation or behaviors; 5 papers examined the prevalence of trauma and stress-related disorders; 10 examined the frequency of personality disorders; 44 examined substance use disorders; and 9 papers examined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder. Finally, 22 studies reported on the prevalence of TG individuals diagnosed with co-morbid mental health disorders or unspecified mental disorders. Our findings coincide with existing research, which indicates TG individuals do experience a higher prevalence of mental health disorders than that of the general population or cisgender individuals. However, further research is needed to address the existing gaps in knowledge.
... Violence against TGD people is endemic (Stotzer 2009). TGD people experience structural violence as a consequence of living within a social world that largely fails to accept, account for, or accommodate for them, rendering them vulnerable in a range of domains, including health, labour, housing, and, as we address here, the criminal legal system (Collier and Daniel 2019;Jauk 2013;White Hughto, Reisner and Pachankis 2015). ...
Article
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Trans and gender diverse (TGD) people are disproportionately criminalised and face unique vulnerabilities when interacting with the criminal legal system. However, very little is known about TGD people’s experiences of criminalisation in Australia or the strategies TGD people and their advocates use to navigate the criminal legal system. Based on survey responses from TGD people with lived experience of criminalisation and lawyers with experience representing TGD clients, this article identifies several critical issues with the criminal legal system’s treatment of TGD people and outlines the strategies TGD people and their representatives suggest to address these issues. On this basis, we argue that criminologists and criminal legal practitioners urgently need to interrogate and work towards ameliorating the criminal legal system’s treatment of gender diversity. These insights will be crucial in informing future advocacy efforts and reform agendas, given that knowledge in this area is severely lacking.
... Research aligns with these theoretical frameworks, showing that TGD people experience stigma from various sources with implications for their health and well-being. For instance, TGD people are disproportionately exposed to violence across the lifespan (Stotzer, 2009), unemployment, homelessness (James et al., 2016), and openly hostile work environments (King & Cortina, 2010). Estimates indicate that one in four TGD people will experience assault at school in grades K-12, one in four will experience homelessness for at least a portion of their lives, and many live in extreme poverty (James et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people face a myriad of daily stressors because of the hegemonic gender norms embedded within U.S. society. Due to these minority stressors, TGD people report elevated anxiety, depression, stress, and suicidality, among other health issues. One mechanism through which stigma may lead to these negative mental health outcomes is through increased rumination. In this intensive daily diary study with 181 TGD individuals (ages 16-40), we gathered qualitative data on their ruminative thoughts over the course of 56 days. There were a total of 2,431 responses across participants, with individuals providing a range of 1-53 responses (M = 15 responses). Using an experiential framework and an inductive approach to thematic analysis, we generated the following themes: (a) interpersonal relationships as a site of struggle, (b) fear and worry in response to contextual factors, (c) the weight of basic needs and safety, (d) gender as experienced through self and others, (e) intersections of health and rumination, and (f) the occasional reprieve. Using a deductive approach, we also placed these data within the context of Bronfenbrenner's Person-Process-Context-Time model to provide a conceptual model for future research in this area. These ruminative experiences revealed significant adversities and challenges weighing on participants' minds that spanned many areas of life. These findings also highlight the nuanced nature of rumination for TGD individuals and areas that may be overlooked in current assessments of this construct. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Transgender persons-individuals who identify with a gender that differs from their sex assigned at birth-are more likely than cisgender persons to experience a variety of social and economic stressors, including housing instability and economic hardship (Balsam, Rothblum, & Beauchaine, 2005;Blosnich et al., 2013;Blosnich, Marsiglio, et al., 2017;Brown & Jones, 2016;Grant et al., 2010;Hughes, Johnson, & Wilsnack, 2001;Lehavot et al., 2016;Shipherd, Darling, Klap, Rose, & Yano, 2018;Stotzer, 2009), likely resulting from substantial exposure to transphobic discrimination and violence (Bradford, Reisner, Honnold, & Xavier, 2013;James et al., 2016;Lombardi, Wilchins, Priesing, & Malouf, 2002;White Hughto, Reisner, & Pachankis, 2015;Wolfe et al., 2021). The Minority Stress Model posits that discrimination, violence, rejection, and internalized stigma (e.g., internalized transphobia) (Meyer, 2003) negatively affect a person's resilience and ability to cope with stress (Hendricks & Testa, 2012), thereby increasing risk for adverse health outcomes, including substance use disorders (SUDs) (Hatzenbuehler, 2009;Labouvie & Bates, 2002;Meyer, 1995Meyer, , 2003Tartaglia & Bergagna, 2020). ...
Article
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Transgender persons have high rates of alcohol and other drug use disorders (AUD and DUD, respectively) and commonly experience social and economic stressors that may compound risk for adverse substance-related outcomes. National VA electronic health record data were extracted for all outpatients in each facility with documented alcohol screening 10/1/09–7/31/17. We describe the prevalence of eight individual-level social and economic stressors (barriers to accessing care, economic hardship, housing instability, homelessness, social and family problems, legal problems, military sexual trauma, and other victimization) among transgender patients with and without AUD and DUD (alone and in combination), overall and compared to cisgender patients in a national sample of VA outpatients. Among 8,872,793 patients, 8619 (0.1%) were transgender; the prevalence of AUD, DUD, and both was 8.6%, 7.2%, and 3.1% among transgender patients and 6.1%, 3.9%, and 1.7% among cisgender patients, respectively. Among all patients, prevalence of stressors was higher among those with AUD, DUD, or both, relative to those with neither. Within each of these groups, prevalence was 2–3 times higher among transgender compared to cisgender patients. For instance, prevalence of housing instability for transgender vs. cisgender patients with AUD, DUD, and both was: 40.8% vs 24.1%, 45.8% vs. 36.6%, and 57.4% vs. 47.0%, respectively. (all p-values
... Although issues with rights and protections for transgender and non-binary athletes exist globally, in the United States transgender people are subject to disproportionate rates of discrimination, abuse, and victimization by members of society and criminal justice actors based on their sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression [18,50,54,64,69,70,88,99,105]. For decades queer people (an umbrella term that captures all people who fall outside of the heteronormative gender binary) have fought for the advancement of LGBTQ rights. ...
Article
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To date, there are limited qualitative studies examining the integration of transgender athletes within professional, amateur, and elite sports. Utilizing a qualitative content analysis of social media users’ responses to five transgender Olympic athletes, this study explores perceptions shared across two major social media platforms. Six themes emerged from our data transphobia, transmisogyny, mental illness claims, science claims, confusion, and support. The majority of users expressed transphobic and transmisogynistic concerns about fairness and shared negative perceptions of transgender athletes as dangerous, deviant, and in need of mental health services.
... Transgender people are at much higher risk of sexual and other physical violence than their cisgender counterparts (Hester et al., 2012;Stotzer, 2009), compounded by the lack of professional insight into non-cisgender violence (Seelman, 2015;Tesch & Bekerian, 2015). Likewise, domestic violence poses a risk to people in same-sex couples (Ristock, 2011), complicated by the layered power dynamics ...
Thesis
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This thesis uses a novel methodology to understand parole decisions about perpetrators of domestic violence in England and Wales as complex adaptive systems. It informs victims, parole board members, researchers, and policymakers about the nature of decisions for this group of offenders. Existing research examines correlations between case variables and the outcome of a hearing and explores the thought processes of board members. But no previous studies explored parole decisions specifically about perpetrators of domestic violence, and few have examined other parole decisions in England and Wales. This research examines the variables associated with a release decision for a prisoner whose sole or primary risk involves domestic violence, and the dynamics behind any associations. I explore whether the nature of domestic violence requires a specific approach to decision-making and whether this is reflected in the results. My novel use of a primary dataset of 137 parole decisions, coded from decision letters, draws on a positivist tradition, while my thematic analysis of 20 interviews with parole board members takes an interpretivist approach. I develop the data into a systems model of the parole decision. My findings show that recommendations from the offender supervisor, offender manager and especially the psychologist are such a strong predictor of the decision that they amount to an effective ‘veto’ on release. Perpetrator programmes are important only insofar as an offender’s refusal to attend suggests a lack of insight. Parole boards are more concerned with risk manageability than risk level and are less likely to release offenders with a history of ‘less manageable’ controlling behaviour. This research shows that parole boards are influenced by domestic violence research, by structural factors and nature of offending, and that the underlying variables associated with release as determined through the mixed methods analysis are subtly different to those they emphasise consciously.
... Differences in psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses are believed to be due to the accumulation of unique identity-based stressors experienced by the TGD community, termed minority stress. The minority stress theory (Brooks, 1981;Meyer, 2003;Hendricks & Testa, 2012) posits that individuals who hold a marginalized identity, such as being TGD, are subjected to recurrent external stressors in the form of pervasive and systemic discrimination (e.g., financial, legal, housing, health, education/employment; see James et al., 2016), exposure to violence and trauma-particularly sexual violence (James et al., 2016;Shipherd et al., 2011;Stotzer, 2009), and microaggressions (e.g., mis-gendering and dead-naming). These external stressors lead to increased vigilance in anticipation of these stressors (e.g., concealing one's gender identity, expecting rejection from others, avoidance of situations in which discrimination or rejection is likely to occur) and internalization of stigma and transphobia (Ellis et al., 2014;Meyer, 1995;Rood et al., 2016). ...
Article
Individuals who are transgender and gender diverse (TGD) are more likely to suffer from and to seek mental health services for mood disorders. Some literature suggests that TGD individuals, because of pervasive and systemic minority stress, may have more complex clinical presentations (i.e., psychiatric conditions and severity of symptoms) and may benefit from empirically based treatments to a lesser degree than their cisgender peers. However, research has yet to examine individuals who are TGD receiving treatment in specialized, intensive mood disorder treatment despite the propensity for them to be diagnosed with and treated for mood disorders. Using a sample of 1,326 adult patients in intensive mood disorder treatment (3.8% TGD), the clinical presentation and treatment outcomes were compared between patients who are TGD and cisgender. Contrary to previous research, TGD patients were largely similar if not healthier than their cisgender counterparts, including similar depression, quality of life, emotion dysregulation, and behavioral activation, and less severe rumination at admission. Despite similar to better reported mental health symptoms, TGD patients were diagnosed with more psychiatric conditions overall, including greater prevalence of social anxiety and neurodevelopmental diagnoses. Those who are TGD did not experience attenuated treatment response as predicted. Findings suggest that patients in intensive mood disorder treatment who are TGD may be more resilient than previously assumed, or supports may have increased to buffer effects of stigma on mental health, and emphasize the need to exercise discretion and sensitivity in diagnostic practices to prevent over-diagnosis and pathologizing of TGD individuals.
... Studies with com mu nity and online sam ples sug gest that trans peo ple also expe ri ence higher rates of inter per sonal vio lence, dis crim i na tion, and other forms of enacted stigma than does the gen eral pop u la tion (White Wirtz et al. 2020). In par tic u lar, trans peo ple expe ri ence higher rates of seri ous vio lence, assault, and vio lenceinduced injury than do nontrans pop u la tions (Flores et al. 2020;Grant et al. 2011;James et al. 2016;Stotzer 2009;Truman et al. 2019). These expe ri ences can directly result in death or indi rectly lead to pre ma ture death by exac er bat ing phys i cal and men tal health con di tions. ...
Article
Few studies have analyzed mortality rates among transgender (trans) populations in the United States and compared them to the rates of non-trans populations. Using private insurance data from 2011 to 2019, we estimated age-specific all-cause mortality rates among a subset of trans people enrolled in private insurance and compared them to a 10% randomly selected non-trans cohort. Overall, we found that trans people were nearly twice as likely to die over the period as their non-trans counterparts. When stratifying by gender, we found key disparities within trans populations, with people on the trans feminine to nonbinary spectrum being at the greatest risk of mortality compared to non-trans males and females. While we found that people on the trans masculine to nonbinary spectrum were at a similar risk of overall mortality compared to non-trans females, their overall mortality rate was statistically smaller than that of non-trans males. These findings provide evidence that some trans and non-trans populations experience substantially different mortality conditions across the life course and necessitate further study.
... By analyzing the articles, published between the years 1995 to 2022, it's miles easy that transgender people experience an entire lot of problems and troubles at some point in their life. Discrimination is an important problem faced by transgender people (Clements& Nolle, 2008;Stotzer, 2009;Bazargan& Galvan, 2012;Graham, 2014). They are discriminated against in competition in education, employment, entertainment, justice, etc. ...
Article
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It is unfortunate that even after organizing the legal tips and tips to enhance the advancement of the dwelling house of transgenders, they're struggling for survival. Gender equality is the delivery proper of each person whether or not or now no longer it’s a male, female, or transgender. Even after numerous efforts from social engineers and the judiciary transgender groups are subjected to atrocities. Supported the atrocities and discrimination associated with the existence and fitness of transgenders, the researchers conceive to shed sensitivityon the lives of the transgender community of India. The present study attempts to narrate the lives of transgenders with emphasison the problems associated with discrimination, healthcare, employment, housing, self-esteem, and rehabilitation. The researchers used secondary information from newspapers, and articles and found the crucial sub-themes, and referred to the parameters had to make stronger the advanced existence of transgenders.
... The concept of gender-based violence experienced specifically on the basis of trans * identity (GBV-T * ) supports previous research beyond sport, reporting that the majority of trans * individuals face some form of physical, sexual, and/or verbal assault on the basis of gender identity, gender expression and/or perceived gender within their lifetimes (Stotzer, 2009). Transgender people are among one of the most stigmatized and discriminated social groups in society, and are vulnerable to systemic inequities, as well as violence on the basis of their gender identities and expression (Grossman and D'Augelli, 2006;Symons and Hemphill, 2006). ...
Article
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In the context of sport, a growing body of research has reported the prevalence of violence against athletes, including sexual, physical, and psychological violence and neglect, experienced by both women and men in sport. Preliminary research has reported that gender-diverse individuals, specifically transgender athletes, may have a greater vulnerability to experiences of violence in sport, but this remains an under-researched population. In addition to limited research specifically on violence experienced by transgender athletes in sport, there is also only emerging research on virtual violence against athletes, with previous research on virtual violence in sporting spaces highlighting how online spaces are sites that can foster widespread hostility and violence. This study builds on previous research by examining discourses of virtual violence faced by transgender powerlifter, Mary Gregory, following her expulsion from the 100% Raw Powerlifting Federation. This research used a netnographic approach—an online ethnographic case study design. Data were collected from online news sources, as well as social media platforms, including Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube and were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. The data provided an insight into the cyberculture of powerlifting, and the negotiation of space, or lack thereof, for Mary Gregory within this physical culture. Five themes of were generated, including invalidation of gender identity, dehumanization, infliction of derogatory and crude language, accusations of cheating, and being compared to cisgender athletes without nuance. The study highlights the presence of significant vitriol across virtual platforms directed at Mary Gregory and the underlying presence of negative gender-based violence again trans* (GBV-T*) discourse. This case provides examples of virtual gender-based violence and transphobia in sport, a lack of readiness to accept trans* athletes, and concerns for the safety of trans* athletes in sporting spaces.
... The gender public advocacy coalition (GPAC) has gathered data on 51 young, trans and non-binary folks who were murdered between 1995 and 2005 in the US (Wilchens & Taylor, 2006). Their demographic data illustrate how important intersectionality is in these conversations, as most victims were of lower socioeconomic status, were People of Color (91%) or were trans women (92%) (Stotzer 2009). While 69% of other homicides have been solved, only 46% percent of the Gender Public Advocacy Coalition's "50 under 30" (50 cases of murdered LGBTQ people under the age of 30 across a 10 year-span) have been solved (Wilchens & Taylor, 2006). ...
Article
Forensic anthropology is a study within the field of physical anthropology that seeks to apply osteological expertise to legal and criminal situations. One of a forensic anthropologists’ most important jobs is to build a biological profile, consisting of age, biological sex, stature, and ancestry, in correspondence to an unidentified decedent. As we enter the third decade of the 21st century, instances of violence against trans and gender non-conforming individuals are unfortunately prominent, however, there has also been more awareness shed on trans activism. Trans individuals are at a higher risk of being victims of violent crime, and thus, forensic anthropologists have a duty to be both familiar with these trends, as well as adjust our behaviors to be better allies. Forensic anthropologists have no way of discerning gender from the bones of an individual. However, they can attempt to estimate sex through metric and morphological analyzations of the pelvis and cranium and apply those to a spectrum ranging from female to male. It is vital that we value the cross-impact that culture and biology have on one another. Through exploration of methods used with the pelvis and crania, as well as application of queer theories and practices, I establish an understanding of how sex is conceptualized by forensic anthropologists. By applying gender studies and feminist understandings of the sex and gender spectrums to the methods used for sex estimation, I analyze the issues within sex estimation and the possible directions for future integration of gender diversity in forensic anthropology.
... Transgender, or "trans," is an umbrella term often used to describe "persons whose gender identity, gender expression, or behavior do not conform to that typically associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth" (Burnes et al., 2010). Given that gender nonconformity differs from conventional gender expectations, transgender people are often victims of multiple types of violence, discrimination, harassment, oppression, devaluation, and transphobia in various contexts (such as family rejection, bullying at school, at work, and in public spaces and services, limited anti-discrimination laws, lack of adequate healthcare, economic marginalization, and police violence) (Amnesty International, 2005;Bockting, 2014;Bradford et al., 2013;Cruz, 2014;Lombardi et al., 2001;Stotzer, 2009;Toomey et al., 2010;Transgender Law Center, 2016). ...
Article
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Transphobia is a result of the widespread lack of knowledge among the general population, together with prejudice based on irrational fear and hatred, of those who do not fit the dominant, socially established gender categories. Little is known about transgender-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among the Mexican population, due to the lack of reliable, valid Spanish-language instruments. This study presents a Spanish translation of the Transgender Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs (T-KAB) Scale and examines its psychometric properties for the Mexican population. A cohort of 501 adult subjects, 337 (67.3%) women and 161 (32.1%) men, drawn from the general population, answered the T-KAB in an anonymous online survey. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and internal consistency measure were used to determine whether its dimensions were reliable and valid for use in a Mexican Spanish language and cultural context. A CFA including the three original dimensions proposed and excluding one item from the T-KAB Scale showed appropriate goodness of fit indices (χ²(180) = 389.41; χ²/df = 2.16, RMSEA = 0.048, CI [0.042, 0.055]; CFI = 0.971; TLI = 0.966), with Cronbach’s alpha values over 0.85. The psychometric properties exhibited by the Spanish version of the T-KAB support its use for the assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding transgender people in the Mexican cultural context. This instrument offers researchers a brief, reliable, valid, and easy self-report measure to use in further studies in Spanish-speaking populations.
... Research on the prevalence of IPV and sexual violence victimization for trans people is sparse, as large-scale surveys generally focus on the experiences of cisgender survivors (Calton et al., 2015). However, extant research indicates transgender people are at an increased risk for IPV and sexual violence (Stotzer, 2009). Indeed, in their survey of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender youth in the United States, Dank et al. (2014) found transgender youth 'reported some of the highest victimization rates of physical dating violence, psychological dating abuse, cyber dating abuse, and sexual coercion' compared with the other groups (p. ...
Article
Importance Limited prior research suggests that transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people may have higher mortality rates than cisgender people. Objective To estimate overall and cause-specific mortality among TGD persons compared with cisgender persons. Design, Setting, and Participants This population-based cohort study used data from general practices in England contributing to the UK’s Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD and Aurum databases. Transfeminine (assigned male at birth) and transmasculine (assigned female at birth) individuals were identified using diagnosis codes for gender incongruence, between 1988 and 2019, and were matched to cisgender men and women according to birth year, practice, and practice registration date and linked to the Office of National Statistics death registration. Data analysis was performed from February to June 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures Cause-specific mortality counts were calculated for categories of disease as defined by International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision chapters. Overall and cause-specific mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were estimated using Poisson models, adjusted for index age, index year, race and ethnicity, Index of Multiple Deprivation, smoking status, alcohol use, and body mass index. Results A total of 1951 transfeminine (mean [SE] age, 36.90 [0.34] years; 1801 White [92.3%]) and 1364 transmasculine (mean [SE] age, 29.20 [0.36] years; 1235 White [90.4%]) individuals were matched with 68 165 cisgender men (mean [SE] age, 33.60 [0.05] years; 59 136 White [86.8%]) and 68 004 cisgender women (mean [SE] age, 33.50 [0.05] years; 57 762 White [84.9%]). The mortality rate was 528.11 deaths per 100 000 person-years (102 deaths) for transfeminine persons, 325.86 deaths per 100 000 person-years (34 deaths) for transmasculine persons, 315.32 deaths per 100 000 person-years (1951 deaths) for cisgender men, and 260.61 deaths per 100 000 person-years (1608 deaths) for cisgender women. Transfeminine persons had a higher overall mortality risk compared with cisgender men (MRR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.68) and cisgender women (MRR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.27-2.01). For transmasculine persons, the overall MMR was 1.43 (95% CI, 0.87-2.33) compared with cisgender men and was 1.75 (95% CI, 1.08-2.83) compared with cisgender women. Transfeminine individuals had lower cancer mortality than cisgender women (MRR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.83) but an increased risk of external causes of death (MRR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.05-3.50). Transmasculine persons had higher mortality from external causes of death than cisgender women (MRR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.15-6.65). Compared with cisgender men, neither transfeminine nor transmasculine adults had a significantly increased risk of deaths due to external causes. Conclusions and Relevance In this cohort study of primary care data, TGD persons had elevated mortality rates compared with cisgender persons, particularly for deaths due to external causes. Further research is needed to examine how minority stress may be contributing to deaths among TGD individuals to reduce mortality.
Article
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Violence, oppression, and cruelty are as old as human civilization itself. Human identity is multi-layered, and deviation from a specific identity may elicit violence, deprivation, and prejudice in various settings. In many countries and societies, the transgender community is one of the most vulnerable groups due to their gender incongruence. Deeply ingrained cultural norms, beliefs, social ignorance, and practices have transferred violence against transgender people over generations, preventing them from enjoying their fundamental human rights. Key objectives of this article are 2-fold: first, this article focuses on violence against transgender people and rights violation in Bangladesh; and second, the report examines the types of violence against the transgender population and the actors who must be involved in providing a solution. Moreover, this article unravels the current organizational and institutional advances in supporting the welfare and rights of the transgender community in Bangladesh. This article concludes that the absence of a dedicated national policy for the protection and welfare of the transgender population impedes the implementation of necessary measures, which should be facilitated by formulation of an appropriate policy, followed by effective implementation.
Article
It’s easy to assume that a transgender expert would automatically be the best psychoanalytic choice for someone transitioning their gender identity. But is this true? And what exactly do we mean by trans expert? A relational-constructivist framework places tremendous value on uncertainty and ambiguity, suggesting that too much insistence on sameness and knowing can shut down psychoanalytic exploration. Even trying to be a supportive ally can become paradoxically problematic. Working with my trans patients as a non-expert made generative use of our differences, encouraging the development of mutual recognition and teaching me the value of being “expert enough.”
Article
Misgendering – moments where someone refers to, describes, or addresses a person as a gender different to the one they identify with – is a challenge that trans people can face in social interaction. Misgendering is an interactional phenomenon but has yet to be examined for how it unfolds in conversation. Utilizing conversation analysis, we focus on what we term designedly intentional misgendering. We show how speakers utilize turn-design features and sequential placement to mark a misgendering as intentional. We also document how such misgendering is mobilized for different actions in social interaction. Speakers can utilize designedly intentional misgendering to display negative interactional positions towards trans people and related matters. Trans people can respond to such misgendering by negatively characterizing another speaker and their conduct. Our work advances existing discussions around the intentionality of misgendering and trans people's interactional agency.
Article
This comprehensive and authoritative book is written by over seventy of the foremost experts working with the care of transgender and gender expansive patients for gynecologists and those working in neighboring disciplines. Among medical specialists, understanding of the complex reality and medical needs of transgender and gender diverse individuals is still limited. This book offers the opportunity to understand transgynecology in a way that is inclusive and up-to-date, with insights into liaison with specialties such as urology, dermatology, sexuology, physiotherapy amongst others. By contextualising transgender/gender diverse medicine before covering specific issues such as imaging, benign disorders, fertility maintenance, medico-legal concerns and uterine transplantation, this book is truly unique. Aimed at gynecologists, obstetricians, general practitioners, counsellors and all those who work with transgender, non-binary, or gender diverse patients, this book prepares the reader for the prerequisites and subtleties of transgynecology.
Chapter
This comprehensive and authoritative book is written by over seventy of the foremost experts working with the care of transgender and gender expansive patients for gynecologists and those working in neighboring disciplines. Among medical specialists, understanding of the complex reality and medical needs of transgender and gender diverse individuals is still limited. This book offers the opportunity to understand transgynecology in a way that is inclusive and up-to-date, with insights into liaison with specialties such as urology, dermatology, sexuology, physiotherapy amongst others. By contextualising transgender/gender diverse medicine before covering specific issues such as imaging, benign disorders, fertility maintenance, medico-legal concerns and uterine transplantation, this book is truly unique. Aimed at gynecologists, obstetricians, general practitioners, counsellors and all those who work with transgender, non-binary, or gender diverse patients, this book prepares the reader for the prerequisites and subtleties of transgynecology.
Article
Over the last decade, mainstream media sources from the US and UK have shown an increased interest in topics involving transgender and non-binary populations. Yet, their portrayals of such individuals tend to reaffirm rather than challenge cisnormative ideas surrounding bodies and gender. In this article, we consider this ongoing trend within the highly body-centric, traditionally-gendered artform—classical ballet. With a transgender studies and dance studies lens, we analyze current discourse surrounding the recent move for classical ballet companies and schools to adapt casting and training curricula to better include non-binary dancers. Through these analyses we reveal ways media sensationalizes the transgender body by focusing on information regarding hormone therapy and surgeries, and with the topic of ballet in mind, how this transphobic move becomes intertwined with ballet-specific processes of reshaping the body. We claim that although these popular press pieces contribute to a greater awareness of the lived experiences of transgender and non-binary dancers, they simultaneously reiterate ongoing balletic gender tropes that mark the artform as feminine and designate particular body types and movements to specific binarized genders.
Article
Objectives Transgender populations report higher suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts than the general population. This study sought to identify predictors of suicide in individuals with diverse gender identities, including transgender women; transgender men; and gender-nonbinary, genderqueer, and crossdressing individuals within various racial/ethnic groups. Methods Secondary analyses were conducted using the United States Transgender Survey (N = 27,204). The dependent variables were SI and suicide attempts in the past 12 months. The independent variables were gender, race, employment status, transactional sex, exposure to violence, and age. Bivariate, multivariable, and nested models were used to examine the association between variables. Results Findings reveal transgender women to be more likely to report SI than other gender groups. White and Hispanic/Latino participants were more likely to have SI than Black participants. Transgender men and gender-nonbinary groups were significantly less likely to attempt suicide than transgender women, and crossdressers were not significantly different in suicide attempts than transgender women. Increased exposure to violence was associated with increased SI and suicide attempts. Increased age and part- or full-time employment were associated with decreased SI and suicide attempts. White transgender women were more likely to have attempted suicide than white transgender men and gender-nonbinary groups. Asian and biracial transgender women were more likely to have attempted suicide than the other gender groups. Conclusions Findings illuminate differences in suicide among individuals with diverse racial and gender identities and support the call for continued research on mental health experiences of these populations. • Highlights • Suicide ideation and attempts varies by race and gender, including for people with diverse gender identities • Transgender women and crossdressers are more likely to have attempted suicide than transgender men or gender-nonbinary individuals • Suicide ideation and suicide attempts are associated with gender, race, employment, survival and transactional sex, violence exposure, and age
Article
We examined associations between prejudice toward transgender people, aggression proneness, history of family violence, contact and closeness with transgender people, and education about issues that impact transgender individuals. We also examined the moderating effects of contact, education, and closeness on the relations between aggression and history of family violence with prejudice. There were 360 participants (M age = 31.34, SD = 12.47, range 18-75) who completed the survey online. Participants were recruited through social media, websites, and MTurk. Higher levels of aggression proneness were related to higher levels of prejudice. Higher levels of education about issues that impact transgender people and prior contact with a transgender person were associated with less prejudice. In a multiple regression analysis, the strongest predictor of prejudice was education about transgender people and topics. Moderation analyses revealed that prior contact may buffer the effects of aggression proneness on prejudiced beliefs.
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Gender transition medical procedures are effective in alleviating gender disphoria. However, their mechanisms of action are not yet fully understood. Hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) and surgeries modify sex characteristics. According to the biomedical model, perception of one's own sex characteristics is the primary contributor to gender dysphoria. Perception of the person in the wrong gender by others and/or their negative reaction is another (and less explored) mechanism leading to gender dysphoria. In order to conduct high-quality epidemiological studies, it is vital to take into consideration and measure intermediate outcomes, such as the degree of feminization/masculinization and the person's perceived gender. Sex characteristics are measurable, so it is possible to develop a feminization/masculinization scale. However, the task is complicated by the fact that various sex characteristics contribute unequally to the person's perceived gender, for which reason they should enter the scale with different coefficients. While such coefficients might be derived from controlled experiments, gender attibution in the real world depends on innumerable social factors. Reaction by others on the person's perceived gender is an additional factor affecting social gender dysphoria. Determining biological factors affecting the effectiveness of HRT in feminization and masculinization is a separate problem.
Article
This study tests the effects of gender on perceptions of sexual assault in four ways: 1- perpetrator gender, 2- victim gender, 3- the dyadic interaction of perpetrator and victim gender, and 4- gender of the survey respondent. Specifically, we administered a factorial vignette survey to a state-based sample (N = 1,000). Each respondent rated two sexual assault vignettes by a coach, one involving a child and the other an adult. Experimental conditions were randomly assigned to each vignette, specifically perpetrator gender and victim gender. Survey respondent rated the perpetrator in each vignette on three dependent variables: 1- social distancing, 2- severity of punishment, and 3- recidivism risk. Mancova and random intercepts multilevel models were calculated to analyze the individual and interactive effects of gender on the dependent variables. Results indicate that participants were harsher toward male perpetrators, and to a lesser extent, toward perpetrators who abused female victims. Moreover, male survey respondents were also more lenient than females when attributing blame. Overall, the variances explained by survey respondent characteristics was high. This study demonstrates the intricacies to current understandings of gender and their impact on appraisals sexually coercive scenarios, but also the strength of preconceived stereotypes about sexual offenders.
Article
One of the existing gaps in the literature on the commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of children is on transgender (trans) girls. Most of the available literature is heavily skewed towards experiences of cisgender girls. However, there is an undeniable need to understand the experiences of trans children given their unique experiences and vulnerabilities to CSE related to their identity. This article is a case study on the complex interaction between trans identity, peer influence, and other micro, meso, and macro factors that have predisposed trans girls to CSE. The paper is based on interviews with six trans girls, complemented by interviews with four social workers, research notes, and a review of related literature. Data was analysed thematically. Based on the findings, peer groups provide critical support to trans girls, particularly, in terms of trans identity formation, gender transition information, security and protection, and other forms of support. Ironically, they play the contradictory role of priming and initiating them to CSE. Various structural and personal factors have compounded these and predisposed them to victimization. An interplay of macro (societal), meso (interpersonal), and micro (individual) factors have come into play in the commercial sexual exploitation of these trans girls.
Article
Objectives: To illustrate possible improvements in recording of gender identity, we investigated discrepancies between gender identity from medical examiner (ME) death investigations and sex as recorded in the final death record. Design: Evaluation of a database used to record information related to medicolegal death investigation with matching to state vital records. Kappa analysis was used to measure concordance between both systems. Setting: The Portland, Oregon, metro area (Clackamas, Multnomah, and Washington Counties) and deaths investigated by the Offices of each County Medical Examiner between January 2011 and September 2020. Intervention: Epidemiologists identified incongruous data that have significant negative implications for transgender populations. Epidemiologists identified key actions that, if taken by death investigators, death record software, and the federal death certificate form, will rectify harmful data discrepancies. Main outcome measure: Concordance of gender identity and sex in ME data and death record, respectively. Results: We identified 51 deaths in transgender persons; the majority were classified as transgender female (71%). The κ statistic was -0.0657, indicating poor concordance between the gender identity in ME investigation and the death certificate in vital records. Conclusions: Information gathered via medicolegal death investigations is foundational to effective public health/public safety response; MEs and coroners are often the first to document emerging health threats. Discrepancies in official death records impede accurate surveillance of a population disproportionately at risk of violent death.
Article
Within the United States, transgender women face a disproportionate burden of violence, experiencing increased rates of multiple forms of violence compared with cisgender women and other sexual/gender minority groups. Among transgender women, further racial/ethnic disparities in experiences of violence exist. Resilience has been shown to be protective against the adverse impacts of violence on mental and physical health outcomes, yet little is known about unique sources of resilience, coping, and strength among transgender women. Sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with a racially diverse sample of transgender women between May and July, 2020 in Los Angeles. Participants were between the ages of 23 and 67 years. Four participants identified as African American/Black, four as Latina, four as White, two as Asian, and two as Native American. Participants were recruited from a local social service organization. Interview questions assessed social network characteristics, experiences of violence, coping mechanisms, and sources of resilience in response to violence. Deductive and inductive coding schemes were used to identify common themes, and data analysis focused upon experiences of violence and sources of resilience/coping. Violence was common among members of the sample, with every participant reporting a history of multiple forms of violence. Violence perpetration came from many sources, including cisgender male strangers, family members, intimate partners, and other transgender women. Women also reported multiple sources of strength and coping, including engaging in self-care and leisure activities, behavioral adaptations, mentorship/support from other transgender women, and striving to “pass” as cisgender. Despite having faced extensive violence, the participants in this sample were resilient, demonstrating many internal and external coping mechanisms and sources of strength. These findings can inform programs and services that target transgender women, providing participants with opportunities to build resilience and other coping mechanisms to buffer the harmful mental and physical health impacts of exposure to violence.
Article
This scoping review of reviews aimed to detail the breadth of violence research about sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) in terms of the three generations of health disparities research (i.e., documenting, understanding, and reducing disparities). Seventy-three reviews met inclusion criteria. Nearly 70% of the reviews for interpersonal violence and for self-directed violence were classified as first-generation studies. Critical third-generation studies were considerably scant (7% for interpersonal violence and 6% for self-directed violence). Third-generation research to reduce or prevent violence against SGM populations must account for larger scale social environmental dynamics. Sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data collection has increased in population-based health surveys, but administrative datasets (e.g., health care, social services, coroner and medical examiner offices, law enforcement) must begin including SOGI to meet the needs of scaled public health interventions to curb violence among SGM communities.
Chapter
Gender diverse youth and emerging adults in the U.S. experience alarmingly high rates of suicidality. In this chapter we use data from the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, the largest national sample of gender diverse individuals in the U.S., to examine variation in suicidality and correlates of suicidality among gender diverse individuals aged 18–24. Theoretically guided by the ideation-to-action suicide framework, we examine differences in socio-demographic factors, external minority stressors, gender-affirming and transition-related variables, social support, and physical/psychiatric comorbidities, across four gender identity groups: transgender men (n = 3,737), transgender women (n = 2,090), nonbinary individuals assigned male at birth (AMAB) (n = 838), and nonbinary individuals assigned female at birth (AFAB) (n = 5,099). We examine suicide ideation (lifetime and past year) and suicide attempt (lifetime and past year) among those who reported ideation. Our findings corroborate high rates of suicidality among gender diverse emerging adults, including higher rates of suicidality among respondents assigned female at birth. In multivariable models, psychiatric comorbidity is a strong independent correlate of ideation but not attempt, while external minority stressors associated with suicide capacity are strong independent correlates of attempt. We discuss both the theoretical and methodological implications of our results for future research on suicidality among the gender diverse population.KeywordsSuicidalityGender diverseIdeation-to-action framework
Article
Extant research suggests there may be a relationship between sexual trauma and obsessive-compulsive (OC) contamination symptoms. Peritraumatic assault characteristics, such as physical force and peritraumatic fear, are related to more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), however assault characteristics may also predict OC symptoms. Limited research suggests that assault type and peritraumatic emotions may relate to increased OC contamination, yet little is known about how victim and perpetrator demographics and other peritraumatic assault characteristics may predict OC contamination over and above PTSS. To address this gap, participants included 164 undergraduate sexual assault survivors (74.4% female, 16.5% LGBTQ, 35% non-white) who completed a cross-sectional study involving self-report measures of OC contamination symptoms, PTSS, and peritraumatic assault characteristics. Correlations were run to determine independent variables in the ordinary least squares regression predicting OC contamination symptoms. Controlling for PTSS, greater contamination severity was predicted by nonwhite victim race, greater peritraumatic closeness to perpetrator, and injury severity. Assault severity, perpetrator force, and peritraumatic fear were not significant predictors of contamination symptoms. Findings support betrayal trauma theory and highlight peritraumatic characteristics that are important to consider as potential risk factors related to the development or exacerbation of contamination symptoms.
Article
Objectives: To measure the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner, physical, and sexual violence experienced by trans women. Materials and Methods: A National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) Study of 201 trans women was conducted in San Francisco from July 2019 to February 2020 using respondent-driven sampling. Prevalence ratio tests were used to test differences in the prevalence of violence by demographic characteristics including housing status. Results: Among 201 trans women interviewed, 26.9% were currently homeless. In the past year, 59.7% had been homeless, 34.3% changed housing, 60.7% had a housing situation other than renting or owning. Experiences of violence were common: 36.8% experienced any form of violence, including sexual (16.9%), intimate partner (14.9%), and other physical (25.4%) in the past year. Experiences of violence were significantly associated with multiple measures of housing insecurity. Younger age, being misgendered, and substance use were also associated with experiences of violence. Conclusions: Trans women face dual crises in housing and violence. Affordable, subsidized, and safe housing has the potential to reduce the exposure and vulnerability to violence faced by trans women.
Article
The prevalence of experiencing sexual assault is alarmingly high among Transgender and Gender Diverse people (TGD; people whose gender identities and/or expressions are not traditionally associated with their sex assigned at birth) and is associated with various mental health sequalae. Perceived social support has been shown to abate the negative outcomes of sexual assault among cisgender individuals, yet little is known about this association among TGD people, especially which provider of support (i.e., family, friends, or significant others) may be most beneficial. To that end, 191 TGD adults were recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk to examine perceived social support as a potential moderator of the association between sexual assault victimization and post-sexual assault trauma symptomology. Results showed an interaction trending toward significance between sexual assault and support from a significant other. Decomposition of this interaction demonstrated that sexual assault was associated with post-assault trauma symptoms when support from a significant other was low (ß = .25, p < .05) but not high (ß = .10, p = .089). The interaction between sexual assault and perceived social support was not significant for perceived support from friends ( p = .133) or family ( p = .954). Findings highlight the need for additional research on perceived social support as a potential buffering mechanism between sexual assault and post-assault symptomology in TGD people.
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According to J. Caputi, “in mainstream discussion, violent crimes against women are frequently presented as inexplicable and their perpetrators as social deviants ... [Researchers] have argued for an awareness of the sexually political and conformist nature of such crimes and have invented the word ‘gynocide’ to name the range of systematic violence against women by men.” Similarly, crimes of violence and victimization against transsexual, transgendered and cross‐dressing persons are often characterized as either the actions of individuals (males) who do not live within the rules of society, or as being somehow provoked by victims through their deviancy with regard to gender expectation. In each case, these arguments are simply extensions of the traditional discourse regarding violence against women: either the perpetrator is a “mad dog” (i.e. a criminally deviant male) or the victim “asked for it” (via exhibiting the “provocative behavior” of failing to conform to gender role expectations).
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A needs assessment of transgender people was conducted in Chicago in 2001 to assess their HIV risks, health and social service needs, and barriers to care. One hundred and eleven transgender individuals, 78 male-to-females (MTFs) and 33 female-to-males (FTMs), participated in the study. Fourteen percent of respondents reported being HIV-positive; they were all male-to-female and the majority was of color. Risk factors for HIV included unprotected sex and willingness to have high-risk sex in the future. Respondents experienced high levels of violence. Two-thirds of respondents had thought of attempting suicide. Respondents reported a high need for health and social services, particularly MTFs and people of color.
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In this paper we discuss middle-to-late life issues of the transgender and intersex communities. We demonstrate that these mid-to-late life issues are richly complex, full of courage, coping, risk, and resilience, and are grounded in a socio-ecological landscape of systemic actual and perceived violence and abuse. We examine how this socio-ecological environment affects the “normative” mid-life cycle processes. Practical examples are drawn from the author's field interviews and survey research over the past decade. We close by examining the effects of such a landscape on the middle-age life stage and examine its potential ramifications for old age as well.
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Although efforts to improve the documentation of violence based on perceived gender identity have been steadily increasing over the last 10 years, the actual analysis of the reports of such violence has been limited. This article reports on a study that examined 49 cases of violence based on gender identity in Los Angeles County from 2002 through 2006. Although underreporting of such crimes certainly remains an issue, the findings suggested 3 main conclusions: Hate crimes based on a victim’s gender identity are often violent, perpetrators often manifest and verbalize high levels of a variety of prejudices, and transgender persons may be targets of violence for reasons far more complex than simply their violation of gender norms. This article discusses findings about the intersections of race, sexuality, socioeconomic status, and gender identity in the context of hate-motivated violence.
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, syphilis, and hepatitis B prevalence and associated risk factors were assessed among male transvestite prostitutes. Structured street-level interviews were conducted with 53 respondents in Atlanta, Ga, from July 1990 through July 1991. Test results from serum samples revealed that 68% were seropositive for HIV-1, 81% had seromarkers for syphilis, and 80% had seromarkers for hepatitis B. Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that seromarkers for syphilis and Black race were the primary factors associated with HIV-1 infection. The results show that transvestite prostitutes are a heterogenous population and distinct from nontransvestite prostitutes; specific outreach is thus needed. Targeted interventions should address the sexual and drug-use-related HIV risk behaviors of transvestite prostitutes.
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There is a pervasive pattern of discrimination and prejudice against transgendered people within society. Both economic discrimination and experiencing violence could be the result of a larger social climate that severely sanctions people for not conforming to society's norms concerning gender; as such, both would be strongly associated with each other. Questionnaires were distributed to people either through events or through volunteers, and made available upon the World Wide Web. A sample of 402 cases was collected over the span of 12 months (April 1996-April 1997). We found that over half the people within this sample experienced some form of harassment or violence within their lifetime, with a quarter experiencing a violent incident. Further investigation found that experiencing economic discrimination because one is transgendered had the strongest association with experiencing a transgender related violent incident. Economic discrimination was related to transgendered people's experience with violence. Therefore, both hate crimes legislation and employment protections are needed for transgendered individuals.
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To describe the real life challenges and HIV-risk behaviors of male-to-female (MTF) transgender youth from communities of color. A convenience sample (n = 51) of ethnic-minority MTF transgender youth aged 16-25 years completed an anonymous questionnaire including demographics, psychosocial measures, and participation in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Descriptive analyses and analyses of association were used to interpret the data. The median age of participants was 22 years, and 57% were African-American. Twenty-two percent reported being human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+). Prevalence of life stressors among the sample included history of incarceration (37%), homelessness (18%), sex in exchange for resources (59%), forced sexual activity (52%), difficulty finding a job (63%), and difficulty accessing health care (41%). Within the past year, 98% had sex with men, 49% had unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and 53% had sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Substance use within the past year was common, with marijuana (71%) and alcohol (65%) most frequently reported. Twenty-nine percent of participants had used injection liquid silicone in their lifetime. Other injection drug use and needle-sharing behaviors were rare. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, HIV was found in higher rates among African-American youth (p < .05). HIV status was not associated with any other demographic characteristic, psychosocial measure, sexual or substance use behavior. These findings suggest that MTF transgender youth of color have many unmet needs and are at extreme risk of acquiring HIV. Future research is needed to better understand this adolescent subgroup and to develop targeted broad-based interventions that reduce risky behaviors.
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To describe the characteristics of sex workers accessing care at a peer based clinic in San Francisco and to evaluate predictors of sexually transmitted infections (STI). We conducted an observational study of sex workers at St James Infirmary. Individuals underwent an initial questionnaire, and we offered screening for STI at each clinic visit. We performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses to assess for predictors of STI in this population. We saw 783 sex workers identifying as female (53.6%), male (23.9%), male to female transgender (16.1%), and other (6.5%). 70% had never disclosed their sex work to a medical provider. Participants represented a wide range of ethnicities, educational backgrounds, and types of sex work. The most common substance used was tobacco (45.8%). Nearly 40% reported current illicit drug use. Over half reported domestic violence, and 36.0% reported sex work related violence. Those screened had gonorrhoea (12.4%), chlamydia (6.8%), syphilis (1.8%), or herpes simplex virus 2 (34.3%). Predictors of STI included African-American race (odds ratio (OR) 3.3), male gender (OR 1.9), and sex work related violence (OR 1.9). In contrast, participants who had only ever engaged in collective sex work were less likely to have an STI (OR 0.4). The majority of sex workers have never discussed their work with a medical provider. Domestic violence is extremely prevalent as is work related violence. Working with other sex workers appears to be protective of STIs. STI prevention interventions should target African-American and male sex workers. Addressing violence in the workplace and encouraging sex workers to work collectively may be effective prevention strategies.
Article
The call by transgender people for the police to take violence against them more seriously has some familiar attributes. In general it is a violence characterized as hate crime. Transgender activism has highlighted many problems, for example, under-reporting, lack of trust and confidence in policing, lack of police recognition, low detection rates, clear up rates and infrequent judicial determinations of guilt. This activism might be characterized as another instance of identity politics emerging within the field of policing and criminal justice. While we welcome its emergence some scholars have been critical of the impact of identity politics upon policing and criminal justice bodies, suggesting it promotes further social and community divisions. Although we share some of these concerns, in this article we argue that these problems are the effect of particular assumptions about the nature of identity. We offer an analysis of identity politics that seeks to challenge this position, as well as an analysis of empirical data of transgender experiences of violence and insecurity arising out of research undertaken in Sydney, Australia. Our analysis exposes the multiple and simultaneous operation of many different social and cultural divisions at work in the context of transgender identity. We explore the significance of this approach to identity for policing.
Article
To inform the Community Planning Group (Houston, Texas) in setting HIV-prevention priorities, risk behavior surveys were completed by 67 male-to-female (MtF) transgender persons. By self-identification, 58% were preoperative and 48% were self-described heterosexual women. We found this small sample of male-to-female transgender individuals to have high rates of HIV infection, and high prevalence of risky behaviors, intimate partner violence, and suicidal ideation. Twenty-seven percent were infected with HIV. Barriers were seldom used during oral sex and used less than half the time for anal sex with either primary or casual partners. Nearly one-third of the sample reported use of methamphetamines, amyl nitrite or LSD and 40% reported crack or cocaine use. Intimate partner violence and forced sex were reported by 50% and 25%, respectively. Suicidal ideation was reported by 16% in the last 30 days; lifetime suicidal ideation was 60%.
Article
Two Philadelphia-based HIV service organizations and a local university collaborated on a study of health and social service needs of transgender people. Transgender people were the primary resource for the development of the needs assessment survey. In this article, the survey development process, including two discussion groups and two focus groups, are described. Findings on barriers to care, violence, perception of public safety and comfort, suicide and health and social service needs are presented. Total sample size was 81, with 49 male-to-female and 32 female-to-male transgender individuals. Most (68%) were African American. About half of the respondents had thought about attempting suicide. High levels of violence were reported, especially among male-to-females. Health and social service needs included job training/work, dental care, health care, legal services, transportation, education and housing.
Article
A needs assessment (N = 248) conducted in Washington, DC, revealed that trans-gendered people of color are at high risk for HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, suicide and violence/crime victimization. Overall HIV prevalence was 25%, with 32% in natal males (MTFs, i.e., male-to-females). Four predictors for HIV positive status were identified through logistic regression-male sex at birth, a history of substance abuse, sexual assault, and unemployment. Substance abuse was found in nearly half the sample (48%) but only half of those (51%) had sought treatment for it. Thirty-eight percent reported experiencing suicidal ideation, with 63% of those attributing it to their gender issues. Of those with suicidal ideation, nearly half (49%, or 16% of the entire sample), went on to make attempt(s) to kill themselves. Forty-three percent had been victims of violence or crime, including 13% who had been sexually assaulted.Knowledge of the Standards of Care of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association was quite low (9%) and associated with white race, any higher education beyond high school, and access to sex reassignment surgery (SRS). Access to SRS, defined as obtaining vaginoplasties for natal males and chest surgeries for natal females, was just 4%. White race (versus all other races, p < .001) and female at birth (versus male, p < .01) were significantly associated with access to SRS.Use of hormones at some point during their lives was reported by 51% of participants. Thirty-five percent were currently taking hormones, with 72% acquiring their hormones from friends or on the street. Among natal males, 25% had injected silicone.Nineteen percent did not have their own living space, and employment, housing and job training were the most commonly-reported immediate needs of the sample. The results of this needs assessment provide evidence of an urgent need for increased medical and social services specific to transgendered people of color living in the District of Columbia.
Article
This article investigated various aspects of victimization, including reporting practices. Bias incidents and domestic violence historically have been underreported to the police. Few studies have examined the factors related to reporting practices of gay and lesbian victims of either bias crimes or same-sex battering. This exploratory study investigated the reporting practices of gay and lesbian victims of these types of incidents. It also examined whether there was variation by sexual orientation. The findings suggest there may be a relationship between bias and domestic incidents in terms of offenses, medical care, and reporting to the police. Further examination by sexual orientation suggests differences that warrant additional investigation.
Article
This paper explores the experiences of harassment and violence endured by seven gender non-conforming youth in US high schools. Based on a larger research project, it opens an inquiry into the school-based lives of gender-variant teens, a group heretofore ignored by most academics and educators. Breaking violence down into two main types (physical and sexual), this work uses infor-mants' voices, along with 'doing gender' theory, to analyze the experiences of butch lesbian girls, trans teenagers, and genderqueer youth. The author also examines the impact of this violence on their self-esteem, academic achievement, substance use and sexual lives. This paper points out the similarities and differences between gender identity groups and suggests specific areas for school-based and cultural reform that would protect such teens. High schools are institutions that provide a location for dynamics among various groups to play themselves out, and adolescence in the USA is a period in life when many teens become increasingly aware of the differences between them (Eckert, 1989). Consequently, this time is a difficult one for many teenagers, who find them-selves confronting social challenges that were unknown in elementary school. While most young people face some difficulty, youth who belong to one or more minority populations often face additional risks. Because images of homosexuality since the 1980s have become so much more prevalent in the USA than in previous decades, teenagers are now able to associate themselves with 'alternative' sexual and gender categories at younger and younger ages (Burgess, 1999; Human Rights Watch, 2001; Wilchins, 2002). As a result, some youth are beginning their high school years already having claimed a lesbian, gay male, bisexual, transgender, or queer 1 (LGBTQ) identity (Human Rights Watch, 2001).
Article
This paper reports on the social organization of 53 transvestite prostitutes in Atlanta (GA), U.S.A. The central focus of the paper is on the relationship between social organization, social networks, and HIV risk behaviors in three geographic areas. In one of the areas the HIV infection rate was significantly higher than in the other two areas (81.1% vs 62.5% and 12.5%). Transvestites from the high prevalence area are strongly committed to transvestism and, consequently, are socially isolated. They report the lowest income, engaged in passive anal sex, have a history of syphilis and report inconsistent condom use with paying sex partners. Transvestite prostitutes in the other two areas are less committed to transvestism and more integrated into non-transvestite networks. In the area with the lowest HIV rate the transvestites are integrated into the non-transvestite male prostitute social organization so are discouraged from engaging in receptive anal sex, especially without condoms. The differences in HIV seroprevalence as well as related behavioral differences are linked to social organization among the transvestite prostitutes and to their participation in risky sex such as receptive anal intercourse.
Article
Although clinical experience and preliminary research suggest that some transgender people are at significant risk for HIV, this stigmatized group has so far been largely ignored in HIV prevention. As part of the development of HIV prevention education targeting the transgender population, focus groups of selected transgender individuals assessed their HIV risks and prevention needs. Data were gathered in the following four areas: (1) the impact of HIV/AIDS on transgender persons; (2) risk factors; (3) information and services needed; and (4) recruitment strategies. Findings indicated that HIV/AIDS compounds stigmatization related to transgender identity, interferes with sexual experimentation during the transgender 'coming out' process, and may interfere with obtaining sex reassignment. Identified transgender-specific risk factors include: sexual identity conflict, shame and isolation, secrecy, search for affirmation, compulsive sexual behaviour, prostitution, and sharing needles while injecting hormones. Community involvement, peer education and affirmation of transgender identity were stressed as integral components of a successful intervention. Education of health professionals about transgender identity and sexuality and support groups for transgender people with HIV/AIDS are urgently needed.
Article
The variable "gender" rarely appears in prostitution research. Its inclusion raises the same questions brought up with respect to other areas of work: Is there a gendered perspective with respect to the work and are gender inequalities reflected in it? This study examines gender differences in the work of 140 sex workers in the San Francisco Tenderloin. As well as women and men who are workers, we include transgender workers (genetic males who present themselves as women), further accentuating differences by gender. Looking at work-specific characteristics, we find that women do not suffer inequities of income. They are, however, more prone to occupational hazards. Transgenders, who suffer the most societal discrimination, are closer to women than men in their work situation. Examining the sexuality of sex workers, the women are the least likely to enjoy sex with clients. Men report more sexual enjoyment with clients and transgenders are closer to the men in this regard. Few differences are, however, found in sexual pleasure in the personal lives of the women, men, and transgenders. A gender difference that stands out is that the men have more noncommercial sex partners than the women. Again, transgenders are more like the men, although various aspects of their condition make for some unique differences.
Article
To explore the social context of drug use and sexual behaviours that put male-to-female (MTF) transgenders at risk for HIV, focus groups were conducted consisting of African American, Latina and Asian and Pacific Islander MTF transgenders (N = 48) who reside or work in San Francisco, California. Participants were likely to report having unprotected sex with primary partners to signify love and emotional connection, as well as to receive gender validation from their partners. In contrast, viewing sex work with customers as a business encouraged intentious to use condoms. Safer sex intentions with customers were frequently undermined by urgent financial needs, which stemmed from transphobia, employment discrimination and costly procedures associated with gender transition. Participants reported using drugs as a way to cope with or escape life stresses associated with relationships, sex work, transphobia and financial hardship. Interventions with at-risk MTF transgenders should address the interpersonal and social context of unsafe sex and drug use, particularly the unique roles of relationship issues with male partners, stigma, discrimination and community norms regarding sex work and drug use.
Article
HIV/AIDS, suicide, violence, and barriers to health care access among transgender people were explored using two needs assessment surveys conducted in Philadelphia in 1997. A total of 182 people responded to a face-to-face interview or self-administered mail survey: 113 male-to-female individuals and 69 female-to-male individuals. About three-fifths of respondents had engaged in unprotected sexual activity during the past 12 months. The risk for HIV infection from unprotected sex was significantly higher among respondents of color than among white respondents. About one-third (30.1 percent) of respondents had attempted suicide. More than half of respondents had been forced to have sex, 56.3 percent had experienced violence in their homes, and 51.3 percent had been physically abused. Twenty-six percent of respondents had been denied medical care because they were transgender. These findings suggest that prevention services that specifically address HIV/AIDS, suicide, and violence among transgender people are urgently needed.
Article
This study examined the relationship between exposure to transphobia--societal discrimination and stigma of individuals who do not conform to traditional notions of gender--and risk for engaging in unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) among 327 transgendered women of color. Overall, 24% of participants had engaged in URAI at least once in the past 30 days. Individuals who self-identified as pre-operative transsexual/transgendered women were significantly more likely than self-identified females to have engaged in URAI. Although exposure to transphobia was not independently related to URAI, an interaction between age and experiencing discrimination was observed. Among transgendered women 18-25 years old, those reporting higher levels of exposure to transphobia had a 3.2 times higher risk for engaging in URAI compared to those reporting lower levels. Findings from this study corroborate the importance of exposure to transphobia on HIV risk, particularly among transgendered young adults.
Article
To determine the independent predictors of attempted suicide among transgender persons we interviewed 392 male-to-female (MTF) and 123 female-to-male (FTM) individuals. Participants were recruited through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals in San Francisco. The prevalence of attempted suicide was 32% (95% CI = 28% to 36%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis younger age (<25 years), depression, a history of substance abuse treatment, a history of forced sex, gender-based discrimination, and gender-based victimization were independently associated with attempted suicide. Suicide prevention interventions for transgender persons are urgently needed, particularly for young people. Medical, mental health, and social service providers should address depression, substance abuse, and forced sex in an attempt to reduce suicidal behaviors among transgender persons. In addition, increasing societal acceptance of the transgender community and decreasing gender-based prejudice may help prevent suicide in this highly stigmatized population.
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Anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender violence in 2001
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Anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender violence in 2002
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Anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender violence in 2004
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Anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender violence in 2006
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Anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender violence in 2005
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