Article

Canberra's Urban Forest: Evolution and planning for future landscapes

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Canberra, Australia's national capital, is a planned city established on grazing lands in the southern tablelands of New South Wales. Over the past nine decades it has grown into a garden city of 300,000 people. Landscaping was an early priority as much of the chosen site for the city was a treeless plain. Major tree planting began in the 1920's and today the urban forest on public lands contains 400,000 trees from over 200 species in streets and parklands. The species used have changed over time with exotic deciduous trees and conifers dominating early plantings. By the 1970's native species, mostly eucalypts, were planted. Today fewer species comprising an equal mix of native and exotics are used. Trees in the earlier plantings are now mature and given the harshness of the local climate many will come to the end of their ‘safe life’ in the early decades of this century. This provides new challenges for urban tree managers as to how to effect tree replacement that is aesthetically pleasing, ecologically sound and socially acceptable. To assist in this planning a tree data base and modeling system has been assembled. This system – Decision Information System for Managing Urban Trees or DISMUT – facilitates the development of forest-level management programs by allowing the projection of change and work requirements that the result from historical and current plantings over the entire urban forest.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Historical roots were influenced by premodern European traditions of Town Forestry and the City Beautiful and Garden City movements. Canberra provides an urban forestry case study of incorporated trees along streets, in parks, and other green spaces since the early 1900s (Banks and Brack, 2003). ...
... They integrated City Beautiful and Garden City ideas and sought to use native species. Charles Weston who implemented tree plans encountered challenges of growing trees in difficult soil and climate (Banks and Brack, 2003). Weston overcome the challenges by: 1 establishing a nursery; 2 raising suitable plants for the area; 3 ameliorating Canberra's harsh environment through vegetation; 4 establishing an arboretum to test new species; 5 beautifying the landscape by using both exotic and native plants; and 6 conservation and afforestation activities on surrounding hills. ...
... Weston overcome the challenges by: 1 establishing a nursery; 2 raising suitable plants for the area; 3 ameliorating Canberra's harsh environment through vegetation; 4 establishing an arboretum to test new species; 5 beautifying the landscape by using both exotic and native plants; and 6 conservation and afforestation activities on surrounding hills. Tree plantings dating to the 1920s have introduced over 400,000 trees from over 200 species (Banks and Brack, 2003). Species composition has changed over time and waves of plantings have occurred based on the desires of decision makers. ...
Book
More than half the world's population now lives in cities. Creating sustainable, healthy and aesthetic urban environments is therefore a major policy goal and research agenda. This comprehensive handbook provides a global overview of the state of the art and science of urban forestry. It describes the multiple roles and benefits of urban green areas in general and the specific role of trees, including for issues such as air quality, human well-being and stormwater management. It reviews the various stresses experienced by trees in cities and tolerance mechanisms, as well as cultural techniques for either pre-conditioning or alleviating stress after planting. It sets out sound planning, design, species selection, establishment and management of urban trees. It shows that close interactions with the local urban communities who benefit from trees are key to success. By drawing upon international state-of-art knowledge on arboriculture and urban forestry, the book provides a definitive overview of the field and is an essential reference text for students, researchers and practitioners.
... A consultative committee on parks and gardens in 1944 argued for an Australian orientation in tree planting [16]. However, a strong ratio of almost four times the number of exotic species as native species was planted between the 1920s and 1950s [40]. It was not until the 1970s that plantings in some new suburbs were dominated by or exclusively native species [40]. ...
... However, a strong ratio of almost four times the number of exotic species as native species was planted between the 1920s and 1950s [40]. It was not until the 1970s that plantings in some new suburbs were dominated by or exclusively native species [40]. This culminated in the 1980s with large-scale plantings of Australian trees, shrubs and groundcover plants in the Parliamentary zone around iconic national buildings including the High Court, National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery and the new Parliament House, which was completed for the national bicentennial in 1988 [39]. ...
... The 'urban forest' of Canberra is a phrase used to describe the collective of trees within the city. It includes a diverse mixture of species, longevity and age classes, estimated in 2003 to comprise 400,000 trees of over 200 species [40]. Yet, some of the early planted exotic trees (e.g., poplars, Monterey Pines, willows, Celtis australis and Pistachia chinensis) are now classified under legislation as weed species and spread weed seeds into nature reserves. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over approximately 100 years, the Australian capital, Canberra, has evolved in association with the predominant values, vision and cultural relationships of people to the area. The location and design of the city derived from a formal intention to integrate nature and culture for the benefit and edification of residents and in symbolisation of the city’s importance as the seat of national decision-making and legislature. Established on a native grassland surrounded by wooded hills and ridges, and with nearby confluences of rivers as security of water supply, the city’s landscape was transformed through centralised planning and implementation of Garden City and City Beautiful constructs to become one of the world’s most liveable regions. Twentieth-century expansion of the city’s suburbs, tree streetscapes and gardens progressed with varying emphasis on exotic versus native species, and contemporary programs aim to increase urban tree canopy cover to 30%. Yet, there is increasing acknowledgement of the landscape’s rich history of culture–nature interactions extending back at least 25,000 years. Indicators are evident in human modification of tree-dominated ecosystems, the overlapping ways in which people related to elemental landscape features, and a continuity of valuing particular sites for ceremonies, social activities and human movement. With projected steady population growth, climate change, and associated impacts on the environment and natural resources, contemporary planning must be innovative and integrative to ensure ecologically sustainable development. Strong visionary leadership is needed to develop a landscape policy that encompasses key natural assets including threatened woodlands and mature native trees for their intrinsic values and as habitat for threatened fauna, cultural landscape values such as forested montane and ridge areas, and heritage and protected trees. From pre-European to current times, planning, modification and management of environmental and ecosystem values has been integral to enabling local people to sustain themselves. The next challenge is to create clarity about the future of this cultural landscape and enhance the community’s attachment to and stewardship of the city and its landscape.
... Of the 2330 km 2 the ACT covers, 53% of this area is classified as nature park or reserve, creating a contrast of nature and urban living featuring large tracks of bushland within urban areas. In 2002, the population of Canberra, the urban area of the ACT (Fig. 1), was approximately 320,000 people (Canberra Tourism, 2006) who appear generally happy to use the term 'Bush Capital' to describe where they live (Banks and Brack, 2003). However, community concerns in the late 1990s regarding limited tree protection legislation on leased land, particularly for land redevelopment within established urban areas under the Land (Planning and Environment) Act 1991, inspired a debate on the need for tree protection (Environment ACT, 2002a). ...
... The percentage of requests to remove Eucalyptus trees was much greater than for other genera during the months of February (Fig. 4). In 2002, this percentage was similar to the percentage of Eucalyptus trees on public streets and parks in Canberra (42%) (Banks and Brack, 2003). As Canberra leaseholders had access to free seedlings from nurseries that were raising plants for the public land, it may be expected that the percentage of Eucalyptus on public and leasehold land would be similar. ...
... Further work, including an inventory of trees on leasehold land, is required before we can conclude whether the large proportion of Eucalypt tree removal requests is reflective of the number of Eucalypt trees planted on leased land, a result of increased aversion to the genus, or a logical response to the aging tree population. Cupressus and Pinus genera had the next highest percentage of requests for removal, which was about double the percentage of street trees on the public land (Banks and Brack, 2003). ...
Article
Trees on leased land provide an important contribution to Canberra's urban forest and consequently the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Government introduced legislation to protect urban trees on leased land from unwarranted removal under the Tree Protection (Interim Scheme) Act 2001. This tree protection legislation applies to significant trees, classified using size-based criteria, on leased land for urban and other non-rural purposes. Responsibility resides with the ACT Government to preserve and protect significant trees on leased land in Canberra, until such time as removal is warranted and prudent. On Saturday 18 January 2003, 2 years after the introduction of the tree protection legislation, Canberra experienced a state of emergency when major bushfires swept through the bush–urban interface and penetrated into the western urban area subsequently destroying or damaging over 500 houses. There was a substantial increase in requests lodged under the Act immediately after the fires, but by February 2004 the number of requests returned to February 2002 levels which suggests leaseholder response to the fire declines relatively quickly. The percentage of requests approved (88%) remained relatively constant which indicates that the increased number of applications were for reasons that were considered valid under the Act although it is unlikely that these concerns only became valid during the month proceeding the fire. Dominant genera removed each February from 2002 to 2004 were similar; however, Eucalyptus species have shown a small but significant relative increase although there are insufficient data to conclude this increase indicates an increased aversion to this genus. Future management needs to consider the community perception of trees and temporal reaction to major events.
... In fact, it is a slide of Canberra from Mt Ainslie, across to Parliament House, that I most frequently show to illustrate the achievement of an outstanding urban forest -one that has been well-planned and well-resourced. Canberra's urban forest rates highly by world standards in terms of number of trees per capita (Banks & Brack, 2003), which is about 1.3, compared with 0.4-0.5 for cities in the USA in the 1980s and 1990s. ...
... Also unlike many other Australian cities, Canberra is fortunate in having very good documentation of some aspects of its landscapes, particularly urban tree planting, thanks to conscientious early record keeping during three major periods of landscape establishment as identified by Banks and Brack (2003). These periods were led by Charles Weston (1913)(1914)(1915)(1916)(1917)(1918)(1919)(1920)(1921)(1922)(1923)(1924)(1925)(1926), by Lindsay Pryor (post-World War Two until 1958) and by the National Capital Development Commission (NCDC) and its successors (period 1958-present). ...
... These tree records have provided the basis for analysis by forestry associated academics from the Australian National University (e.g. Banks & Brack, 2003;Brack, 2002;Gilbert & Brack, 2007). As well, there are books on trees in Canberra for the general community (e.g. ...
Article
1. Overview This paper imagines how Canberra, the "Bush Capital", can improve its sustainability in a future that presents challenges in relation to human population growth and climate change, including the supply of basics such as shelter, energy, water and food, as well as other attributes of a civil society, such as communication, movement, knowledge and culture. The main aspect under consideration is urban and suburban vegetation, including both regenerated areas of locally indigenous flora and areas consciously planted with a range of plants, such as locally indigenous and exotic plants, including food plants. There is a focus on the components of the urban forest, or the woody plant material, which includes trees, shrubs and vines, but some comments will also be made on grasses. The paper starts by looking at early changes in Canberra's landscapes, the development of the garden city, and some more recent changes in urban trees and vegetation to the present. The paper then addresses threats to landscape and urban forest sustainability and offers some solutions in relation to the identified threats. Threats are considered in major areas, such as: (1) a lack of knowledge about the urban forest and associated lack of vision in supporting and planning for the urban forest; (2) specific problems for trees arising from existing mature and senescing trees, as well as problems in retaining existing trees during densification and establishing new trees on lots with larger house footprints; (3) general competition within city ecosystems for resources needed by trees, such as space and water, and a lack of integration between green and built infrastructure during planning; (4) environmental concerns (such as recognition of a lack of urban biodiversity and reduced availability of pesticides and fertilisers); (5) climate change impacts on the survival of existing trees, particularly mature trees, and restrictions on tree planting where solar access is required; (6) the availability and cost of a skilled workforce to maintain trees and landscapes. At this point, the paper reflects upon urbanisation and the links between people and nature, from both an individual perspective and a city-wide perspective. Current social attitudes towards nature vary amongst people and these attitudes will affect the extent to which plants and natural systems are valued and encouraged within cities.
... The impact of this type of housing development, the changes in household mix, and the pressure to accommodate the growing urban population in existing suburbs have placed significant strain on residual suburban landscapes on private blocks of land, as backyards disappear, to be replaced by houses with rooms often unused by the home owners. The change to the spatial configuration of suburbs as houses increase in size and lots of land become smaller has been variously linked to a range of social and environmental problems, from localised flood risk to childhood obesity, psychological health and social isolation (Banks & Brack, 2003;Brown, 2005;Dixon & Hinde, 2005;Tranter, 2006;Verheij, Maas, & Groenewegen, 2008). ...
... The physical setting of the suburban landscape has generated interest among researchers concerned by the social and environmental impacts of the increased size and density of built form in established suburbs (Banks & Brack, 2003;Gleeson, 2006;Hall, 2010;Thwaites & Simpkins, 2008;Tranter, 2006;Troy, 1996Troy, , 2004Wiesel, Freestone, Pinnegar, & Randolph, 2011). These researchers have, by and large, defined landscapes by their physical component parts and rely on a material understanding of landscapes by categorising different arrangements of structures, vegetation and landform. ...
... Similarly, increased environmental pollution has been attributed to urban densification, creating institutional impediments to effective water management (Brown, 2005). Empirical evidence also shows that changes to the development patterns in existing urban areas has lead to a cumulative loss of urban forest (Banks & Brack, 2003) and increased urban heat island effects (Whitford, Ennos, & Handley, 2001). While the positive social benefits of green space in urban areas are known, but difficult to quantify, the effects of fragmenting and diminishing the urban landscape have measureable negative environmental impacts (Tzoulas, et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The latter half of the twentieth century has seen a dramatic change in the way modern Australian suburbs develop. In as little as 40 years, the Australian home has transformed from modest cottages to conspicuous palatial rendered houses often referred to as McMansions. The impact of this shift has resulted in a reconfiguration of the suburban landscape, as open spaces on blocks of land are no longer synonymous with the traditional backyard, but are reduced to residual ribbons of green circumscribing the perimeter fence. This shift has occurred in a period of increasing awareness of the environmental challenges created by resource depletion, climate change and rapid urbanisation. Yet as architecture, planning and design professions embrace and promote sustainable development practices the built outcomes are suburban homes that are larger than ever with fewer people per household than in any other point in Australia's history. The major consequence of this shift is twofold. Firstly, the goals of planning and development professions to achieve a more sustainable urban form appear to be in contrast to the design and development of detached dwellings in suburbs. Secondly, as a result of this shift, the socio-cultural view of the home and the suburb has also changed. This thesis asks what these spatial changes reveal about our attitudes towards the suburb, the home and living in a world that is at odds with the environmental challenges we face. It explores how the suburb has altered as a socio-cultural space in the early twenty-first century. Recovering suburbia reflects on planning and architecture's role in reframing the suburb from what Boyd referred to as the mundane aspects of creature comforts and irritatingly austere approach to architecture' (Boyd, 1963, p.192), to todays pervasive view of new conspicuous forms manifested through a real estate lens. This thesis examines the recovery of a suburb, after bushfires in 2003, through a landscape lens. It presents the landscape as a conceptual framing tool to explore how society negotiates the appropriation of space and formation of community in a suburban context. It seeks to understand how this case study dramatises some of the changes occurring in western suburban cities undergoing suburban renewal and uncovers contemporary understandings of land, landscape, property and home. In turn it proposes that landscape's role in framing the twenty-first century suburban city has diminished in our pursuit of a sustainable urban form.
... Subsequently, developments in information technology triggered the application of the geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis tools (Dwyer and Miller 1999;Pauleit and Duhme 2000). Street and park tree inventory has been conducted in different cities, exemplified by Chacalo et al. (1994) in Mexico City, Poracsky and Scott (1999) in Portland, Cheng et al. (2000) in Tokyo, Banks and Brack (2003) in Canberra, and Frank et al. (2006) in Greater Melbourne. Goodquality tree information gleaned from tree surveys is a key ingredient of sustainable urban forestry (Dwyer et al. 2003). ...
... In view of the frequent typhoon attack, the empiric tree performance data could recognize species that are tolerant or susceptible to wind damage. Overall, the results hint that future species choice could extend from aesthetic to ecologic and social considerations (Banks and Brack 2003). ...
Article
Surveys of urban forests in the compact city environment of Hong Kong were initiated in 1985 and regularly updated thereafter. Roadside trees were evaluated first in a tree census and reported in this article followed by urban parks, public housing estates, and special habitats such as old stone walls or special specimens such as heritage trees. The survey method aimed at collecting comprehensive data to echo both tree conditions and tree-environmental interactions. Detailed information was gleaned, with the help of well-trained assistants, on tree sites, tree growing space, tree structure, and tree defects and disorders. A field record form was designed, pilot-tested, and refined to solicit responses to multiple choices or direct measurements to minimize subjectivity and errors in data recording and entry. The study also identified potential planting sites, registering suitability for tree growth, site characteristics, and dimensions. Data fields were designed to be quantitative or convertible to ordinal ranks to facilitate statistical analysis. Locations of trees and planting sites were marked on large-scale maps to permit spatial analysis. Besides statistical analysis, community ecology attributes and custom-designed indices were used to assess urban forest structure. The multipurpose method could be appropriately adjusted for use in other compact city areas.
... Canberra covers approximately 800 km 2 , and current population density is 440 people km À2, (ABS, 2010). It is a 'planned city' (MacKenzie & Barnett, 2006), and the presence and composition of street trees has been important since Canberra's inception in 1911 (Banks & Brack, 2003). Initially, tree planting was aimed at creating a 'garden city', with formal, exotic-dominated streetscapes (e.g. ...
... Since that time, street tree plantings have also become more diverse, and informally arranged multispecies plantings are now common. New developments in Canberra, however, are beginning to reflect a changed social and planning preference towards exotic-dominated street tree plantings (Banks & Brack, 2003). ...
Article
Management practices in the landscape matrix can have significant effects on the spatial distribution of animals within adjacent protected areas. This has been well established in agricultural and forested areas, but less is known about how management of the suburban matrix affects adjacent reserves. We argue that it is critically important to understand the impact of suburban management on reserves, as flawed planning decisions can have negative conservation outcomes and waste limited resources.
... For example, in their study, "Canberra's Urban Forest: Evolution and planning for future landscapes", Banks and Brack (2003) ...
... DISMUT is able to track all maintenance work associated with each specific tree for the life of that tree. Using DISMUT, Canberra has been able to monitor and manage some 400,000 trees from over 200 species in streets and parkland (Banks and Brack, 2003). Their research found that using this program proved invaluable in providing specific tree maintenance and health information needed for future tree selection and maintenance. ...
... The DISMUT is a decision information tool developed cooperatively among the Department of Forestry, the Australian National University (ANU) and the ACT Government. It provides details of tree inventories and projections for Canberra (Banks and Brack, 2003). This tool comprises three interconnected components, including a database of urban trees (both in parks and streets), a modelling system, and a reporting and analysis system. ...
... The road survey included quantification of the number of samples that had each type of stress signal (Fig. 6a) and compared the values with the summary of street trees in 1999 (Fig. 6b) (Banks and Brack, 2003). The results revealed that a considerably greater proportion of urban trees manifested stress signals compared with 20 years before. ...
Article
Climate change is affecting tree growth and vitality, including potentially accelerating growth rate or exacerbating drought stress. Physiological and phenological changes of a tree may eventually disrupt the beneficial effects that it provides to the ecosystem (‘ecosystem services’). This research examined how the urban forest in Canberra has responded to climate change in the last 20 years. A road survey was conducted to document the growth of commonly planted trees across the city, which was then compared with a tree growth model (DISMUT) that reflected growth around the turn of the 20th century. The results suggest that urban trees have various mechanisms whereby they respond to climate change, and these mechanisms are partially based on tolerance to heat and drought, leaf phenology and age. In general, trees with high tolerance, evergreen leaves and young age grow faster and bigger than expected, while drought-intolerant, deciduous and older trees are more likely to exhibit restricted size. Water deficit is one of the main threats to tree vitality in Canberra. Species alleviate water deficit stress by forming dead branches or showing crown dieback. However, these symptoms undermine the ecosystem services that urban trees can provide. Urban forest management should be modified to adapt to the changes in trees, including accelerated growth and severe stress symptoms. DISMUT models can be updated to incorporate the systematic deviations in growth to improve predictions and scenario planning.
... Canberra's urban tree programs began in the 1920s resulting in an urban forest of over 200 species [93]. These are delivering significant energy savings, reducing carbon emissions and sequestering carbon [94]. ...
... The ACT Government is the custodian of one of Australia's foremost planned and documented urban forest [93,95] providing opportunities to become a leader in urban forestry education, R&D, scholarship and tourism. These opportunities are built on historical plantings -including the street trees and parks, the national arboretum, and the botanic gardensand the natural regeneration of the ridgelines and reserves [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Around the world cities are responding to environmental imperatives, including climate change, with diverse programs of ecologically inspired design, water re-engineering, habitat restoration and urban reafforestation. These are collectively known as living infrastructure. This paper is based on a review undertaken to identify suitable options for the use of living infrastructure in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Known as the ‘bush’ capital, Canberra is a medium sized city ringed with forested hills and grassy woodlands and has one of the highest rates of planted trees in the world, on a per capita basis. This paper summarises the lessons from investigating the opportunities for urban forests, and other living infrastructure being used to further enhance Canberra’s amenity and climate adaptation strategies. Results Canberra is a planned city with a history of afforestation since its inception, but still has many opportunities to build on its status as an urban forest. Trees offer more than a backdrop to the city housing Australia’s parliamentary democracy and national cultural institutions – they form a key part of the city’s infrastructure. Planted forests, surrounding bushland and constructed lakes have cultural, practical and ecological values and provide multiple benefits, including climate conditioning. However, they face a range of pressures including from urban redevelopment and a changing climate, raising questions about how to sustain and enhance Canberra’s living infrastructure, whilst meeting other urban policy goals. Using the case of Canberra, this paper outlines how living infrastructure – including urban forests - can contribute to meeting the twenty-first century’s urban challenges. Conclusions The experience in Canberra demonstrate that investing in active programs of urban reafforestation and more water sensitive design provide significant opportunities to enhance cities, making them both more liveable and climate responsive. For this to occur at scale, integrated planning is needed that brings together the physical, social and ecological elements of urban systems, including through the integration of different theoretical and practical traditions including from urban planning, energy, transport and water engineering and conservation ecology. At a broader level, this involves reconceptualising the nature of the city and its socio-ecological relationships.
... Its human population reached 350,000 in 2009, and the current population density is 443.5 people km −2 (aBs 2011). Canberra has been a planned city since its inception in 1910 (Banks and Brack 2003), and hills and ridges surrounding urban areas are protected by planning policies. We identified 40 locations across 18 nature reserves (Canberra nature Parks, which form part of the australian national reserve system), separated by at least 0.5 km, where suburban residential areas had been established within 130 m from a reserve, and separated from the reserve by either a sealed or unsealed road (Fig. 1). ...
... Assessing the forest structure and composition of a city centre located in a temperate zone of the Southern hemisphere revealed various patterns: (i) the public land appeared as the principal provider of forest in the city centre; (ii) the city centre can have as much total tree cover as entire urban areas; (iii) an urban forest at the city centre can be highly diverse; and its tree population can be dominated by native species (refer to Fig. 3); (iv) differences in structure and composition of the urban forest at the city centre existed for land tenure rather than land use; and, (v) street type influences the structure of the urban forest at the city centre. Information on tree density, distribution, sizes and species provides the basis for quantifying ecosystem services, valuing the urban forest resource and developing sustainable management plans (Banks and Brack, 2003;Kirkpatrick et al., 2011;Luck et al., 2011). ...
... The survey data could assess tree-habitat relationship and provide the basis to improve urbanforest management (Tate, 1985;Jim, 2008b). The composition and diversity of urban trees have been studied in different habitats, for example public trees at roadside (Chacalo et al., 1994;Poracsky and Scott, 1999;Frank et al., 2006;Sreetheran et al., 2011), heritage trees and landscape trees at public parks, gardens and greenspaces, government, institutional and community lots (Cheng et al., 2000;Jim and Liu, 2001;Banks and Brack, 2003;Jim, 2005;Jim and Chen, 2009;Jim and Zhang, 2013), residential trees at private gardens and grounds (Jim, 1995), and stonewall trees at embedded remnant natural enclaves (Jim, 1998(Jim, , 2010Chen, 2010, 2011). ...
... The recently published studies on cities in developing and southern hemisphere countries are on topics such as development of urban forest in connection with architectural and urban development in Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires (Needell 1995), on market mechanisms for forest environment services to help the poor in Coast Rica, Ecuador, Brazil, and Bolivia (Grieg-Gran et al. 2005), evolution and planning of urban forest for the future urban landscape of Canberra (Banks and Brack 2003), and on forest management of urban national parks e.g. Tijuca Park (Sociedade dos Amigos do Parque Nacional da Tijuca 2004). ...
Article
The investigation of the urban street trees was undertaken in the oasis city Mendoza, Argentina. The analysis included 1,680 urban street trees in their structure (species, age, and spatial structure), vitality and irrigation conditions. A questioning of 120 residents analysed the perception and acceptance of the urban trees by urban dwellers. Different urban structures, residential, commercial and residential mixed structures and the city centre were investigated. The results show clearly the insufficient maintenance of the trees (composition, aging, irrigation, pruning etc.) and damaged irrigation system with leads to a loss of vitality. The questioning showed that easily recognisable problems (insufficient pruning etc.) are more reflected by people than long term problems (irrigation). There is a different reflection of urban street tree problems in the different urban areas, related to status, information level and management. The maintenance and relation to urban street trees was best in the residential area. Not only better maintenance of the trees but also a clearer recognition of street tree problems by residents and by the responsible municipal institutions is urgently needed. A public-private partnership and more environmental education could help to overcome the problems.
... The city supports a population of 375,000 people, which is projected to double by 2056 [37]. Canberra is a highly planned city described as the ''Bush Capital'' because of the extensive suburban tree cover and 34 nature reserves flanking the urban boundary [38]. The city is situated in the ecologically diverse Southern Tablelands region west of the Great Dividing Range. ...
Article
Full-text available
Large old trees are disproportionate providers of structural elements (e.g. hollows, coarse woody debris), which are crucial habitat resources for many species. The decline of large old trees in modified landscapes is of global conservation concern. Once large old trees are removed, they are difficult to replace in the short term due to typically prolonged time periods needed for trees to mature (i.e. centuries). Few studies have investigated the decline of large old trees in urban landscapes. Using a simulation model, we predicted the future availability of native hollow-bearing trees (a surrogate for large old trees) in an expanding city in southeastern Australia. In urban greenspace, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees is likely to decline by 87% over 300 years under existing management practices. Under a worst case scenario, hollow-bearing trees may be completely lost within 115 years. Conversely, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees will likely remain stable in semi-natural nature reserves. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the number of hollow-bearing trees perpetuated in urban greenspace over the long term is most sensitive to the: (1) maximum standing life of trees; (2) number of regenerating seedlings ha-1; and (3) rate of hollow formation. We tested the efficacy of alternative urban management strategies and found that the only way to arrest the decline of large old trees requires a collective management strategy that ensures: (1) trees remain standing for at least 40% longer than currently tolerated lifespans; (2) the number of seedlings established is increased by at least 60%; and (3) the formation of habitat structures provided by large old trees is accelerated by at least 30% (e.g. artificial structures) to compensate for short term deficits in habitat resources. Immediate implementation of these recommendations is needed to avert long term risk to urban biodiversity.
... A good strategy and plan for development and expansion of urban areas keeping in mind the importance of an adequate amount of forest cover is indispensable in the present situation [31]. Collaboration between administrative sectors of the city must be formed for efficiently integrating urban forestry with planning of cities which does not hinder any other developmental objective [5,8,14,40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aesthetically pleasing parks, gardens and city forests in an urban ecosystem provide the much needed hint of nature and natural beauty. Standing amidst the ever-expanding concrete structures, urban greenery is often overlooked in the planning and management of cities. The rampant expansions of urban areas especially in the developing countries is not only taking a toll on the quality of the life of the urban population but also has a tremendous ill effect on the flora of the region. Most of the damage to the urban forests stems from the fact that they are only perceived as a source of aesthetic beauty and therefore are not given due importance. Hence whenever it comes to choosing between a high profit infrastructural development and conservation of nature, the former seems to win. It is the need of the hour to look beyond just aesthetics and understand the various ecosystem services that the urban forests provide. The review highlights few of those positive influences like climate regulation, air quality enhancement, biodiversity conservation and provision of ecosystem goods/products. There are a multitude of services which are provided by urban forests and they should be studied in detail, for them to be incorporated in planning and management of cities.
... Its human population reached 350,000 in 2009, and the current population density is 443.5 people km −2 (aBs 2011). Canberra has been a planned city since its inception in 1910 (Banks and Brack 2003), and hills and ridges surrounding urban areas are protected by planning policies. We identified 40 locations across 18 nature reserves (Canberra nature Parks, which form part of the australian national reserve system), separated by at least 0.5 km, where suburban residential areas had been established within 130 m from a reserve, and separated from the reserve by either a sealed or unsealed road (Fig. 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
New insights into community-level responses at the urban fringe, and the mechanisms underlying them, are needed. In our study, we investigated the compositional distinctiveness and variability of a breeding bird community at both sides of established edges between suburban residential areas and woodland reserves in Canberra, Australia. Our goals were to determine if: (1) community-level responses were direct (differed with distance from the edge, independent of vegetation) or indirect (differed in response to edge-related changes in vegetation), and (2) if guild-level responses provided the mechanism underpinning community-level responses. We found that suburbs and reserves supported significantly distinct bird communities. The suburban bird community, characterised by urban-adapted native and exotic species, had a weak direct edge response, with decreasing compositional variability with distance from the edge. In comparison, the reserve bird community, characterised by woodland-dependent species, was related to local tree and shrub cover. This was not an indirect response, however, as tree and shrub cover was not related to edge distance. We found that the relative richness of nesting, foraging and body size guilds also displayed similar edge responses, indicating that they underpinned the observed community-level responses. Our study illustrates how community-level responses provide valuable insights into how communities respond to differences in resources between two contrasting habitats. Further, the effects of the suburban matrix penetrate into reserves for greater distances than previously thought. Suburbs and adjacent reserves, however, provided important habitat resources for many native species and the conservation of these areas should not be discounted from continued management strategies.
... The proposal centered on Capital Hill and was planned around three main axes: the first is the main axis from south to north, with the central triangular section of this axis as the center of the city, around which are arranged political, cultural, and artistic national buildings; the second is east-west through the Griffin Lake visual axis, with the western side of the Black Mountain as the opposite view; the third is the axis from Capital Hill to the city's commercial and service centers, forming a visual corridor. The third axis is the visual corridor from Capital Hill to the city's commercial and service centers, which also serves as one of the city's main transportation routes [17,18]. The scheme was influenced by the Washington planning, the 'city beautification movement', and the 'idyllic city', and used the topography to set up urban axes, with a network of polygons and radial roads to form a coherent whole. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the development of urbanization in China has entered a new stage with “quality” as its core. In the process of sustainable urban development, urban planning and construction relics are precious historical warnings and educational resources, and in the stage of accelerated urbanization, social transformation, and industrial upgrading, urban sites face severe pressure and challenges for conservation. This paper presents a summary analysis of various international charters concerning historical and cultural heritage in recent times, and analyzes the urban spatial structure, urban functional zoning, and the differences and evolutionary characteristics of urban construction sites between the pseudo-Manchukuo Xinjing plan and other regions of the world in the same period from a global perspective. The city of Changchun is also used as an example to systematically analyze the existing relics in Changchun using a historical-geographical perspective and spatial analysis methods. The results show that, firstly, the conservation objects of Chinese relics are being enriched and the scope of protection is being expanded, but that there is a lack of protection and utilization of urban heritage and its surrounding environment. Secondly, that the road network system and spatial structure of the pseudo-Manchukuo Xinjing city planning are basically preserved, that the urban green space and functional zoning have been changed, and that the architectural relics show a spatial distribution trend of north-north-east. Thirdly, that the urban functional zoning has been used to construct an urban relics protection area in which three suggestions for the protection of urban relics have been put forward: to establish a holistic protection system for urban planning functional areas; to establish a “district-axis-point” trinity protection model to promote the effective function recovery of urban planning and construction functional areas; and to continue the effective functions of the city. This provides reference for the study of modern urban planning ideas and solutions for current sustainable urban development, upgrading of public service facilities, and green low-carbon urban transformation.
... In addition to these broad studies, there have also been a number of studies that have reviewed specific regulation or policy instruments. Yet these studies have traditionally focused on the public domain, such as planning for street trees and trees in public parks or squares (Banks and Brack, 2003;Bengston et al., 2004;Pincetl et al., 2013). Indeed, while the expanding interdisciplinary field of urban environmental studies has made important inroads into understanding ecosystem service provision, biodiversity strategies, and stewardship networks in cities, most of this work has focused on large scale public 'greenspace' (Belaire et al., 2011;Sushinsky et al., 2013;Haase et al., 2014;Churkina et al., 2015;Kabisch 2015;Sander and Zhao, 2015). ...
Article
Trees in cities supply ecosystem services, including cooling, storm water quality management, habitat, visual screening and softening of built form. There is an expanding interdisciplinary field encompassing biodiversity, ecosystem services, and stewardship networks in cities. However most of this work focuses on public greenspace. While much work has been done to demonstrate that trees on private land are an important complement to the public urban forest, and to understand the social drivers of such, less is known about the governance of private greenspace in cities. Private land contributes to a significant component of a city’s tree cover, particularly in cities characterised by low-density residential suburbs. It is important to understand the mechanisms that govern private tree cover, given the pace and scale of urbanisation globally. We combined policy and spatial analysis to examine the influence of larger and denser forms of residential development on suburban tree cover and the scope of contemporary governance measures. We interrogated tree cover patterns in the rapidly densifying and consolidating city of Brisbane, Australia, to show that private residential tree cover is explained by dwelling density, housing age, terrain slope, high school education, and household income. Results show significantly (30%) less tree cover in low-density residential suburbs developed since the early 1990s. We develop five governance principles for reversing the decline of urban trees on private residential property that may be transferable to other rapidly developing cities in around the world.
... This can be attributed to the colonial history of Delhi as a densely planted area, with large parks and large areas of the Delhi Ridge forest. Other studies in cities as varied as Bangalore (Nagendra et al., 2012), Canberra (Banks & Brack, 2003), and Christchurch (Stewart et al., 2009) have similarly found that patterns of historical urban development play an important role in shaping urban tree cover and biodiversity. The analysis also demonstrates the role of public institutions in maintaining large patches of green cover in the Core, as observed in other urban areas including in Bangalore (Nagendra et al., 2012) and Melbourne (Dobbs, Kendal, & Nitschke, 2013). ...
Article
Delhi, the worlds' second most populous city, has experienced rapid, planned and unplanned expansion at the cost of its green cover in recent decades. In this study, we use satellite images from 1986, 1999 and 2010 to map changes in urban and green cover, assess the fragmentation of green spaces, and identify the drivers of change. We find that urban patterns of development have shaped the distribution and fragmentation of green spaces, with the city center containing more green spaces with less fragmentation compared to intermediate areas and the peri-urban periphery. Yet, the city core has also experienced the greatest degree of vegetation clearing and fragmentation over time due to infrastructural expansion, while the peri-urban periphery has shown an increase in vegetation and a decrease in fragmentation due to recent compensatory plantation in these peripheral areas. Forests, archaeological sites, and military and academic campuses have played a major role in protecting green cover and limiting fragmentation in the core and intermediate areas of the city. This research helps in advancing our understanding of the pattern–process relationship between urbanization and land cover change/fragmentation in India's largest city.
... The issue of green areas can therefore be considered through their functions, but also through the services provided by their ecosystems, i.e. the role green areas play in providing biodiversity and the sustainable development of cities. The relationships between green areas and services provided by ecosystems, as well as the problems of biodiversity and ecological corridors linking biotopes and biocenoses, have been undertaken by such researchers as Banks and Brack (2003), Arnberger (2012) and Allen (2012). Other scientists, including Chiesura (2004), and Wu and Plantinga (2003), refer to green areas as subcomponents of the sustainable development of cities. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study is to analyse and evaluate the structure of green areas in Poland, as well as their regional and local diversity. Furthermore, the study indicates how the structure of green areas and its dynamics are determined by forested areas. Therefore, two categories of green areas were delimited: with and without forests. The study showed that in 2004 the ratio of green areas without forest was 0.25%, while in 2012 it was 0.28% of the total area of the country. The forested land accounted for 29.6% and 30.6% of the whole country in 2004 and 2012, respectively. Considering the structure of green areas without forests in 2012 in Poland, it was found out that 29% of their total area was occupied by green areas of housing estates, 26% by recreational parks, 20% by cemeteries, 14% by street greenery and 11% by lawns. In the light of the study it was stated that in the analysed period (2004–2012) an upward trend occurred in Poland in terms of dynamics of changes in the size of green areas, both with and without forests (increase by 13.2% and 2.3%, respectively).
... Another urban forest inventory tool was applied for Canberra, Australia, where in the 1990s a full census of urban trees was integrated into the Decision Information System for Managing Urban Trees (DISMUT) to monitor changes and management requirements for the existing city trees (Banks & Brack, 2003). ...
... There are a number of routes of enquiry that emerge. Firstly, the diversity of Canberra's urban forest (Banks and Brack 2003) with combinations of native and exotic, deciduous and non-deciduous, coniferous and non-coniferous vegetation raises questions as to whether there are measurable differences in infiltration rates under different tree species. Secondly, further indicators of spatial patterning could also be developed alongside the transects, for instance lacunarity analysis (Bastin et al 2002). ...
... Another urban forest inventory tool was applied for Canberra, Australia, where in the 1990s a full census of urban trees was integrated into the Decision Information System for Managing Urban Trees (DISMUT) to monitor changes and management requirements for the existing city trees (Banks & Brack, 2003). ...
Article
Choosing optimal and suitable trees and shrubs in urban areas can minimize the negative influences and increase the positive effects and the aesthetic acceptance by urban residents. Additional challenges in the selection of trees and shrubs are user requirements and growth conditions at urban sites. Therefore, the selection of planted trees and shrubs in cities has to incorporate these location-specific factors. Based on an extensive literature review, more than 390 woody plants were investigated to obtain a comprehensive assessment of specific characteristics by integrating specific urban aspects. Within this study, a database was developed that allows users to simultaneously consider site characteristics and natural distribution, tree appearance, ecosystem services, management activities, and the risks and interferences caused by urban woody plants. The developed Citree database is useful for preventing mistakes in planning, which would otherwise result in high ecologic and economic costs. Choosing the right species for the right location will also increase the floristic biodiversity within urban tree plantings and the sustainable uses of urban trees.
... Similar encouraging results have been observed at Canberra, the national capital of Australia. Massive tree plantation initiated at the beginning of the 1900s has resulted in the transformation of treeless urban area into ecologically rich area with more than 400,000 trees of around 200 species (Banks and Brack, 2003). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cities are aggressively pushing themselves to become global destinations for economic activities resulting in various environmental stresses. The situation in developing countries such as India is not too different either. Cities are reinventing themselves to emerge as a global destination to attract talent, investment and tourism. City Branding is one such marketing strategy wherein key aspect(s) of a city (cultural, environmental, infrastructure, etc.) is used to project it as a brand, thus garnering competitive advantages and co benefits. This article, however, examines the city branding tool in a different perspective. By reviewing branding theories, concepts and case studies, this article explores the possible use of city branding strategy in conserving and promoting green infrastructure. Theoretical assessments undertaken in this article indicate that city branding has a potential to contribute positively towards cities’ developmental aspirations and improving the quality of life of its citizens, leading to an environmentally sustainable urban development in India.
... For example, in Canberra, Australia, prior to 1958 exotic species were largely used in streets and parks. However, after 1958 the National Capital Development Commission (NCDC) assumed responsibility for planning public landscapes and native species began to be used almost exclusively, resulting in dramatic differences in the composition of different parks and streets within Canberra (Banks and Brack 2003). Significant changes can also occur due to pest and disease attack in some places but not others, Dutch Elm Disease eliminating significant populations of Ulmus sp. in Europe and America (Jones 1981) but not in Australia where the fungal disease is absent is a good example. ...
Article
Full-text available
Plants cultivated in gardens, parks and streetscapes are becoming increasingly important to peoples' experience of biological life, and have been the recent focus of research in ecology, invasion biology, human geography and sociology. However patterns of distribution have not previously been explored at a global scale. In this study, global patterns in the distribution of cultivated floras were explored to determine the significance of biophysical and social factors driving species distributions. The taxonomic similarity of 72 published species lists was examined, covering a wide geographic and climatic range and a variety of land uses. Cultivated floras across urban and rural settlements were found to be very different and unsurprisingly to be strongly filtered by temperature. However we found that human behaviour may overcome other physical drivers of plant distribution such as rainfall in some instances. Social factors were also found to be important. Having a different dominant language (a proxy for cultural background) and difference in GDP per person (a proxy for household income) were also related to the dissimilarity of cultivated floras. Differences in both the social and physical environment are related to floristic differences between cities. However, we recognise that other factors identified in the literature but unsuited to meta-analysis, may also influence the composition of cultivated landscapes. These include changes in policy relating to the provision of street and park vegetation, the availability of plants from nurseries and the preferences of influential gardeners and landscape designers. The significance of the relationship between temperature and species composition suggests that cultivated floras are likely to change in response to climate change. The high level of dissimilarity observed between settlements suggests that patterns of potential naturalisation of cultivated plants are likely to be more complex than currently accepted.
... Canberra's urban tree planting programs "began in the 1920s and today the urban forest on public lands contains 400,000 trees from over 200 species in streets and parklands" (Banks and Brack 2003). ...
... Canberra, Australia is very similar to Christchurch in that it was a planned city, was established on a plain essentially devoid of forest and has now grown into a garden city of some 300,000 people. Like Christchurch, early plantings were dominated by exotic tree species but now today there is about an equal mix of native and exotic species (Banks & Brack 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Christchurch, the second largest city in New Zealand is a planned city on a coastal plain on the east coast of the South Island. The birth of the city and the subsequent century of development was characterised by colonial values and tree and garden planting with familiar European species along with those from Australia, North America, and eventually all other continents. The image of an “English garden city” with classical parks of oaks and willow-lined rivers became the accepted norm and the way in which the city has been promoted to potential tourists. Gardening is one of the top two recreational activities and exotic species greatly outnumber native species in the flora and in gardens. This has had serious consequences for the highly fragmented and degraded indigenous vegetation and its co-adapted wildlife. A few hardy indigenous species continued to regenerate through this period, but since the 1970s, there has been a progressive change of attitude and interest in reclaiming the natural heritage of the city, manifest in widespread private and public planting of indigenous species and active habitat restoration. In this article we examine the indigenous and exotic shrub and tree components of the Christchurch flora as planted street trees, in domestic gardens, and in parks. We also present data on shrub and tree regeneration in parks and domestic gardens in the city. Indications are that the more sensitive, less intrusive management of urban environments, combined with the greater density of indigenous seed sources, has allowed regeneration of a wide range of indigenous species across a broad spectrum of habitats – from neglected gardens to pavement cracks to exotic plantations. This is despite the competition from the prodigious seed banks and density of exotic trees, shrubs, and ground covers and albeit minimal impacts of introduced browsing and seed eating mammals. If the present trends continue through appropriate management and facilitation, these tentative signs of native forest regeneration should eventually proliferate into a sustainable mixed origin urban forest that resurrects and preserves the natural character of the region.
... With the selection of Canberra as the site for the new capital of Australia, extensive tree plantings began in 1911. Today, the urban forest on public lands contains 400,000 trees belonging to some 200 species in streets and parklands (Banks and Brack 2003). Melbourne is Australia's second largest city that has a population size similar to Jaipur (3.50 million). ...
Article
Full-text available
"In an era of global climate change and rapid urbanization, innovations on governance of urban systems are critically required as 50% people are now living in less than 3% of the earth’s urbanized terrestrial surface. Without careful production of knowledge, and large investments to link that knowledge to action, cities will be overwhelmed with environmental challenges. Both policy and science now emphasize the critical necessity of green areas within urban social-ecological systems. Here, we review the present status of urban forestry across the world, and draw lessons that can be applied for the governance of urban green spaces during the development of Jaipur as a world-class city in Rajasthan. We find wide variation both in coverage as well as per capita availability of green spaces. There are, however, some discernible trends emerging from cities renowned for their urban green spaces: approximately 20 to 30% coverage of the total geographical area, and 15 to 25 m2 urban green spaces per capita. World Health Organization suggests ensuring at least a minimum availability of 9 m2 green open space per city dweller. Finally, we provide strategies and lessons for connecting science to decision-making aimed at creating multifunctional landscapes to enhance urban resilience and human well-being."
... Canberra, the National Capital of Australia, is a city of over 300,000 people living in a well-treed and spacious environment. The urban forest of this city has undergone several distinct, but overlapping development periods, and today is a magnificent example of what can be achieved with holistic landscape planning (Banks and Brack, 2003). Trees on public land dominate the urban forest and provide a wide range of environmental, economic and social values (Brack, 2002). ...
Article
Canberra is a unique city in Australia where the trees on public land that dominate the urban forest were planned for at the city's inception. In the mid-1990s, a 100% census of street and park trees was completed, and together with simple health, growth and yield models, this database formed the basis of a decision information system to support the management of the urban trees – DISMUT. The accuracy of the models was evaluated in a study in 2005 where models to predict total tree height were found to be unbiased and precise, tree crown dimension were under-estimated for small trees, and tree health was over-estimated. The over-estimate of health may be due to the relatively poor rainfall conditions over the past 10 years while the biases in crown dimension predictions are more likely due to a too simple model form. However, the existence of DISMUT predictions over all streets and parks in Canberra means that statistically efficient two-phase sampling approaches can be used to correct for any bias in the mean estimates of tree numbers and size, and also to predict the mean value of other environmental, economic or social parameters of interest that are correlated to tree size.
Chapter
Old growth urban forests have developed in cities around the earth with human actions that have changed arboreal composition and forest dynamics. For the term old growth urban forest, the concept “urban forest” refers to forests in a ­metropolitan area and “old growth” indicates forest development after a regional forest resetting event such as a war. Urban forestry and ecology literature in English revealed studies of street, landscaped, and remnant old growth urban forests in 28 countries and 62 metropolitan areas. Long-term changes in old growth urban forest structure are primarily determined by human activities causing species losses and arboreal population decimation. Most changes were intended, especially in regard to shifting fashions in species selection for arboricultural plantings; however, new species introductions are frequently not successful over the long term. The unintended or at least unforeseen effects of diseases and invasive species introductions often have caused the most devastating transmutations of old growth urban forests. Reversing impending losses in old growth urban forests that are unable to reproduce because of human modifications of the forest environment requires historical ecology­ research to determine the species composition and environmental conditions for the historical continuity of the forests. KeywordsOld growth urban forest-Historical continuity-Metropolitan areas-Forest resetting event-Arboricultural plantings-Street forest-Landscaped forest-Remnant forest
Article
This paper examines what relationship the landscape and the city have developed in the last quarter of Canberra's first century. It identifies increasingly global environmental and economic narratives that re-evaluate the landscape setting which, over the last century, have defined the urban design legacy of the national capital. Since the 2003 fires, Canberrans have had to reflect and consider the way in which landscapes are valued and resources allocated to retaining the landscape character of the city. In the face of persistent climate change adaption narratives, the community is divided as to whether the landscape is a threat, as it was in 2003, a liability on the public purse or a saviour from extremes of drying hotter climate. This paper looks at a series of reviews and reports that uncover some of the key the issues facing Canberra's landscape. In particular it focuses on the National Capital Open Space System (NCOSS) to argue that debates around these issues define the landscape beyond the scenic legacy of the Griffins' plan. Such narratives have the potential to re-position the landscape as the key organising principle by which the city will develop and adapt into its second century.
Article
Despite the contemporary importance of the Ridge forest to the city of Delhi as its most important ‘green lung’, the concept of urban forestry has been explored neither by urban historians studying Delhi nor by environmental historians. This article places the colonial efforts to plant a forest on the Delhi Ridge from 1883 to 1913 within the context of the gradual deforestation of the countryside around Delhi and the local colonial administration's preoccupation with encouraging arboriculture. This project of colonial forestry prioritized the needs of the white colonizers living in Delhi, while coming into conflict repeatedly with indigenous peasants. With the decision to transfer the capital to Delhi in 1911, the afforestation of the Delhi Ridge received a further stimulus. Town planners' visions of a building the capital city of New Delhi were meant to assert the grandeur of British rule through imposing buildings, with the permanence of the British in India being emphasised by the strategic location of the ruins of earlier empires within the city. The principles of English landscape gardening inspired the planning of New Delhi, with the afforestation of the Delhi Ridge being undertaken to provide a verdant backdrop for—the Government House and the Secretariat—the administrative centre of British government in India. Imperial notions of landscaping, which were central to the afforestation of the Delhi Ridge epitomised colonial rule and marginalized Indians.
Chapter
Cities are aggressively pushing themselves to become global destinations for economic activities resultingin various environmental stresses. The situation in developing countries such as India is not too differenteither. Cities are reinventing themselves to emerge as a global destination to attract talent, investmentand tourism. City Branding is one such marketing strategy wherein key aspect(s) of a city (cultural, environmental, infrastructure, etc.) is used to project it as a brand, thus garnering competitive advantagesand co benefits. This article, however, examines the city branding tool in a different perspective. By reviewing branding theories, concepts and case studies, this article explores the possible use of citybranding strategy in conserving and promoting green infrastructure. Theoretical assessments undertakenin this article indicate that city branding has a potential to contribute positively towards cities'developmental aspirations and improving the quality of life of its citizens, leading to an environmentallysustainable urban development in India.
Chapter
The complexities of forest insects and their needs present complicated scenarios for their effective conservation, whether efforts are directed to single species or wider communities. Forest management can hamper or support practical insect conservation in many ways, and some of the major themes and issues are outlined in this chapter, with examples of how they may contribute to wider perspectives.
Article
Full-text available
Urban green spaces play a crucial role in maintaining the sustainability of a city with the promotion of essential ecological functions to supplement the natural and social environment of the urban area. Preservation of a substantial proportion of the city’s space under green cover has now become a qualification for city planning and design. But the urban green spaces are vanishing out at an alarming rate caused by rapid and unplanned urbanization— especially in India. It has posed serious threats to the ecological equilibrium of the metros. The present study strives to explicate the spatiotemporal dynamisms of green areas in industrially reliant Asansol city as a corollary of its lopsided expansion during the past years. Though more than half of the study area (55.66%) is covers with vegetation, with notable per capita green space of 44.76 m2/city dwellers, but only 0.12% area in the core region of Asansol city is occupied by green cover with a negligible amount of per capita green space of 0.27 m2/city dweller, which is much lower than the international standard. Hence sharp discrimination in the distribution of green space has been observed between the city core and the peripheral region. Land use/land cover (LULC) map (2000 and 2018) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the same years have been prepared to attest the land transformations in spatiotemporal context. The alterations consequent upon the surface temperature has also been appraised through land surface temperature (LST) maps of 2000 and 2018. A drastic change in LULC mosaic with vast destruction of green spaces (from 66.25 km2 in 2000 to 20.41 km2 in 2018) and increasing built-up and commercial spaces has been experienced over the last 18 years (2000–2018). Hence, nearly 14% of vegetated land has vanished during the observation period. Besides, a sharp increment in LST (both the maximum and minimum) has also been found during the stipulated period. The negative relationship between NDVI and LST reveals that the disappearing green spaces act as one of the active factors of increasing temperature during the study period, which has intimidated the sustainability of the natural as well as the social sphere of the city.
Article
Dead trees can occur throughout an urban forest and need to be managed. Standing dead trees that have been made ‘safe’ through regular inspection and the removal of unstable and decaying material are called ‘totem trees’ by Transport Canberra and City Services in Canberra, Australia. This paper is a pilot case study of totem trees in Canberra, employing an innovative mixed-methods approach, which includes silvicultural assessment, focal sampling, ad libitum sampling, in situ observation of evidence for fauna presence, and public questionnaires. It demonstrates that totem trees have significant habitat value because they provide perching, nesting, vocalisation, habitation and feeding sites for birds and arboreal mammals, as well as habitation and food for reptiles, insects and fungi. Totem trees with greater structural complexity appear to be preferred by fauna. The questionnaire findings, from park users and nearby park residents, indicate a generally positive attitude towards totem trees, with most participants perceiving them as valuable habitat for fauna and appreciating their aesthetic appeal. This highlights an important juxtaposition of management priorities: the need to balance structural complexity with providing safe trees. The findings of this study underscore the need to maintain and enlarge the totem tree population given their significant habitat value and social functions. Freestanding, structurally complex dead trees with numerous hollows, branches and bark should be prioritised for conservation. Additionally, the raising of public awareness is recommended to address any ongoing public uncertainty regarding the safety of totem trees.
Article
Full-text available
Because a large proportion of the urban forest grows on private property, it is necessary to have broad community support for urban forestry. As people from all over the world live in Canadian cities, it was hypothesized that people with different cultural backgrounds would have different perceptions of the urban forest. This hypothesis was tested by (1) researching different landscaping traditions; (2) interviewing members of four different communities; and (3) conducting vegetation inventories. Inventory and interview data provided a consistent picture of the four communities. The British community reacted the most positively to shade trees, they also expressed the greatest willingness to plant shade trees, had the most shade trees per square meter on their properties, and were the only group that liked naturalized parks (hiking paths). The Chinese community showed less yard maintenance than the other communities, and many of the Chinese indicated that they did not want to add trees to their property. The Chinese responded more favorably than the other groups to photographs depicting landscapes free of trees. Italian and Portuguese communities emphasized fruit trees and vegetable gardens, and responded negatively toward shade trees when these were in conflict with their gardens. These cultural differences are largely consistent with the traditional use of trees in British, Mediterranean and Chinese landscaping, and appear to be maintained among North American immigrant populations.
Article
By using commercially available simulation software, a computer model for a typical municipal street tree maintenance operation is presented. Variables, such as the incoming work orders, crew assignments and productivity standards that represent the workflow of a service-on-demand street tree maintenance program, were included. Although additional simulated complexities are involved, the developed model provides a foundation from which managerial decision making and a typical tree care operation may be analyzed.
Article
Residents of Melbourne, Australia (n = 192) were surveyed regarding their preferences for 36 trees presented in black-and-white photographs. The findings indicate preference for medium-sized trees with a globular or oval form. Foliage texture also arose as an important factor, with higher preference for trees with relatively broad or coarse foliage. While there was no overall preference for either native or introduced trees, categories derived statistically from preference ratings suggest this criterion may have been a consideration for many residents. Some findings could not be predicted from the published literature, which has largely been conducted in the Northern Hemisphere.
Article
Canberra, the capital of Australia since 1911, has been developed into a modern city from its original site on a nearly treeless plain. Today the city has about 300,000 inhabitants and 500,000 trees. The authors were requested by the managers of the urban public tree resource to survey their asset and to develop a computer-based system that would aid them in anticipating future maintenance requirements and its costs. This paper reports on our response. We have surveyed 3,000 streets and parks in the city, noting the species, number, and condition of every public space tree. We have also obtained the dimensions of sample trees, noting their total height, maximum crown width, height of maximum crown width, diameter at maximum crown width, and height at crown break. A management system has been developed using Microsoft AccessTM. Using standard regression techniques available on the package JMPTM, we found that total tree height was related to age for all species and that all other parameters of interest were related to height or transformed values of height. We assumed a sigmoidal growth curve and calibrated 114 height/age curves to cover the 165,000 trees of the 340 species we have in our database. As well we used the data on tree condition to determine the rate at which populations change from healthy to stressed. By interviewing foremen and supervisors we were able to determine the maintenance treatments carried out in Canberra, the equipment used, and the number of trees that can be treated in a day, for each type of operation. The management system can be used to display the current inventory for each street or park, by suburb, in the database. It can also be used to model future increases in size or crown condition, to predict the operations that will be required as a consequence of tree growth or crown deterioration, and finally, by applying multipliers to equipment and personnel, to estimate the future costs of tree maintenance. Managers can use the system to anticipate problems such as uneven expenditure requirements in future years.
Article
At the beginning of the 1900s, the Canberra plain was largely treeless. Graziers had carried out extensive clearing of the original trees since the 1820s leaving only scattered remnants and some plantings near homesteads. With the selection of Canberra as the site for the new capital of Australia, extensive tree plantings began in 1911. These trees have delivered a number of benefits, including aesthetic values and the amelioration of climatic extremes. Recently, however, it was considered that the benefits might extend to pollution mitigation and the sequestration of carbon. This paper outlines a case study of the value of the Canberra urban forest with particular reference to pollution mitigation. This study uses a tree inventory, modelling and decision support system developed to collect and use data about trees for tree asset management. The decision support system (DISMUT) was developed to assist in the management of about 400,000 trees planted in Canberra. The size of trees during the 5-year Kyoto Commitment Period was estimated using DISMUT and multiplied by estimates of value per square meter of canopy derived from available literature. The planted trees are estimated to have a combined energy reduction, pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration value of US$20-67 million during the period 2008-2012.
The RADHOP systemMensuration and Manage-ment) Conference " Modelling Trees, Stands and Forests Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestra-tion in an urban forest Data collection and management for tree assets in urban environments Landscape of Canberra – A review. Land-scape Australia
  • Banks Jc Brack
  • James Rneds Leech Jw
  • Re Mcmurtrie
  • West
  • Pw
  • Spencer
  • Spencer
Banks JC, Brack CL & James RN (1999) Modeling Changes in Dimensions, Health Status and Arboricultural Implica-tions for Urban Trees. Urban Ecosystems 1 (3): 1–7 Brack CL (1988) The RADHOP system. In: Proceedings of Research Working Group 2 (Mensuration and Manage-ment), Conference " Modelling Trees, Stands and Forests " (Eds. Leech JW, McMurtrie RE, West PW, Spencer RD & Spencer BM): 509–526. Bulletin 5, School of Forestry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Brack CL (2002) Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestra-tion in an urban forest. Environmental Pollution 116: 195–200 Brack CL, James RN & Banks JG (1999) Data collection and management for tree assets in urban environments. Pro-ceedings of the 21st Urban Data Management Symposium " UDMS'99 ". Venice, Italy. 21–23 April, 1999. Published on CD-ROM Clough R (1982) Landscape of Canberra – A review. Land-scape Australia. Vol 3. 220–225 Conservation Council of the South-east Region (2001) Gar-den plants going bush & becoming environmental weeds. Brochure produced by the Conservation Council of the South-east Region and the ACT Government Fraser EDG & Kenney WA (2000) Cultural background and landscape history as factors affecting perceptions of the urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture 26: 106–113
AUSTEP Australian Urban Street Tree Evaluation Program Trees and Shrubs in Canberra How the Canberra camel got its hump: The De-partmental Board's Plan: its origins and consequences. Urban Research Program Working Paper No Canberra following Griffin.A design History of Australia's National Capital
  • G Pennicuik
  • Pryor
  • Banks
G & Pennicuik M (2001) AUSTEP, Australian Urban Street Tree Evaluation Program. Landscape Australia 3: 48–49 Pryor LD & Banks JCG (2001) Trees and Shrubs in Canberra. Little Hills Press, Severn Hills, Sydney Reid P (1996) How the Canberra camel got its hump: The De-partmental Board's Plan: its origins and consequences. Urban Research Program Working Paper No. 54 (July), Urban Research Program, School of Social Sciences, Aus-tralian National University, Canberra Reid P (2002) Canberra following Griffin.A design History of Australia's National Capital. National Archives of Canber-ra. Canberra ACT Chapter 11
Ecological measures of structure and change for street tree populations
  • E G Mcpherson
  • R A Rowntree
McPherson EG & Rowntree RA (1986) Ecological measures of structure and change for street tree populations. Pro-ceedings of the Third National Urban Forestry Conference.
Trees and Shrubs in Canberra
  • Ld Pryor
  • Jcg Banks
Pryor LD & Banks JCG (2001) Trees and Shrubs in Canberra. Little Hills Press, Severn Hills, Sydney
How the Canberra camel got its hump: The Departmental Board's Plan: its origins and consequences. Urban Research Program Working Paper No
  • P Reid
Reid P (1996) How the Canberra camel got its hump: The Departmental Board's Plan: its origins and consequences. Urban Research Program Working Paper No. 54 (July),
Urban Forestry: comparative analysis of policies and concepts in Europe. EFI Working Paper 20
  • Cc Konijnendijk
Konijnendijk CC (1999). Urban Forestry: comparative analysis of policies and concepts in Europe. EFI Working Paper 20. European Forest Institute, Finland
How much wood had your woodlot got? Forest Research Bulletin 217. New Zealand Forest Research Institute Limited
  • Jp Maclaren
Maclaren JP (2000) How much wood had your woodlot got? Forest Research Bulletin 217. New Zealand Forest Research Institute Limited. P 135
Managing diversity in the urban forest
  • D Gardner
Gardner D (1989) Managing diversity in the urban forest. Proceedings of the Fourth National Urban Forestry Conference. Missouri, 1989. P 138–140
Canberra following Griffin.A design History of Australia's National Capital. National Archives of Canberra
Urban Research Program, School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra Reid P (2002) Canberra following Griffin.A design History of Australia's National Capital. National Archives of Canberra. Canberra ACT Chapter 11
Data collection and management for tree assets in urban environments Proceedings of the 21st Urban Data Management Symposium " UDMS'99 Landscape of Canberra – A review
  • Cl Brack
  • Rn James
  • Jg Cd-Rom Banks
  • R Clough
Brack CL, James RN & Banks JG (1999) Data collection and management for tree assets in urban environments. Proceedings of the 21st Urban Data Management Symposium " UDMS'99 ". Venice, Italy. 21–23 April, 1999. Published on CD-ROM Clough R (1982) Landscape of Canberra – A review. Landscape Australia. Vol 3. 220–225
Predicting urban tree benefits and costs using growth models Thesis presented in partial fulfillment of a B.Sc.(For)(Hons) at the Australian National University Evaluation with STANDPAK
  • Ml Wee
Wee ML (1999) Predicting urban tree benefits and costs using growth models. Thesis presented in partial fulfillment of a B.Sc.(For)(Hons) at the Australian National University, Canberra West GG (1995) Evaluation with STANDPAK. In: Hammond D (Ed.) " 1995 Forestry Handbook ". New Zealand Institute of Forestry Inc., Christchurch. 116–117
The RADHOP system Conference " Modelling Trees, Stands and Forests Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration in an urban forest
  • Brack Cleds
  • Jw Leech
  • Re Mcmurtrie
  • Pw West
  • Rd Spencer
  • Bm Spencer
Brack CL (1988) The RADHOP system. In: Proceedings of Research Working Group 2 (Mensuration and Management ), Conference " Modelling Trees, Stands and Forests " (Eds. Leech JW, McMurtrie RE, West PW, Spencer RD & Spencer BM): 509–526. Bulletin 5, School of Forestry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Brack CL (2002) Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration in an urban forest. Environmental Pollution 116: 195–200
Garden plants going bush & becoming environmental weeds Brochure produced by the Conservation Council of the South-east Region and the ACT Government Fraser EDG & Kenney WA (2000) Cultural background and landscape history as factors affecting perceptions of the urban forest
Conservation Council of the South-east Region (2001) Garden plants going bush & becoming environmental weeds. Brochure produced by the Conservation Council of the South-east Region and the ACT Government Fraser EDG & Kenney WA (2000) Cultural background and landscape history as factors affecting perceptions of the urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture 26: 106–113
DISMUT: Decision Information System for Managing Urban Trees
  • James
Canberra following Griffin
  • Reid
Data collection and management for tree assets in urban environments
  • C L Brack
  • R N James
  • J G Banks
Predicting urban tree benefits and costs using growth models. Thesis presented in partial fulfillment of a B.Sc.(For)(Hons) at the Australian National University
  • M L Wee