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Application of geographical information systems to rural electrification with renewable energy sources

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Abstract

This paper approaches one of the main problems of rural electrification: the choice of the most appropriate technology for each case. The main objective of this project is to apply Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to divide the research zone into areas in that are more appropriate for either conventional or renewable technologies. The approaches for choosing among the different technologies are usually technical and economic; these may be jointly considered by the leveling electric cost (LEC). Determination of the LEC is a complex task that requires knowledge of the capacity factor. This paper shows the conclusions of the technical and economic parameter analysis involved in the determination of the LEC for each technology. This analysis has allowed us to carry out proposals of improvement in the methodology of the GIS of rural electrification. The resulting GIS has been verified in the municipality of Lorca (Murcia, Spain).

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... A range of algorithms focussing on cost effective planning methods for universal electrification, incorporating both the economic and networking aspects of grid and off-grid electricity planning in developing countries have been proposed. Among these are the algorithms by [2,5,12,20,21,28,35]. Owing to the complexity and large scale nature of the underlying optimization problem, 3 mathematical models based on combinatorial optimisation techniques are impractical. ...
... However the complexity of the cost effective universal electricity planning problem renders the MINLP model to be NP complete hence it is only able to reliably solve small scale planning problems involving up to 40 settlements only. 5 Although this limit is small, many rural electrification projects in developing countries typically involve sub-regional planning situations involving small numbers of communities considered at a time (e.g. [22,37,39] hence making the MINLP model a practically useful tool in those circumstances. ...
... We however implement both the MINLP model and PA algorithm in GAMS. The codes are available upon request.5 This limit regards running the model on a standard desktop computer with a 4 GB RAM, a 64 bit operating system and 2.70 GHz frequency. ...
Article
Heuristic algorithms have been widely used to provide computationally feasible means of exploring the cost effective balance between grid versus off grid sources for universal electrification in developing countries. By definition in such algorithms however, global optimality is not guaranteed. We present a computationally intensive but globally optimal mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model for electricity planning and use it in a Monte Carlo simulation procedure to test the relative performance of a widely used heuristic algorithm due to Parshall et al (2009). We show that the overall difference in cost is typically small suggesting that the heuristic algorithm is generally cost effective in many situations. However we find that the relative performance of the heuristic algorithm deteriorates with increasing degree of spatial dispersion of unelectrified settlements, as well as increasing spatial remoteness of the settlements from the grid network, suggesting that the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm is context specific. Further, we find that allocation of off grid sources in the heuristic algorithm solution is often significantly greater than in the MINLP model suggesting that heuristic methods can overstate the role of off-grid solutions in certain situations.
... Una herramienta muy utilizada para dar soporte al diseño de sistemas de electrificación son los sistemas de información geográfica (SIG). Por ejemplo, Amador (2005) aplica SIG en Lorca (Murcia, España) para evaluar el "Leveling Electric Cost" (LEC) de diferentes opciones tecnológicas de electrificación rural y posteriormente elegir la mejor alternativa. Para determinar el LEC utiliza una serie de criterios técnicos y económicos solamente. ...
... • Los criterios técnicos están enfocados a sistemas de conexión a la red eléctrica y no a sistemas aislados de generación. Amador (2005) • Los criterios económicos toman en cuenta todos los aspectos de la instalación del sistema, lo que permite realizar una valoración al detalle de los mismos. ...
... • En la mayoría de los sistemas informáticos (HOMER, RETScreen, VIPOR, LAP, SOLAR-GIS y HYBRID2) y en algún estudio (Amador, 2005) la evaluación de las alternativas se basa sólo en criterios técnicos y económicos, aunque RETScreen realiza un análisis de las emisiones de gases tipo invernadero. ...
... Los SIG también están siendo aplicados con resultados muy satisfactorios en el campo de la electrificación rural (Amador and Dominguez, 2005). En este tipo de estudios se comparan tecnologías basadas tanto en recursos renovables como en combustibles fósiles, para lo cual es necesario contar con información acerca de la distancia a la red eléctrica existente, o a los puntos de distribución del combustible (que influirá en el precio final), o al potencial del recurso renovable disponible (medido en m/s en caso del recurso eólico o en Wh/m 2 en caso del recurso solar), sin olvidar la evaluación de la demanda (Amador and Dominguez, 2005;Ariza Lopez et al., 1997;Monteiro et al., 1998;Pinedo Pascua et al., 2007). ...
... Los SIG también están siendo aplicados con resultados muy satisfactorios en el campo de la electrificación rural (Amador and Dominguez, 2005). En este tipo de estudios se comparan tecnologías basadas tanto en recursos renovables como en combustibles fósiles, para lo cual es necesario contar con información acerca de la distancia a la red eléctrica existente, o a los puntos de distribución del combustible (que influirá en el precio final), o al potencial del recurso renovable disponible (medido en m/s en caso del recurso eólico o en Wh/m 2 en caso del recurso solar), sin olvidar la evaluación de la demanda (Amador and Dominguez, 2005;Ariza Lopez et al., 1997;Monteiro et al., 1998;Pinedo Pascua et al., 2007). ...
Book
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El aprovechamiento de la energía solar como fuente energética es una realidad desde el mismísimo origen del mundo, que cobrará una especial importancia en un futuro cercano (presente) debido fundamentalmente a la sobre-explotación de las reservas energéticas de combustibles fósiles. Este hecho provocará que los precios del petróleo, gas natural y sus derivados se multipliquen en varios órdenes de magnitud siguiendo la pauta de “aquellos valores que se considerarían aceptables” para mantener el nivel de crecimiento, desarrollo y calidad de vida de los países industrializados. De hecho no habrá que esperar a un agotamiento de los mismos sino que, como ya sucede en la actualidad, una demanda superior a la capacidad de producción puede provocar que los precios del curdo se disparen al alza. Esto es debido, principalmente, al fuerte incremento de la demanda por parte de los países en vía de desarrollo que están poniendo de manifiesto la insostenibilidad del modelo energético actual.
... The use of innovative research methodologies such as the application of GIS and remote sensing technologies, spatial evaluation and interpolation of statistical and economic data will support and facilitate strategic energy decisions [17]. GIS are a powerful calculation and analytical tool of spatial variables [6]. GIS layers can provide location specific energy-related information that has not been previously accessible to enable filling data gaps in developing countries using remote sensing techniques and allows for the assessment of spatially explicit energy demand information [16]. ...
... Performance assessment using location specific parameters is very valuable since PV system cannot be considered a one-size-fits-all [41]. 6 Vector use geometry (points, lines, and polygons) to represent the real world. 7 Low voltage (LV) cable systems up to 1 kV serve to connect buildings and carry power over short distances of not more than several hundred meters [61]. ...
Preprint
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Solving the hydra-headed economic, technical and institutional electrification challenges in the Nigeria Power sector requires innovative insights that decentralized offgrid reverse auction with solar power plus storage proffers. However, running a successful auction requires a meticulous design with in-depth understanding of the environment and access to data to provide insight on what capacity to procure, locations, costs and regulatory governance. Combining GIS, energy system optimization and market/regulation design expertise, we bridged this knowledge gap. We identified the most populated consumer clusters without electricity access, made load demand projections and determined the techno-economically optimized PV plus battery storage sizes to achieve high quality power supply with some demand side management. Furthermore, we analyzed the land requirements/availability to achieve a shortlist of 233 clusters with 7.2 million people that require 3,280 MW solar PV for the proposed auction. Finally, we discussed the pathway to adapt our design to the existing market/regulatory framework.
... Amador & Dom ı nguez [37] and Amador & Dom ı nguez [38] improved on the methodology of SOLARGIS and demonstrated the improvements in the municipality of Lorca (Murcia, Spain). Specifically, Amador & Dom ı nguez [37] improved on the study by Ariza-Lopez et al [27] by using vector maps of medium voltage lines and housing as well as raster maps of solar and wind resources. ...
... Amador & Dom ı nguez [37] and Amador & Dom ı nguez [38] improved on the methodology of SOLARGIS and demonstrated the improvements in the municipality of Lorca (Murcia, Spain). Specifically, Amador & Dom ı nguez [37] improved on the study by Ariza-Lopez et al [27] by using vector maps of medium voltage lines and housing as well as raster maps of solar and wind resources. The study makes improvements in the computation of the levelized cost for each electrification option. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study carries out an overview of GIS-based rural electrification planning models. The study focuses on web-based and desktop-based models that have been developed and used extensively in rural electrification planning in recent years. Specifically, four of such models are considered: SOLARGIS, Network Planner, the Reference Electrification Model (REM), and OpeN Source Spatial Electrification Tool (OnSSET). We compare the performance of these models and conclude that OnSSET, has better capabilities than the other models. Specifically, we find OnSSET very useful because it is open source. We demonstrate the application of OnSSET in a state in Nigeria, i.e. Kaduna State. The State is selected because of data availability. The result of the study shows that mini-grid solar PV is the cost-effective technology option for most unelectrified communities, followed by Standalone PV. Further, the cost of achieving universal electricity access in the state by 2030 is estimated at US$505.08million while an additional generation capacity of 252MW will be required to achieve universal electricity coverage in 2030. The study concludes that that financial requirement seems to be beyond the capacity of Kaduna State given prevailing economic realities in Nigeria and recommends that pro-poor public-private partnership strategies be considered for electrification projects in the country.
... The use of innovative research methodologies such as the application of GIS and remote sensing technologies, spatial evaluation and interpolation of statistical and economic data will support and facilitate strategic energy decisions [17]. GIS are a powerful calculation and analytical tool of spatial variables [6]. GIS layers can provide location specific energy-related information that has not been previously accessible to enable filling data gaps in developing countries using remote sensing techniques and allows for the assessment of spatially explicit energy demand information [16]. ...
... Performance assessment using location specific parameters is very valuable since PV system cannot be considered a one-size-fits-all [41]. 6 Vector use geometry (points, lines, and polygons) to represent the real world. 7 Low voltage (LV) cable systems up to 1 kV serve to connect buildings and carry power over short distances of not more than several hundred meters [61]. ...
Article
Solving the hydra-headed economic, technical and institutional electrification challenges in the Nigeria Power sector requires innovative insights that decentralized offgrid reverse auction with solar power plus storage offers. However, running a successful auction requires a meticulous design with in-depth understanding of the environment and data access to provide insight on what capacity to procure, locations, costs and regulatory governance. Combining GIS, energy system optimization and market/regulation design expertise, we contribute to bridging this knowledge gap for the Nigeria Power sector. We identified the most populated consumer clusters without electricity access, made load demand projections and determined the techno-economically optimized PV plus battery storage sizes to achieve high quality power supply with some demand side management. Furthermore, we analysed the land requirements/availability to achieve a shortlist of 233 clusters with 7.2 million people that require 3280 MW solar PV for the proposed auction. Finally, we discussed the pathway to adapt our design to the existing market/regulatory framework.
... Data from GIS sources can provide valuable information that can be used in decision support systems because it provides local geographic information [10][11][12][13]. GIS systems can help to identify solar farm locations [13], electrification of rural areas [14] and many other application in smart grid deployments. It is equally essential in offering visualisation of the overall grid including locations of prosumers, DER, power lines, generation facilities, and distribution facilities [8]. ...
Chapter
Urban areas suffer from tremendous pressure to cope with increasing population in a city. A smart city is a technological solution that integrates engineering and information systems to assist in managing these scarce resources. A smart city comprises several intelligent services such as smart grids, smart education, smart transportation, smart buildings, smart waste management and so on. Among all these, smart grids are the nucleus of all the facilities because these provide sustainable electrical supply for other smart services to operate seamlessly. Smart grids integrate information and communication technologies (ICT) into traditional energy grids, thereby capturing massive amounts of data from several devices like smart meters, sensors, and other electrical infrastructures. The data collected in smart grids are heterogeneous and require data analytic techniques to extract meaningful information to make informed decisions. We term this enormous amount of data as big energy data. This book chapter discusses progress in the field of big energy data by enlisting different studies that cover several data management aspects such as data collection, data preprocessing, data integration, data storage, data analytics, data visualisation and decision-making. We also discuss various challenges in data management and report recent progress in this field. Finally, we present open research areas in big data management especially in relation to smart grids.
... In this research, according to the simulation results, the energy output from distributed energy resources (DERs) is maximized while the operation cost of daily system is minimized. Reference Amador and Domínguez (2005) evaluated the economic and technical parameters to facilitate the geographical information system application, which is used to divide the research zone, for appropriate allocation of the renewable technologies. In this reference, the economic and technical parameters in determination of the leveling electric cost process are obtained and all of them have been verified in the studied area. ...
Article
The electrification of current networks is developing to modernize and have a complete smart structure. Rural network electrification as a special part of the power grid will play a vital role in the future smart grid. However, energy management and balancing the supply and demand in rural area have created challenges for the distribution companies. In response to the mentioned challenges, the transactive energy (TE) as a new market based technology is applied to integrate the nine villages and manage the energy exchanging among them optimally. In order to evaluate the effects of TE technology on the rural network integration, three models are considered for analysis of the energy cost of each village and energy not supplied (ENS) in the presence of the renewable energy resources. First model assumed that none of the villages is equipped with renewable energy resources and all their electricity demand is fully provided by the power grid. While the renewable and non-renewable energy resources are considered for two other models. In the second model (individual mode), the villages cannot exchange energy with each other (local transaction market) and they can only connect to the power grid, but in the third model (integrated mode) the villages have an interconnected situation and may exchange energy with each other and grid under the TE management. Simulation results for the nine villages located in India are presented and evaluated. The results investigation indicated that the cost of energy and ENS are improved in the third model in comparison to other models.
... In addition, local communities may oppose OWF projects, even in the proposal phase, because of the concerns about viewshed, noise, vibrations, and impact on wildlife. Previous work has simulates the possible effects of integrating renewable energy generation into the electricity system [92], [93]. However, the location specific characteristics of the connected wind farms such as wind speed intensity and stability, transmission line availability, community acceptance, or environmental variations are not considered. ...
Article
Offshore wind farm (OWF) siting is crucial in determining the success of wind energy projects relative to multiple objectives, including increasing energy generation, decreasing installation costs, reducing life-cycle environmental impacts, displacing pollutant emissions, and reducing visual impact of wind turbines. This study examines the performance across these objectives for twenty siting scenarios in four Great Lakes counties and at various offshore distances. To evaluate wind energy potential of remote sites using wind-speed profiles, the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution of wind speeds at known weather stations was extrapolated using geostatistical kriging (Ch. 2). The best estimate of the shape parameters at candidate OWF locations varied from 1.73 to 1.82, indicating that the commonly used value of 2 may over-estimate the wind speed distribution at wind speeds that wind turbines can generate electricity. Life-cycle environmental impacts of OWFs were evaluated using a process-based life cycle assessment for a 100 x 3MW OWF at twenty sites (Ch.3). The OWF manufacture, transportation, installation, use phase, and decommissioning contribute that, on average, one kWh of delivered electricity from OWFs will lead to global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), and cumulative energy demand (CED) impacts of 36 g CO2eq, 0.012 mole H+eq, and 0.14 kWh fossil fuel, respectively. Another OWF externality resulting from negative visual impacts was characterized and valued by combining viewshed simulation with estimates of willingness to pay data for moving wind turbines farther offshore (Ch. 4). Finally, an integrated assessment of OWF siting investigated the trade-offs between four objectives: energy, economy, environment, and society. The multiple criteria decision analysis with subjective weighting, objective weighting and monetization approaches are compared to illustrate different preferences and values toward OWF objectives (Ch. 6). The results of this study are expected to provide more diversified information of wind energy projects for stakeholders and decision makers. Meanwhile, the findings can inform wind-energy-related policy in order to maximize the benefits of OWFs to the society as a whole.
... Similarly, Amador and Domínguez (2005) highlight the main problem of rural electrification, which is the selection of the most appropriate technology. GIS is used to divide the research zone into areas that are more appropriate for either conventional or renewable technologies based on techno-economic criteria (LCOE). ...
Article
According to the latest Global Tracking Framework (2015), 18% of the global and 57% of the African population live without access to electricity services—a key impediment towards social and economic growth. Accelerating access to electricity requires, inter alia, strategies and programmes that effectively address and account for the geographical, infrastructural and socioeconomic characteristics of a country or region. This paper focuses on considering these characteristics by developing a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology to inform electrification planning and strategies. The methodology is applied to Nigeria in order to identify the optimal mix of electrification options, ranging from grid extensions to mini-grid and off-grid solutions. The case study illustrates how this optimal mix is influenced by a range of parameters—including population density, existing and planned transmission networks and power plants, economic activities, tariffs for grid-based electricity, technology costs for mini-grid and off-grid systems and fuel costs for consumers. For a certain level of energy access, on-grid connections would be optimal for the majority of the new connections in Nigeria; grid extension constitutes the lowest cost option for approximately 86% of the newly electrified population in this modelling effort with 2030 as the time horizon. However, there are some remote areas with low population densities where a mini-grid or a stand-alone solution are the most economic options; deploying some combination of solar, wind, hydro and diesel technologies depending on the locational resource availability.
... Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol They include the algorithms by Lambert and Hittle (2000), Amador and Domínguez (2005), Parshall et al. (2009), Deichmann et al. (2011), and Levin and Thomas (2012). ...
Article
Off-grid technologies are increasingly being proposed as a way of ensuring cost efficient universal access to electricity in many developing countries. However, many un-electrified communities would prefer access to electricity via the national grid rather than off-grid technologies. Electricity planning based on cost efficiency alone could therefore be undermined by political pressure from discontented communities that are assigned off-grid technologies. Using a case study of un-electrified communities in Ghana, we develop an electricity planning algorithm based on hierarchical lexicographic programming and consider specifications where the priorities are adjusted to give weight to (1) cost efficiency and (2) political economy considerations so that communities with larger populations (and therefore votes) are given priority in terms of grid electrification. The results emphasise the need to incorporate the political economy considerations in the national planning of universal electrification, showing significant regional differences in terms of where grid extensions ought to be placed. Incorporating a political economy perspective in national planning also suggests that the most important policy trade-offs shift from considering the grid versus off-grid balance to focussing more on the effectiveness of grid investment in providing universal access.
... In light of the above, it may be assumed that the possibilities of a just energy transition of regions depend on the diversity of local conditions and resources. Therefore, it is justified to emphasise the role of the geographical factor, i.e., specific conditions resulting, on the one hand, from the location of production and services, and on the other hand, an attempt to comprehensively explain the process of changes from the point of view of the nature of the environment, region and place [22][23][24][25]. Thus, the aim of this article is to analyse the coal transition in three Polish lignite regions in the context of their socio-economic resilience, taking into consideration their internal diversity. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article is seeking to analyse the coal transition in three Polish lignite regions as part of the scientific discussion on a just transition, which is a big challenge, especially in the regions and countries dependent on their own coal deposits as the main source of energy. Polish lignite mines are now entering the phase-out of coal, which results from implementing the assumptions of the Green Deal and the Paris climate agreement. The article answers the following question: what is the socio-economic resilience of coal regions in the context of the projected closure of mines in the coming years? The empirical analyses are based on secondary statistical data. The analysis and comparison of basic statistical data, i.e., the level of employment and lignite extraction in three lignite regions in the period from the end of the Second World War to 2017, allowed the authors to determine the phases of the adaptive cycle in which the individual regions are. In the second part of the study, the indicator evaluation method was used in order to calculate the Socio-Economic Resilience Index for individual areas (poviats) included in the coal regions, which made it possible to assess the current resilience and its intra-regional differentiation. The obtained results, which indicate that the regions under analysis are in different phases of the adaptive cycle and reveal their territorial heterogeneity, allow us to assume that the possibilities of a just energy transition of regions depend on the diversity of local conditions and resources, emphasising at the same time the territorial dimension of the issue of the energy transition.
... The spatial distribution of renewable resources, their dependence on the site characteristics and its connection to other spatio-temporal attributes, makes this tool a key element for the planning of renewable energies. This can be observed in multiple studies around the world, among them: Spain [5], India [15], Greece [9], and Colombia [16]. ...
Article
The province of Salta is characterized by its solar energy high potential. The use of solar resource would improve living conditions in the area, diversify the energy matrix, promote more sustainable production systems and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. However, there are only a few studies that describe in high spatial resolution the variability of the solar resource in Argentina. Multidimensional tools, that consider the environment and the socio-economic situation, have to be considered for adequate support decision-making, such as solar collector location assessment and photovoltaic potential. In this sense, a deep evaluation of the solar resource is needed first, as solar irradiation is an essential input variable for the design and evaluation of solar application systems. In this paper, we detail the methodology used to elaborate a GIS tool to support decisions related to renewable energy policies and solar technology design. A comparison between global solar irradiation measurements in situ, empirical models, and data provided by Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA-SAF), is performed in daily, monthly and annual basis for a seven-year period. This analysis validates the use of this satellite data for the determination of solar irradiation in the region.
... The success of the combination of GIS and MCDM systems is based upon the complementarity of both kinds of computational tools: GIS offers the decision maker the possibility to gather, store, manipulate and visualize in a direct manner any geographical information set, which in combination with the MCDM allows the user to organize and evaluate the different options presented before them . Since the first studies, the combination of GIS with MCDM have been used in a large number of analyses involving territorial planning such as urban layouts and infrastructure distribution (Joerin, Thériault, & Musy, 2001;Chang, Parvathinathan, & Breeden, 2008;Sadeghi-Niaraki, Varshosaz, Kim, & Jung, 2011;Coutinho-Rodriguez, Simao, & Henggeler-Antunez, 2011); but also applications with a special focus on renewable energies (Voivontas, Assimacopoulos, & Mourelatos, 1998;Baban & Parry, 2001;Amador & Domínguez, 2005), such as the studies in Georgia (USA) related to the evaluation of tidal energy by combination of GIS and MCDM (Defne, Haas, & Fritz, 2011). Oman, Charabi and Gastli (2011) analyzed the opportunity to install photovoltaic plants by a combination of GIS and fuzzy MCDM (OWA method). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, a model that calculates the impact on the grid of the simultaneous injection of electricity both from photovoltaic and wind sources is presented. The best locations for wind and photovoltaic technologies within Región de Murcia, southeast Spain, have been selected from a GIS database and evaluated and classified using a fuzzy version of the multicriteria decision method called Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). After the classification, the best locations are selected for each technology. Then, the impact on the grid arising from the injection of power generated in wind of photovoltaic systems installed at these specific locations and that are connected to the grid has been calculated in a power range of several kWp, including random steps of up to 50kW. The results show that stable grid parameters are obtained within 500ms in all cases, even when this relatively large power surge (or variation) is considered.
... In relation to current 2D and 3D energy mapping techniques (e.g. [5,61,67,68]), we developed a 4D interface to facilitate the spatiotemporal analysis of energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts. In Fig. 8 and Fig. 9, we present the continuous representation of power and temperature requirements for space heating in buildings for four zones of the area of analysis. ...
... Hybrid systems that combine an adequate proportion of each local resource and provide more security of supply are one of the most recommended options (Amador and Dominguez, 2005) since each technology complements to each other (Zhou et al., 2010). Specifically hybrid systems that use PV and wind generators are increasingly been used (Deshmukh and Deshmukh, 2008). ...
Article
When electrifying isolated rural communities, usually standardized solutions have been implemented using the same technology at all the points. However these solutions are not always appropriate to the community and its population. This article aims to describe the technical design of the electrification system of the community of Alto Peru (in the region of Cajamarca, Peru), where the adequate technology was used at each area according to micro-scale resource evaluation and the socioeconomic requirements of the population. Specifically four technologies were implemented: wind microgrids in highlands, a micro-hydro power plant in the presence of a waterfall, a PV microgrid in a group of points sheltered from the wind and individual PV systems in scattered points with low wind potential. This project brought electricity to 58 households, a health center, a school, a church, two restaurants and two shops.
... Several focused on creating and/or locating solar profile data for use in solar energy conversion predictions and were useful to gain understanding of solar radiation and how it relates to PV electrical conversion [14,15]. Amador and Dominguez [16] focused on the use of geographic information as a source of data for decision support analysis. A paper by Karki and Billington [17] on evaluating the cost/reliability implications was also consulted. ...
... The collaboration established with UPM (Polytechnic University of Madrid) stood the framework for a significant improvement. [Amador, J., et al., 2005] The objective was to minimise and/or control the uncertainties through the in depth study of the technical and economic parameters involved, focusing on load treatment, results control and interface design. Special mention needs to be paid to the spatial sensitivity analysis implemented to check the stability of the results [Amador, J., et al., 2006]. ...
... Application of GIS methodology for assessment of rural electrification planning is studied by Dominguez and Amador, who considered only technical aspects and electricity costs of system performance. This type of approach might be convenient for rural areas in developing countries, but it has limited applicability due to lack of reliable data [226,227]. Rural electrification has also been included in applications using complex energy models. For example, Kanagawa and Nakata used an energy model based on partial equilibrium approach in conjunction with regression analysis to assess the impact of electricity-based lighting on literacy rates in low income households of a region in India [228]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rising concern about the effect of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on climate change is pushing national governments and the international community to achieve sustainable development in an economy that is less dependent on carbon emitting activities – a vision that is usually termed a “low-carbon society” (LCS). Since the utilization of energy resources is the main source of GHG emissions, restructuring current energy systems in order to incorporate low-carbon energy technologies is essential for the realization of the LCS vision. Energy policies promoting the penetration of these technologies must view the role of energy in society as a system, composed of several energy resources, conversion technologies and energy demand sectors. The feasibility of the LCS in the future can be better understood by means of energy models. Energy models are valuable mathematical tools based on the systems approach. They have been applied to aid decision-making in energy planning, to analyze energy policies and to analyze the implications arising from the introduction of technologies. The design of the LCS requires innovative energy systems considering a trans-disciplinary approach that integrates multi-dimensional elements, related to social, economic, and environmental aspects. This paper reviews the application of energy models considering scenarios towards an LCS under the energy systems approach. The models reviewed consider the utilization of waste for energy, the penetration of clean coal technologies, transportation sector models as a sample of sectoral approaches, and models related to energy-for-development issues in rural areas of developing countries.
... Although it is not possible to quantify all of these criteria, their evaluation to minimize the consumption of material and energy requires integration of a significant amount of information, which makes utilizing GIS tools extremely beneficial [12]. For the last 20 years GIS applications have been successfully used to assess environmental and economic constraints, and to select suitable sites for energy projects131415161718192021222324252627282930. The suitability of GIS to serve for this purpose was proposed earlier [12], while its performance and shortcomings having been evaluated more recently [31]. ...
Article
A multi-criteria assessment methodology that accounts for the physical, environmental and socioeconomic constraints is proposed to assist in the selection of the most suitable locations for tidal stream power conversion projects. For this purpose, the tidal stream power resource data are incorporated into a Geographical Information System (GIS) database together with datasets that are related to different aspects of the site selection methodology. The proposed method is applied to the Georgia coast to find and rank the best locations for power conversion. The suitable areas are narrowed down to a subset of the high power density areas that satisfy the constraints of a tidal stream power conversion scheme. A demonstrative ranking procedure with equal weighting factors for all criteria shows that the Savannah, Ogeeche, Canoochee and Medway Rivers and the Cumberland Sound have the best locations for tidal power conversion on the coast of Georgia. This methodology is also applicable to other sites where sufficient geospatial data are available.
... Estes sistemas têm a capacidade de efectuar operações sobre grelhas de pontos, tais como álgebra de mapas, cálculo de distâncias, aplicação de funções, áreas de influência/acção, entre outras. Amador e Domínguez [2005] realizaram um estudo para identificação de tecnologias a instalar (fotovoltaica, híbrido fotovoltaica-eólica, eólica-diesel) em diversas áreas da província de Múrcia em Espanha. Estes autores recorreram a um sistema de informação geográfica onde introduziram um variado conjunto de informação -densidade demográfica, potencial eólico, potencial solar -e determinaram o parâmetro económico LCOE (Levelized cost of energy) de forma a poder definir a melhor tecnologia a instalar na área em análise. ...
Thesis
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In recent years the concern of government entities with global warming originated several measures to reduce greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere and the dependence on fossil fuels. Also, the concern in reducing electricity consumption has led to the search for alternative solutions for energy generation and for measures to raise awareness in the societies for resources and power savings. In this context, concepts as Smart Cities and Sustainable Cities have emerged in the recent years, which naturally lead to the use of renewable energies systems for electricity production. However, it is necessary to develop methodologies for the characterization and quantification of the urban renewable potential in order to promote a suitable management of the existing resources and a sustainable urban development. Although the characterization of solar potential can now be performed by using tools integrated in Geographic Information Systems, its quantification in a Smart Cities context still needs structured methodologies. The urban wind resource assessment is a widely debated topic among the researchers in areas that are dedicated to the study of the wind in such environments. This is a topic that still needs further discussion before reliable, simple and less costly methodologies are available. Costs associated with conducting wind measurements campaigns are high compared to the cost of wind turbines. In the same way, the risk associated with the installation of a wind turbine in a wrong location, is also high. This thesis presents methodologies for simple and less expensive application that enable the characterization and quantification of the urban renewable potential for the installation of electricity production systems. These methodologies were applied to two case studies, which evaluated and quantified the renewable potential in the areas under study. Methodologies and tools are here presented, as well as the results obtained for each urban area. These methodologies may be replicated to other cities being a contribution to the planning of renewable energies in urban and built areas in a Smart Cities context.
... In this direction, Amador et al [19] highlight a major problem of rural electrification, which is the selection of the most suitable technology. GIS is used to categorize zones into areas that are more appropriate for either conventional or renewable technologies based on techno-economic criteria. ...
Article
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In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Agenda 2030, which comprises a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined by 169 targets. 'Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030' is the seventh goal (SDG7). While access to energy refers to more than electricity, the latter is the central focus of this work. According to the World Bank's 2015 Global Tracking Framework, roughly 15% of the world's population (or 1.1 billion people) lack access to electricity, and many more rely on poor quality electricity services. The majority of those without access (87%) reside in rural areas. This paper presents results of a geographic information systems approach coupled with open access data. We present least-cost electrification strategies on a country-by-country basis for Sub-Saharan Africa. The electrification options include grid extension, mini-grid and stand-alone systems for rural, peri-urban, and urban contexts across the economy. At low levels of electricity demand there is a strong penetration of standalone technologies. However, higher electricity demand levels move the favourable electrification option from stand-alone systems to mini grid and to grid extensions.
... The electricity consumption per electric bus, between 43 MWh/ year and 50 MWh/year, would require an average capacity of 5e6 kW. The charging of the batteries could take place during the early morning (during the off-peak load and after daily operation) with renewable sources, stored energy, or even energy imported from the national grid. ...
Article
Despite generally having significant renewable energy potential, islands tend to depend on imported fossil fuels with volatile prices. This paper aims to provide technical inputs for reorganizing the energy planning for Ometepe Island. The result of the wind and solar resource assessments indicates wind power densities of 147 W/m2 and 178 W/m2 at elevations of 80 m and 120 m, respectively, and an irradiation level of 5.3 kWh/m2/day. The estimated wind LCOEs are significantly lower than current diesel plant operating prices. Photovoltaic systems will probably become cost-effective 15 years from now for all non-subsidized end customers. However, it would be necessary to store energy to phase out diesel generation, and analyses were conducted to determine the possibility of a pumped-storage hydro plant. The annual biogas potential was estimated as ∼550,000 Nm3, and in conjunction with electric stoves, it could be used to replace other fuels for cooking. Electric buses are an option for replacing the current diesel-run public buses, but advantageous financial conditions and reorganization of the bus schedules would be required. Also, a street lighting program was found to be cost-effective. The renewable energy transformation of the island might act as a role model for energy transition in Nicaragua.
... Interest in space-based decision-support systems has increased more recently as more people with concerns about it. GIS has been developed and its and used extensively in various scientific and technical fields, including their application the environment, renewable energies, and natural resources [1][2][3][4][5]. ...
... This first version was improvement later to SOLARGIS II, in the frame of the collaboration established between the CIEMAT and UPM (Polytechnic University of Madrid). The aim of this collaboration was to determine the grade of uncertainty of the results provided by SOLARGIS and to develop a new application with high certainty in the results quality [Amador, 2000, Amador & Domínguez, 2005. Special mention needs to be paid to the spatial sensitivity analysis implemented to check the stability of the results [Amador & Domínguez, 2006]. ...
Article
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Energy access is a crucial step for the socioeconomic development of isolated communities and for preventing disease and fight pandemics across many parts of the world. In this research, is presented a freeware GIS tool for the techno-economic evaluation of rural electrification alternatives, based on a plugin for the QGIS (Quantum GIS) called LECGIS. The tool carries out an implementation of the IntiGIS model to perform the calculations, a flexible model capable of adapting to the realities of different scenarios. In addition, it allows the clustering of isolated houses, for a better modelling of the cost of the centralized systems. It is described the application of this tool in the Guamá (Cuba) case study and the comparisons of the results with the obtained in Intigis 1.0. It is concluded that the LECGIS plugin allows to calculate and compare seven technological options for the electrification of communities, supporting the decision-making in the planning of rural electrification projects.
... The GIS framework provides a set of tools for input, consultation, analysis and data editing, creation of thematic maps and manipulation of spatially referenced data. These systems intervene prominently in a multitude of territorial research studies with various objectives, such as solving problems of planning and land management (Amador and Domínguez, 2005;Baban and Parry, 2001) and providing the ability to predict and evaluate their impact (Molina-Ruiz et al., 2011). ...
Article
The new European regulatory requirements incorporate territorial livestock planning as a key element to correct risks for the sector, for the nearby population and for the environment. The risk potential is high in areas with greater livestock density, and in addition, its detection is more complex. The objective of this study is to propose and validate a methodology to assess the risk of livestock farms, considering sectorial, social and environmental criteria. The methodology is based on the integration of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and multicriteria tools. GIS is essential to obtain spatial data due to the location of the farms and to represent the results of the multicriteria analysis geographically. PROMETHEE, a multicriteria outranking method, has been applied to evaluate the risks of livestock farms, where the weights of different criteria have been obtained by using the AHP method from a group of experts. The method has also been applied to a region with areas of high cattle density with intensive production systems, composed of 4983 farms from the following species: cattle, horses, pigs, poultry, rabbits, sheep and goats. The region studied is the Valencian Community (VC) in the east of Spain. The results provide a global risk indicator for each livestock farm, which assesses the sectorial, environmental and social risks. In addition, the most problematic areas and livestock species for the region have been identified, which are characterized by intensive livestock farms. These results provide valuable information to design and apply better sectorial, social and environmental policies by public administrations, which are responsible for the management of livestock activities and the territory, to reduce the risks for the populations associated with livestock production.
... Monteiro et al. (1998) reported an application of the methodology in Cape Verde. Other applications of this tool were reported in Amador and Dominguez (2005), Dominguez and Amador (2007), Pinedo et al. (2007), Dominguez et al. (2008), and others. Subsequent efforts led to the development of the IntiGis model, but the interface of this tool was in Spanish. ...
Article
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The purpose of this knowledge paper is to present a review of literature on the nexus between grid and off-grid electrification options and the enabling conditions to support each option. Through a thorough review of available academic and practice-oriented literature, this paper provides a synthesis and interpretation of the grid and off-grid electrification debate for electricity access. The paper finds that techno-economic studies do not consider the grid and off-grid alternatives directly and the suggested least-cost off-grid technology combinations generally represent relatively expensive solutions. The recent least-cost electrification planning models have considered the technology choice using geospatial information, but the model outcomes differ significantly due to, for example, granularity of the data used, the technology options considered, input assumptions about demand, economic activities, technology costs, operating costs, discount rates, and project life. More granular spatial data and model capability to capture low voltage distribution infrastructure appear to suggest greater attractiveness of decentralised solutions, whereas more aggregated analysis appears to support grid extension. Similarly, grid extension appears to be the least-cost option for higher demand or for concentrated population clusters, whereas decentralised solutions are more economic in dispersed areas with low demand. The experience of successful universal electrification suggests no single governance template, but a strong leadership and an enabling environment is an essential requirement. Universal electrification requires a system-wide approach involving planning, coordination, and regulation. An appropriate organisational setup and a robust regulatory framework can support the process. A shift from a grid-centric focus to a more inclusive approach to promote alternative options is important. Mainstreaming decentralised solutions, particularly mini-grids, requires favourable and reliable national regulations, adequate incentives and subsidies, and reliable information on the long-term plans for national grid expansion. Successful projects also require careful balancing of project economics and financial issues. The risks of grid arrival and the possibility of stranded assets loom large unless mitigation measures are considered. Different pathways for power system transformation exist to develop a sustainable system while achieving universal electrification, but our understanding is limited or lacking in several areas. The existing planning models have adopted a technocratic approach to planning and the desires of local stakeholders are poorly captured by such tools. The quality of the data and the ability of the models to capture wider societal issues as defined by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) remain major constraints. The capacity to transform planning studies into implementable programmes and to deliver electrification programmes remains limited. Similarly, further work is required to support sustainable electrification systems that do not impose a high-cost burden on future generations. Work is required to develop a programmatic approach to delivery and a more affordable and fairer outcome for all.
... [9] identified suitable sites for the installation of PV systems, using GIS as a decision-making tool to identify which renewable technology to use in a certain site or region. [10] developed a methodology to identify the most suitable technology to install in the region of Múrcia, Spain (PV, Wind, Hybrid Wind-PV, Hybrid Wind-Diesel) [11], have developed the program GISA Sol 1.0. This program incorporates a tool for the identification of suitable sites for PV installation and considers around 80 layers of information for spatial analysis. ...
Article
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In recent years the publication of new legislation in the renewables sector, namely the one related to microgeneration systems, has contributed to an increase in the installation of renewable energy systems in Portugal. Nevertheless, the investement in these systems is still high and the risk of considering sites with reduced resource constitutes a barrier to the development of this sub-sector. In the sequence of the previous work developed in the wind energy planning area, a methodology to identify the sustainable wind and solar potential in urban areas was developed, in order to reduce the pre-installation costs related to a less suitable site selection, and also to identify the real potential of the urban areas. In order to do so, a geographical information system was used and a set of tools was developed. The methodology was structured to enable its replication in other geographical locations and is sufficiently interactive to allow for the variation of the main input data. A case study in two urban environments is presented in this document to illustrate the developed methodology.
... In the study of land use planning, in any aspect that is addressed, the geographical component is fundamental. GIS intervene in a multitude of territorial research studies with different objectives, such as solving problems of land planning and management (Amador & Dominguez, 2005;Vanhaverbeke & Cloodt, 2006;Rich et al., 2018;Yamashita & Hoshino, 2018) and providing the capacity to predict and evaluate their impact (Molina-Ruiz et al., 2011;Amadou et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Aim of study: To study the relationship between the problem odours caused by livestock farms and the evolution of rural tourism. Area of study: A coastal region in Spain, the Valencian Community. Material and methods: The odour emission rates of 4,984 farms have been calculated, and the ambient odour concentration was determined to assess the odour nuisance. The odour concentration was modelled by applying the Gaussian model based on emission data and the most unfavourable meteorological conditions of the 45 climatic stations distributed throughout the analysis area. The dispersion model was implemented in a geographic information system, deducing the municipalities affected using the odour concentration thresholds. Furthermore, the evolution of rural tourism in municipalities was studied during the period of 2006-2017. The relationship between the evolution of rural tourism and the effects of odours is studied by means of a bivariate spatial correlation analysis. Main results: Pigs are the predominant species in areas with the greatest odour emission problems; ~ 29% of farms can result in annoyances among the population with odour concentrations greater than 5 OU/m3, and 46% of municipalities can be affected by odour problems. These odour nuisances had negative consequences in the municipality where measures were carried out to favour rural development, such as rural tourism. Municipalities were detected in which the problem of odours can be a deterrent to rural tourism, whereas in other municipalities it was observed that minimizing livestock activity can be a method to promote rural tourism. Research highlights: This study provides a methodology that allows modeling the odour dispersion of livestock and relates its implications to rural tourism. Municipalities have been identified where livestock odours can cause a stagnation of the rural tourism income.
... Another model that relies on this approach is IntiGIS [6], an evolution of the SOLARGIS tool [7] and further efforts [8]. IntiGIS also operates with cells and minimizes their LCOE to obtain the electrification solution, emphasizing the relevance of GIS technology in rural electrification when gathering data such as wind speed and solar irradiation. ...
Article
In many parts of the world, access to basic electricity services remains a significant challenge. The status quo mode of electrification is central grid extension; however, in many areas, off-grid (OG) technologies like minigrids (MGs) and standalone (SA) systems are more suitable for promoting electricity access under cost constraints. Unfortunately, these opportunities are often overlooked due to the complexities of electrification planning, especially for large areas. Researchers have designed technoeconomic planning tools that can be scaled to cut through aspects of this complexity and be fit to address different places and contexts. This paper describes a computer-based optimization model--named the reference electrification model (REM)--which performs automatic electrification planning and is able to identify lowest cost system designs to most effectively provide desired levels of electricity access to populations of any given size. In doing so, REM determines the most suitable modes of electrification for each individual consumer by specifying whether customers should be electrified via grid extension, OG MGs, or SA systems. For each system, REM supplies detailed technical designs at the individual customer level. We have used this model in real planning activities in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The description of REM's capabilities is supported by case examples. REM stands apart from other electrification planning models because of its high granularity and its capability to provide concrete plans for a wide range of geographical scales. Because of these benefits, REM has the potential to help rationalize electrification planning and expedite progress toward universal electricity access worldwide.
... Another tool that relies on this approach is IntiGIS (Pinedo Pascua, 2012), which was developed at Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT, Spain) as an evolution of the SOLARGIS tool (Monteiro et al., 1998) and further efforts (Amador and Domínguez, 2005). IntiGIS also operates with cells and minimizes their LCOE to obtain the electrification solution, emphasizing the relevance of GIS technology in rural electrification when gathering data such as wind speed and solar irradiation. ...
Article
Full-text available
In many parts of the world, access to basic electricity services remains a significant challenge. The status quo mode of electrification is central grid extension; however, in many areas offgrid technologies like mini-grids and stand-alone systems are more suitable for promoting electricity access under cost constraints. Unfortunately, these opportunities are often overlooked due to the complexities of electrification planning, especially for large areas. Researchers have designed techno-economic planning tools that can be scaled to cut through aspects of this complexity and be fit to address different places and contexts. This working paper describes a computer-based optimization tool that performs automatic electrification planning and is able to identify lowest cost system designs to most effectively provide desired levels of electricity access to populations of any given size. In doing so, the model determines the most suitable modes of electrification for each individual consumer. Concretely, this represents specifying whether customers should be electrified via grid extension, off-grid mini-grids, or stand-alone systems. For each system, the model supplies detailed technical designs at the individual customer-level. This software tool – named the Reference Electrification Model (REM) – has been used in real planning activities in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The description of the capabilities of the model is supported by case examples. REM stands apart from other planning tools because of its high granularity and its capability to provide concrete plans for a wide range of geographical scales. Because of these benefits, REM has the potential to help rationalize electrification planning and expedite progress towards universal electricity access worldwide.
... Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are an excellent tool for assisting decision making. In the last decade, GIS has been developed, and its applications have extended to various scientific fields, including renewable energy and the environment [1][2][3][4]. ...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an application of geographic information system (GIS) combined with AHP (Analytic hierarchy process) approach in remote area, for mapping suitable areas for PV pumping ( the photovoltaic) plants in Ghardaïa region –southern of Algeria. In order to select a different site suitable for the application, we use often Multi criteria evaluation methods, seven defined criteria have been analyzed, including solar radiation, altitude, water’s areas, waters lines, population vegetal cover, distance from roads and ground water. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach is mostly used to determine the normalized Weight in order that to establish their importance in the selection site. A siting suitability map was generated to identify those areas that are most suitable for solar PV pumping plant.
... The following points describe the application of this method to the rural electrification study of Lorca (Murcia, Spain) carried out by a GIS developed by the authors [7] from an initial version of Solargis [8] [9] [10] [11], GIS prepared by several Research Institutions in the framework of the JOULE II Program of the European Union. ...
Article
The use of geographical information systems (GISs) in studies of regional integration of renewable energies provides advantages such as speed, amount of information, analysis capacity and others. However, these characteristics make it difficult to link the results to the initial variables, and therefore to validate the GIS. This makes it hard to ascertain the reliability of both the results and their subsequent analysis. To solve these problems, a GIS-based method is proposed with renewable energies for rural electrification structured in three stages, with the aim of finding out the influence of the initial variables on the result. In the first stage, a classic sensitivity analysis of the equivalent electrification cost (LEC) is performed; the second stage involves a spatial sensitivity analysis and the third determines the stability of the results. This methodology has been verified in the application of a GIS in Lorca (Spain).
Article
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The use of renewable energy in isolated households, despite the grid expansion, is considered viable due to economic criteria in some cases. In these cases, many aspects are considered as, for instance, demand expands potential, distance of grid and appropriated electric generation technology. Each technology needs specifics analysis and demands handling databanks and projections. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are tools that aim to join resource and energetic demands data about the places that will be analysed with a framework of geographical information and provides the results disposed in a image, this way allowing, safety and agility in take decisions. In that way, they can contribute with the universality electric energy programs in Brazil. © Ciências & Cognição 2006; Vol. 09: xxx-xxx.
Article
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Este trabajo refiere la experiencia de un estudio de caso realizado en la comunidad rural Las Peladas, ubicado en el municipio Bartolomé Masó Márquez, de la provincia Granma. En el mismo se presenta la aplicación de un modelo matemático multi-objetivo como he - rramienta computacional de ayuda a la planificación energética, en concordancia con las características específicas de la localidad analizada. El estudio de campo se fundamentó en los resultados de una encuesta participativa, la observación y compilación de datos, que posibilitó obtener una caracterización de la comunidad y, de esta manera, delimitar los parámetros necesarios para la aplicación de la herramienta. Se evaluaron cinco alternativas: energía eólica, biomasa, solar, hidráulica y la conexión a la red nacional. De ellas, el modelo sugiere, que la energía solar fotovoltaica ejerce la mayor influencia en el mejoramiento de la sostenibilidad integral de los capitales natural, físico, financiero, humano y social en la comunidad.
Article
The integration in electric power networks of new renewable energy facilities is the final result of a complex planning process. One of the important objectives of this process is the selection of suitable geographical locations where such facilities can be built. This selection procedure can be a difficult task because of the initially opposing positions of the different agents involved in this procedure, such as, for example, investors, utilities, governmental agencies or social groups. The conflicting interest of the agents can delay or block the construction of new facilities.This paper presents a new decision support system, based on Geographic Information Systems, designed to overcome the problems posed by the agents and thus achieve a consensual selection of locations and overcome the problems deriving from their preliminary differing preferences. This paper presents the description of the decision support system, as well as the results obtained for two groups of agents useful for the selection of locations for the construction of new wind farms in La Rioja (Spain).
Article
In the framework of regional renewable energy policies, starting from 2008 the Tuscany Regional Authority promoted the “WIND-GIS” project aimed at assessing the large-scale wind potential of Tuscany region, Italy. This goal was achieved by developing an integrated Geographic Information System (GIS) based decision support system (DSS), compliant with Directive 2007/2/EC of European Commission (EC), which was designed to help public operators in the preliminary location of sites eligible for wind harness. To make the system an actually operative tool, it was conceived as a web-oriented interactive system that the public operators may freely access. The DSS was developed by using the MapServer open-source web-GIS application. Furthermore, the “p.mapper” front-end application developed in JavaScript and PHP/Mapscript was used, which enables a user-friendly interface to MapServer to be performed.System’s wind resource data are estimated by the 2-km resolution application over Tuscany of a meteorological model chain through a 4-year period (January 2004–December 2007) with a 1-h time-step. Wind estimations at 75 m were taken into account in order to be addressed to large-scale wind turbines according to the Tuscany Energy Plan objectives of 300 MW installed power derived from wind within 2012. Furthermore, to overcome the problems posed by all groups involved with initially opposing positions in the location for new wind farms (e.g., investors vs. environmentalist groups), the DSS also encompasses a number of layers such as landscape, ecological and archaeological constrained areas.This paper presents the description of the DSS, as well as the application results in terms of maps of wind resource and energy yield once a 2-MW wind turbine has been set as a sample.The developed DSS is currently in use by the Tuscany Regional Authority for planning the regional wind energy strategy.
Article
Selecting a suitable site is a critical step in wind energy projects. In this regard, using appropriate decision criteria plays a significant role. Turbulence intensity is one of the main characteristics of airflow that affects the power production and lifespan of wind turbines. Therefore, it is considered as a wind site selection criterion in this paper. The present paper formulates the effect of turbulence on both power production and lifespan of wind turbines via an equivalent wind power density (WPDeq) function, to use it in the wind site selection process. To implement the proposed methodology, 88 wind sites in Iran have been studied. The results reveal the significant effect of turbulence on the site selection process as some sites have changed their rank up to 8 grades considering turbulence intensity in the siting process. To consider the turbulence intensity as an independent criterion to use it in multi-criteria decision-making methods, its relative importance (weight) have to be calculated. Sensitivity analysis shows that, on average, the relative importance of turbulence intensity over wind power density can be approximated as 1/5. Researchers can quickly consider turbulence intensity in siting process incorporating its weight in the pairwise comparison matrix of multi-criteria decision–making.
Thesis
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Autonomous electrification systems based on the use of renewable energies are suitable to electrify isolated rural communities. For its design there are decision-making support tools, but they do not cover some technical and social constraints and do not consider the specific detail of the project. In this context, the aim of this PhD is to develop a methodology for helping to the design of autonomous electrification systems based on wind and solar energies, which is appropriate to the economic, technical and social aspects of rural communities in developing countries, and which considers the views of all stakeholders involved in the project. The proposed design methodology is divided into 3 principal stages: - In the first stage characteristics from the community to electrify are gathered through some initial assessments (socio-economic, resource and technical). - The second stage is the design process itself and is divided into 3 decision levels, ordered according to the importance of the decisions to take. Specifically the influence on the cost of modifications on the demand (level 1), the system management (level 2) and the security of supply (level 3) are studied. Each decision level is divided into 2 steps: first several electrification alternatives are generated through a linear programming model, including technical and social considerations; second the most appropriate alternative is selected based on economic, technical and social criteria, through compromise programming multicriteria technique. - The third stage, optional, allows trying to improve the cost of the obtained solutions, maintaining previously taken decisions. To validate this research work, two experts in the field of rural electrification have acted as hypothetical users of the design methodology, and have carried out all the process for the real communities of El Alumbre and Alto Peru, both in Cajamarca (Peru). Thus, it is validated that the proposed methodology is suitable to design autonomous electrification systems. Specifically, it allows personalizing decision-making in a clear and structured way, evaluating many electrification alternatives and obtaining results that match user’s preferences up.
Article
This paper presents an Agent-Based Model that determines the minimum cost strategy for rural electrification delivery systems and associated decentralized generation focusing entirely on renewable resources. The model creates generalized scenarios examining stakeholders' preferences for renewable resources to deploy and preferences between centralized and decentralized generation. Literature suggests that low demand, topographical challenges and distance from the grid are the main drivers for decentralized generation. This work shows that available energy potential is an important driver as well by introducing the concepts of stress (the percentage of renewable energy potential taken up by demand) and centrality (the ratio between size of resources and average distance to demand) and demonstrating that these parameters influence the minimum cost strategy despite distance and demand. At very low stress levels the lowest cost networks result from emphasizing decentralized generation. At stress levels above 2%, least cost delivery systems result from emphasizing grid extension of clusters created around resources with high centrality and the decentralized mix is high due to the geographical limitations of renewables. Results show that in every case, while deploying renewable energy for rural electrification, a mixture of grid extension and decentralized generation coexist for universal electrification in the least cost strategies.
Thesis
Las industrias azucareras modernas presentan un alto consumo energético, pero la posibilidad de utilización de bagazo y residuos agrícolas de la cosecha de la caña de azúcar como combustibles para generar energía útil proporciona cambios conceptuales considerables mediante la oportunidad de venta de electricidad excedente proveniente de una fuente renovable. Esta realidad conduce a inversiones en eficiencia energética y a nuevas formas de operación de las instalaciones eléctricas, con el objetivo de obtener mayores beneficios. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es efectuar un análisis técnico-económico de la operación de los procesos de una instalación de gasificación de lecho fijo burbujeante, permitiendo la propuesta de modelos que contribuyan al mejor desarrollo de esta actividad, teniendo en cuenta la mejor utilización de los componentes de estos sistemas, y la interacción con las redes eléctricas. Se intenta de esta forma establecer una referencia de gestión en la operación de las plantas sucroenergéticas, con el objeto de mejorar la rentabilidad en el manejo de los recursos disponibles de la caña de azúcar, como también en la producción óptima de azúcar, bioetanol, biogás y energía de cogeneración. Se han utilizado herramientas matemáticas para la formulación de un problema de optimización no lineal correspondiente al modelo de obtención de la composición del gas de síntesis en una instalación de gasificación. Se ha comprobado la utilidad del modelo matemático propuesto mediante su aplicación en diferentes análisis y escenarios de mercado en una planta de gasificación tipo, modelada en detalle con datos industriales de la planta de gasificación GUASCOR, ubicada en Vitoria. Los resultados muestran la posibilidad de aprovechamiento simultáneo del bagazo de caña y los residuos agrícolas de la cosecha de la caña para producir electricidad para exportar a la red, ambos determinantes en la maximización del beneficio económico. Entre las conclusiones más destacadas se encuentran: la utilidad del modelo de gestión óptima propuesto; la exportación de electricidad como un factor de equilibrio a la viabilidad económica industrial; y la contribución a revalorizar un material combustible que, en mucho de los casos, termina siendo desaprovechado sin utilizad industrial ninguna. ---- The modern sugar industries have a high energy consumption, but the possibility of using sugar cane bagasse and trash as fuel to generate useful energy provides significant conceptual changes through the opportunity to sell surplus electricity from a source renewable. This reality leads to investments in energy efficiency and new forms of operation of electrical installations, in order to make more profits. The main objective of this work is to carry out a technical and economic analysis of the operation processes of an bubbling fluidized bed gasification plant, allowing the proposal of models that will contribute to development of this activity, taking into account the best use of components of these systems, and interaction with electrical networks. Thereby attempting to establish a reference in the operation management of sugarcane energy plants in order to improve profitability in the management of the available resources of sugar cane, as well as in the optimum production of sugar, ethanol, biogas energy and cogeneration. Mathematical tools have been used for the formulation of a nonlinear optimization problem corresponding to the model of obtaining the final composition of the syngas in a gasification plant. It has been proven the usefulness of the proposed mathematical model through its application in different analyzes and market scenarios in a gasification plant type, modeled in detail with industrial data GUASCOR gasification plant, located in Vitoria. The results obtained show the possibility of simultaneous use of sugar cane bagasse and trash to produce electricity for export to the electrical network, both determinants on maximizing profit. Among the most prominent conclusions are: the usefulness of the optimal management model proposed, the export of electricity as a balancing factor to industrial economic viability, and the contribution to revalue a combustible material, in many cases, ends up being wasted without any industrial use.
Article
At present, energy-saving technology is a feasible and an effective way to achieve energy and environmental sustainable development, although renewable energy may be final solution to environmental issues. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of educational institutions in environment protection. This paper also recommends some areas of effective training and development programs.
Chapter
This chapter will introduce the reader to a set of standards, best practices and management models that have been considered for the elaboration of the following Sections of this book. Obviously we cannot build our framework from zero, there are very relevant references in previous works, good practices and successful stories that we can consider when designing a framework for network utilities maintenance.
Article
This paper describes the design and the implementation of a process of asset criticality analysis for Distribution Network Services Providers (DNSP), also named Network Utilities. The proposed method is based on two points: (i) the elicitation of business-value factors, and (ii) the risk-based evaluation of assets, considering potential impacts of their failures on network value. Thus, it provides the capability to take maintenance management decision in terms of value and risk, considering the whole network under unique and homogeneous criteria. A hierarchy of assets ranked will come out of this process, which represents a fundamental result serving as input of the subsequent steps of the asset management process, including maintenance and renewal/reinvestments decisions. The proposed methodology is aligned with ISO 55000 family of standards approach, and therefore it can be understood as a practical asset management tool. Specific attention is paid to particular network utilities issues, characterizing assets in these companies, and the services that they provide (topology influence, reputational impact, operational losses, etc.). In addition to this, high requirements established by the Service Level Agreements (SLA), that are characteristics of network services contracts, make this method especially suitable in this application, considering in an overall way all these key aspects, providing great advantages for managing network utilities. In order to illustrate method applicability, an example extracted from a real telecommunication network use case is included.
Article
The location of wind/solar power plants is a critical part of design process. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), the well-known procedure of site selection, suffers from the local-scoring property. This paper proposes a combined approach of MCDM and artificial neural networks (ANN) to alleviate this deficiency. Here, the weighting of site selection criteria has been performed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and then a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) is used for implementing the global scoring capability. By using this procedure, adding any new alternative site location cannot affect the scores of the others. In other words, the proposed procedure is global-scale and robust. Scores derived by this procedure for two candidate sites can be interpreted as real differences in these sites.
Thesis
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The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7) of Agenda 2030 calls for an increase in the use of renewable energy sources, among other targets. The percentage of fossil fuel-fired thermal generation for electricity is increasingly being reduced as renewable energy technologies (RET) advance in cost-competitiveness, and as greenhouse gas and industrial air pollutant emission limits become more stringent. In certain cases, renewable energy contributes to energy security by improving a nation’s trade balance, since local resources are harnessed and imports are reduced. RET investments are becoming more frequent gaining a sizeable share in the electric power mix of numerous countries. However, RET is affected by existing fossil fuel-fired electricity generation, especially in countries that have domestic reserves. While coal may be dirty, others such as natural gas provide multiple benefits, presenting a challenge to renewables. Additionally, RET endowment varies for each geographical location. This often does not correspond to the location of major electricity demand centers. Therefore, large scale RET adoption and integration becomes logistically more cumbersome, as it necessitates existence of a developed grid network. Utilizing a series of analyses in two different settings – Africa and Cyprus – this thesis draws insights on RET growth policy and the level of technology representation in long term energy models. In order to capture specific challenges of RET integration, enhancements in traditional long-term energy system models are called for and carried out. The case of Africa is used to assess adoption of RET under various trade scenarios. It is home to some of the world’s greatest RET resource potential and the single largest potential RET project, Grand Inga. While, the island of Cyprus has goals of introducing large percentages of RET into its electric power mix. Each have important idiosyncrasies which are reflected in the analysis. On the one hand, natural gas competes with RET in Cyprus and forms a key transition fuel away from oil. On the other hand, lack of cross-border interconnectors limit RET project development across Africa.
Article
There is a huge need for investment for the electrification of rural areas in developing countries. Any effective approach to this enormous task requires strategic planning that combines diverse electrification modes: grid extension, mini-grids, and stand-alone systems. Advanced computer tools are necessary to support planners. This paper reviews the existing techniques, software tools, and approaches that can contribute to this job. We propose a comprehensive but compact mathematical formulation of rural electrification planning as an optimization problem. This general formulation establishes a common ground for a critical review of the different tools and solution methods and allows the identification of the primary research needs in this field.
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Full-text available
The main objective of this project is to realize an integration plan for various renewable-energy systems in remote areas using a geographical-information system (GIS) in order to determine the optimal management and use of energy in these locations. The area studied is Corsica, an island located in the south-east of France. For the remote site considered, four systems supplying electricity are compared: a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)/batteries system, a hybrid PV/batteries/back-up generator system, an engine generator and an extension of the existing electrical network. The most economic configuration was chosen as the best solution to electrify the remote site. Physical and technical-economical processes are integrated in the GIS. This GIS is used to determine the profitability boundaries for PV systems compared to a grid extension and under four different load profiles, and has led to the elaboration of an integration plan of renewable energies in south Corsica. The study has shown that for 60–90% of remote sites, a PV decentralized electricity system is the most economical means of electrification.
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a methodology developed within the SOLARGIS project-a Joule project-aiming at evaluating the potential of integrating renewable forms of energy into dispersed electricity production. With this project, the authors also wanted to demonstrate the efficiency of GIS-geographical information systems-as a tool to analyse the integration of renewable forms of energy. In this paper, the authors present the methodologies developed to identify renewable resources in a given geographic region, to detect high potential areas for wind farm siting and to evaluate the efficiency and market of isolated systems to be used for dispersed rural electrification. In this last methodology, the authors used fuzzy models to describe the uncertainties in demand and cost values
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Stand alone photovoltaic power systems (SAPPS) are a natural option for application in the electrification of remote areas which are outside the grid-connected electricity supply system (GCESS). The proposed method is based on three ambits: photovoltaic and grid sizing, economic analysis, and the integration of information and development of models within geographical information systems (GIS). The results of a case study carried out in the south of Spain (province of Córdoba) show that for a domestic electricity consumption (5 kW h/day) SAPPS are economically more competitive in 69% of the total area of this region.
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Domínguez J. Evaluation of potential locations for electricity decentralized generation systems with renewable energy. In: Juaristi J, Moro I, editors. Models and systems of information in geography. Vitoria: Universidad del País Vasco; 1996. p. 211-7.
Present situation in South Africa with respect to implementation of solar home systems
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Alonso-Abella M, Mukadam K. Present situation in South Africa with respect to implementation of solar home systems. Renewable energy development European conference and APAS-RENA contractors meeteing. Florencia: EDIFIR; 1996.
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Integration of renewable energies for rural electrification in a Tunisian region. European photovoltaic solar energy conference
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