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Dietary fiber from coconut flour: A functional food

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Abstract

To determine the effectiveness of dietary fiber present in coconut flour as a functional food, the following studies were conducted: (a) Dietary Fiber Composition and Fermentability of Coconut Flour; (b) The Effect of Coconut Flour on Mineral Availability from Coconut Flour Supplemented Foods; (c) Glycemic Index of Coconut Flour Supplemented Foods in Normal and Diabetic Subjects; and (d) The Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Coconut Flakes in Moderately Raised Cholesterol Levels of Humans. The dietary fiber content of coconut flour was 60.0 ± 1.0 g/100 g sample, 56% insoluble and 4% soluble. Fermentation of coconut flour produced short chain fatty acids with butyrate (1.73 ± 0.07 mmol/g fiber isolate) > acetate (1.40 ± 0.12; (P < 0.05) > propionate (0.47 ± 0.01; P < 0.05). Iron and zinc availability were highest for carrot cake (Fe, 33.3 ± 0.7%; Zn, 12.6 ± 0.1%) supplemented with 20% coconut flour while multigrain loaf supplemented with 10% and macaroons with 25% coconut flour were highest for calcium availability (63.4 ± 8.0% and 38.7 ± 1.1%, respectively). Increasing concentrations of dietary fiber from coconut flour did not affect mineral availability from all test foods. The significantly low glycemic index foods (< 60 mmol × min/l) investigated were: macaroons (45.7 ± 3.0), carrot cake (51.8 ± 3.3) and brownies (60.1 ± 5.4) with 20–25% coconut flour. The test foods containing 15% coconut flour has a glycemic index ranging from 61 to 77 mmol × min/l. Among the test foods, pan de sal (87.2 ± 5.5) and multigrain loaf (85.2 ± 6.8) gave significantly higher glycemic index with 5% and 10% coconut flour. On the other hand, granola bar and cinnamon which contained 5% and 10% coconut flour, respectively gave a glycemic index ranging from 62 to 76 mmol × min/l and did not differ significantly from the test foods containing 15% coconut flour (P < 0.05). A very strong negative correlation (r = − 85, n = 11, P < 0.005) was observed between the glycemic index and dietary fiber content of the test foods supplemented with coconut. There was a significant reduction (%) in serum total and LDL cholesterol for: oat bran flakes, 8.4 ± 1.4 and 8.8 ± 6.7, respectively; 15% coconut flakes, 6.9 ± 1.1 and 11.0 ± 4.0, respectively; and 25% coconut flakes, 10.8 ± 1.3 and 9.2 ± 5.4, respectively (P < 0.05). Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced for all test foods: corn flakes, 14.5 ± 6.3%; oat bran flakes, 22.7 ± 2.9%; 15% coconut flakes, 19.3 ± 5.7%; and 25% coconut flakes, 21.8 ± 6.0% (P < 0.05). Results from the above study can be a basis in the development of coconut flour as a functional food.Industrial relevanceThe functionality of coconut flour in terms of prevention for risk of chronic diseases, e.g. diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and colon cancer, revealed increase production of coconut and coconut flour. The production of coconut flour is very economical because it can be produced in a small or large scale. The raw material is obtained from the by-product (waste) of the coconut milk industry and the process and equipment used in its production is simple and cheap. Coconut flour as a good source of dietary fiber can be added to bakery products, recipes and other food products for good health.

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... Tepung ampas kelapa mengandung protein, lemak, dan karbohidrat yang sangat dibutuhkan untuk proses fisiologis dalam tubuh manusia. Tepung ampas kelapa juga mengandung dietary fiber 60,9-63,24% (Trinidad et al. 2006;Raghavendra et al. 2006). Secara visual tepung ampas kelapa memiliki warna yang tidak terlalu putih dibandingkan dengan tepung komersial. ...
... Secara visual tepung ampas kelapa memiliki warna yang tidak terlalu putih dibandingkan dengan tepung komersial. Masa simpan produk sekitar 6 bulan apabila disimpan pada suhu kamar menggunakan bahan pengemas seperti polyethilene atau polyethilene yang dikombinasikan dengan kraft/chipboard/foil. Menurut hasil penelitian Trinidad et al. (2006), karbohidrat merupakan komponen dominan dari tepung ampas kelapa (Tabel 5). ...
... Rindengan et al. (2017) memanfaatkan ampas kelapa dengan proporsi mencapai 25% dalam pengolahan biskuit. Trinidad et al. (2006) mengolah produk pangan yang disuplementasi dengan tepung ampas kelapa pada proporsi 5-25%. ...
Article
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p>Coconut is one of the plantations spread in almost all regions of Indonesia. Farmers generally processed coconut into primary products in the form of copra and dehusked coconut. The prices of these two products continue to fluctuate. The efforts that can be made to increase income from farming of this commodity are to encourage farmers to diversify the products by processing some valuable products. Integrated coconut processing on a farmer group scale can be a way to increase farmers’ earning. This paper describes the technology of processing coconut oil and its by products, the quality of the products and utilization, and the development opportunities. The technology for processing some products from coconut meat and its by-products are available and can be applied at the farm level. Products that can be made in the form of food products are VCO, healthy cooking oil, nata de coco, coconut flour and non-food products like animal feed, organic fertilizer and biodiesel. The obtained VCO and coconut oil quality are according with the Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Both of these oils contain medium chain fatty acids which are dominated by lauric acid, so they can be consumed directly and as cooking oil. Another product is nata de coco which can be consumed directly. Coconut residue contains high dietary fiber as a substitute for wheat flour. The coconut residue can also be processed into high protein feed. Coir dust is fermented into organic fertilizer and waste oil through the transesterification process into biodiesel as an environmentally friendly fuel to substitute diesel. Keywords: coconut, processing, oil, by product Abstrak Kelapa merupakan salah satu tanaman perkebunan yang tersebar di hampir semua wilayah Indonesia. Petani umumnya mengolah buah kelapa menjadi produk primer berupa kopra dan kelapa butiran. Harga kedua produk tersebut berfluktuasi. Usaha yang dapat dilakukan untuk meningkatkan pendapatan dari usahatani komoditas ini ialah mendorong petani melakukan diversifikasi produk olahan kelapa. Pengolahan kelapa secara terpadu dalam skala kelompok tani dapat menjadi jalan keluar untuk meningkatkan pendapatan. Tulisan ini mendeskripsikan teknologi proses pengolahan minyak kelapa dan hasil ikutannya, mutu produk yang dihasilkan dan pemanfaatannya, serta peluang pengembangan. Teknologi pengolahan produk dari daging buah kelapa dan hasil ikutannya telah tersedia dan dapat diaplikasikan di tingkat petani. Produk yang dapat dihasilkan dalam bentuk bahan pangan ialah berupa minyak kelapa dalam bentuk VCO dan minyak goreng sehat, nata de coco, tepung ampas kelapa serta produk nonpangan berupa pakan ternak, pupuk organik, dan biodiesel. Produk VCO dan minyak kelapa memiliki mutu yang sesuai dengan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI), mengandung asam lemak rantai medium yang didominasi oleh asam laurat, sehingga dapat dikonsumsi langsung dan sebagai minyak goreng. Produk lainnya yaitu nata de coco yang dapat langsung dikonsumsi. Tepung ampas kelapa mengandung dietary fiber tinggi sebagai substitusi tepung gandum. Selain diolah menjadi tepung, ampas kelapa juga dapat diproses menjadi pakan berprotein tinggi. Debu sabut dapat difermentasi menjadi pupuk organik dan minyak jelantah melalui proses transesterifikasi menjadi biodiesel sebagai bahan bakar ramah lingkungan pengganti solar. Kata kunci: Kelapa, pengolahan, minyak, produk ikutan</p
... In addition, it is attributed to potential therapeutic properties, including prevention and relief of many health problems: dehydration, constipation, digestive problems, fatigue, sunstroke, diarrhea, kidney stones and urinary tract infections (DebMandal and Mandal, 2011;Tan et al., 2014) and an antiaging effect (Ge et al., 2006;Prado et al., 2015). A sub-product of the coconut agroindustry is the fiber obtained after extracting the coconut milk, which has an important content as a dietary fiber with health implications, including the prevention of chronic disease, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (Raghavendra et al., 2006;Trinidad et al., 2006;Yalegamaet al., 2013). ...
... Nutritionally, the coconut's fat content represents an important caloric contribution, with a lauric acid content of approximately 50% and other saturated fatty acids, like caprylic and myristic acids (Marina et al., 2009;Raghavendra and Raghavarao, 2010;Assaet al., 2010). An important fiber contribution is noted in CP, mainly comprised of dietary fiber (Raghavendra et al., 2006;Trinidad et al., 2006;Yalegamaet al., 2013). Tan et al. (2014) reported acidity values for mature CW of 0.061±0.003% ...
... while Prado et al. (2015) reported pH values: 5.01 and°Brix: 5.00. Trinidad et al. (2006) reported higher contents of dietary fiber of the coconut fiber: 60.0±1.0% (56% as insoluble fiber and 4% as soluble), results similar to those reported by Raghavendra et al. (2006) andYalegamaet al.(2013). ...
Article
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The object of this research was to determine the influence of the composition of coconut milk-based emulsions on its physical and chemical stability. Coconut represents a highly important product globally and its competitiveness is restricted to its commercialization in the form of cakes, flour and coconut oil mainly to the European Community. The search for new alternatives to diversification of products as raw materials for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors represents a potential challenge. Coconut Pulp (CP) was milled with its Coconut Water (CW), separating the Coconut Fiber (CF), which was then dried at 40°C and milled for its use in emulsions and homogenized at 10.000 rpm during 10 min. The surface response methodology was used with a composite central design (21 experiments), considering the independent variables: (CW+H2O)/CP (1.5-2.5); xanthan gum (GXanthan): 0.25-0.75%, CF: 2.5-7.5%; tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ): 100-200 mg/kg. In addition, dairy serum was used as surfactant and salt. The multiple regression method was used to predict the linear and quadratic terms and the interaction of the independent variables in the models. The optimal conditions were: (CW+H2O)/CP: 2.0; GXanthan: 0.5%, CF: 5.0%; TBHQ: 200 mg/kg, reaching potential -&zeta: -45.578±2.478 mV, index of stability through spectral absorption (R): 0.851±0.025; viscosity (&mu): 741.7±25.5cP, color (L*:67.5±0.7, a*: 3.2±0.2, b*:8.6±0.5), Peroxide index (PI): 0.142±0.038 meqH2O2/kg, particle size (D10:4.3±0.8 &mum, D50:323.7±43.6 &mum and D90:743.0±65.1 µm) and Total Solids (TS): 19.981±0.303%. The results confer good physicochemical stability in the colloidal system studied, which could guarantee its effective use in the subsequent process, like in spray drying to obtain coconut powder.
... [7][8][9][10] It should be noted that typical 'white' bakery products have low dietary fiber content, as refined wheat flour is used as the main ingredient. 11,12 According to data available on the US Department of Agriculture website, white rolls have dietary fiber content of 1.8-2.3 g per 100 g, protein of 9.3-9.9 ...
... db of water-soluble dietary fiber (SDF). 10,11,15 In turn, FCM contains 41.63% db of TDF, 38.92% db of IDF, and 2.71% db of SDF. 10 The addition of fermentable dietary fiber from coconut by-products to traditional food products yields functional food with a low glycemic index and a high amount of short-chain fatty acids with a predominance of butyric acid. 11,16 Moreover, consumption of food fortified with dietary fiber-rich coconut byproducts increases fecal bulk. ...
... 10,11,15 In turn, FCM contains 41.63% db of TDF, 38.92% db of IDF, and 2.71% db of SDF. 10 The addition of fermentable dietary fiber from coconut by-products to traditional food products yields functional food with a low glycemic index and a high amount of short-chain fatty acids with a predominance of butyric acid. 11,16 Moreover, consumption of food fortified with dietary fiber-rich coconut byproducts increases fecal bulk. 17 Additionally, protein in coconut by-products is rich in lysine, which is an essential amino acid limiting the nutritional value of wheat protein. ...
Article
Background Fortification of rolls, one of the most popular snacks for children and adults, with coconut by-products can be interesting in terms of both nutritional enrichment and reduction of food waste. Coconut by-products, such as residues from coconut milk extraction (RCM) and oil extraction (RCO), are a valuable source of dietary fiber. In the study, coconut flours obtained from RCM and RCO were used (FCM and FCO, respectively) for supplementation of rolls; white wheat flour was replaced with FCM or FCO at the levels of 6, 12, and 18 g/100 g. Results The effect of the addition of the coconut by-products on the nutritional value, sensory evaluation, physical properties, and texture of rolls was determined after 24 and 72-h of storage. The research showed a positive effect of FCM and FCO on the roll yield, crumb moisture, and baking loss. The sensory evaluation revealed that the 12% addition of coconut residues yielded products with high overall acceptability (8 out of 9 points). The 12% addition of FCO and FCM contributed to a 7.9% and 3.9% increase in proteins and 76% and 57% in dietary fiber, respectively, compared to the control. Despite the increase in the fat and protein content, the energy value of the coconut rolls was significantly lower (244.6 and 245.3 kcal for FCO and FCM, respectively) compared to the control wheat rolls (266.0 kcal). Conclusion White rolls with coconut flours obtained after grinding residues from oil or coconut milk extraction significantly increased the nutritional value of the rolls.
... Traces of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid have also been found (Shamina, 2007). Coconut flour contains globulin amino acids, the highest fraction of protein, and 60 g of dietary fiber like hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, which consist of approximately 56% insoluble dietary fiber and 4% soluble dietary fiber (Kwon, Park, & Rhee, 1996;Trinidad et al., 2006;Yalegama & Chavan, 2006). In addition, dietary fiber in coconut flour has been found to be almost double that of wheat bran and 4 times that of oat bran; thus, coconut flour may help control cholesterol and sugar levels in the blood and help prevent colon cancer due to the high fiber content (Arancon, 1999;Ramaswamy, 2014). ...
... The compositions of coconut flour were influenced by the processes of the product from coconut endosperm. The nutritional composition of coconut flour depended on the retention component after coconut oil extraction (Sujirtha & Mahendran, 2015a, 2015bTrinidad et al., 2006). Water activity (a w ) was correlated with bacterial growth, where a w value below 0.5 was declared as a safe product while a w value above 0.8 was declared as a suitable condition for different microbial growth (Beuchat, 1981;Eisa, 2006;Scott, 1957). ...
... Many studies found that 100 g of coconut flour contained 60 g of dietary fiber, such as hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, which are approximately 56% insoluble dietary fiber and 4% soluble dietary fiber, almost double that of wheat bran and 4 times that of oat bran (Kwon et al., 1996;Ramaswamy, 2014;Trinidad et al., 2006;Yalegama & Chavan, 2006). Similarly, Lee, Prosky, and Vries (1992) reported 100 g of coconut residue contained 37.51 ± 0.72 g of the total dietary fiber, which was 35.08 ± 0.6 g of insoluble fiber and 2.43 ± 0.12 g of soluble fiber. ...
Article
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This study investigated the effect of coconut flour at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% on the physical, chemical, sensory properties, and consumer acceptance of biscuit products. Coconut flour after drying at 60°C for 13 hours had moisture content of 1.25% and water activity values (aw) of 0.40 ± 0.01. Increasing coconut flour content significantly decreased biscuit width, thickness, weight, hardness, and brittleness (p ≤ 0.05). However, dietary fiber, roughness, coconut odor, coconut flavor, crumbliness, crispiness, and being hard to swallow significantly increased with increasing coconut flour (p ≤ 0.05). The coconut flour level up to 40% produced the highest score on biscuit flavor, biscuit odor, crumbliness, hardness, and overall acceptance.
... Coconut (Cocos nucifera) contains higher amounts of dietary fiber (60 g/100 g) and other nutrients [1]. Coconut contains low amount of digestible carbohydrates, and has no gluten [2]. ...
... Coconut has a glycemic lowering effect. Low glycemic index food particularly such containing high dietary-fiber, has been demonstrated to moderate post-prandial blood glucose and insulin responses enhancing bloodglucose and lipid concentrations in humans and patients having diabetes mellitus [1]. Moreover, coconut is known for the production of coconut milk, coconut oil and flour. ...
... In addition, wheat flour has a lower amount of dietary fiber [1]. Besides, substantial amounts of wheat flour are imported from Europe for the bakery industry in Ghana. ...
Article
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Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the physicochemical, sensory and functional properties of coconut flour (CF), coconut wheat composite flour (CWCF) and Cake produced from CF and CWCF. Methodology: Flour was prepared from matured ripe coconut fruit (CF). It was then blend with wheat flour (WF) into coconut wheat composite flour (CWCF) to produce cake. The CF and CWCF were subjected to proximate composition and functional properties analyses. Also, the physical properties, proximate composition and the sensory attributes of the cakes produced from CF and CWCF were determined. Results: The moisture content of CF and CWCF ranged from 4.5 to 9.04 g/100 g, the ash content of CF and CWCF ranged from 4.10 to 6.41 g/100 g and the dietary fiber content of CF was 11.16 g/100 g. CWCF exhibited a higher (87.1± 0.6) water absorption capacity and packed bulk density (0.79 ± 0.3 g/ mL). In this study, the cake volumes increased significantly (P < 0.05) in wheat flour (WF) as compared to CWCF and CF. The specific cake volume observed ranged from 1.48 to 2.01 mL/g. The blend of 50% coconut and 50% wheat flour increased significantly (P < 0.05) the moisture content of the CWCF cakes. The total carbohydrate content of the cakes varied from 20.40 ± 0.02 g/ 100 g to 63.05±0.14 g/ 100 g. Fat, ash and crude fiber and minerals (Ca, K, P Zn, Mg and Fe) increased in CWCF cakes. The sensory analysis conducted showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between CF cakes, WF cakes and CWCF cakes in the sensory qualities of appearance, texture, flavour and overall acceptability. In terms of appearance, the panelists scored coconut cake highest, but was significantly different (P < 0.05) from coconut wheat cake and wheat one. The least liked sample in terms of texture was wheat one. Conclusion: The present study underscored the potential application of coconut flour in the production of cake and possibly other bakery products.
... RCM was found to contain notably higher contents of fat and crude fiber than RCO, but lower contents of protein, sugar, ash, and carbohydrates (Yalegama, Nedra Karunaratne, Sivakanesan, & Jayasekara, 2013). CF obtained from defatted RCM can contain up to 60.9%-63.25% of total dietary fiber (TDF), 56.8%-58.71% of IDF, and 3.8%-4.53% of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) (Raghavendra et al., 2006;Trinidad et al., 2006). The functionality of CF in terms of prevention for chronic diseases has been investigated by Trinidad et al. (2006). ...
... CF obtained from defatted RCM can contain up to 60.9%-63.25% of total dietary fiber (TDF), 56.8%-58.71% of IDF, and 3.8%-4.53% of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) (Raghavendra et al., 2006;Trinidad et al., 2006). The functionality of CF in terms of prevention for chronic diseases has been investigated by Trinidad et al. (2006). As shown in their studies, CF is a good source of fermentable dietary fiber, which allows production of functional food with a low glycemic index and a high amount of short chain fatty acids with predominance of butyric acid. ...
... As shown in their studies, CF is a good source of fermentable dietary fiber, which allows production of functional food with a low glycemic index and a high amount of short chain fatty acids with predominance of butyric acid. Dietary fiber from CF can also contribute to reduction of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in blood serum (Trinidad et al., 2006). So far, various dietary fiber sources have been used for pasta preparation, but there is limited information available about the use of the coconut industry by-product for production of pasta. ...
Article
The study was undertaken to assess the use of coconut flour (CF) and coconut residue (RCO) as a source of dietary fiber in wheat pasta production. The addition of CF and RCO can decrease the pasta extruder output up to 32%. The optimum cooking time for pasta with the CF and RCO was higher than for the control. CF and RCO had little or no effect on the weight and volume increase index. The pasta with CF had lower firmness compared to the product with RCO. The use of CF (up to 15%) and RCO (up to 10%) did not exert a negative effect on sensory attributes, however, the pasta was whiter and more intensely red, and yellow than the control. Pasta with the recommended addition of CF and RCO had good quality and higher content of dietary fiber, protein, and lipids, compared to the control. Due to its popularity, pasta can be an excellent food matrix for supplementation with dietary fiber, proteins, minerals, and other healthy components; to prevent some noncommunicable disease. Based on literature, coconut components are good source of fermentable dietary fiber, which allows production of functional food. So far, there is limited information available about the use of the coconut industry by‐product for production of pasta. Coconut flour and coconut residue can be successfully used in pasta production as a potential sources of dietary fiber. Harnessing the potential of coconut by‐products as a dietary fiber could be a health benefit and economic boost to the coconut industry.
... It was shown that coconut flour supplementation can improve the GI and other health properties of many bakery products. Research by Trinidad et al. [19] shows a very strong negative correlation between the GI and dietary fibre content of the tested foods supplemented with coconut flour, as well as a significant reduction of total and LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in blood serum. ...
... Among the analysed flours, chestnuts have the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids [2,7], but the fat of the coconut flour mostly consists of saturated fatty acids (approx. 90%) [10,11,19]. A notable difference in the share of ash among the tested flours was observed, in wheat four (0.71%), CH (1.98%), and CO (3.54%). ...
... On the other hand, CO flour composition differs depending on the study. Some research indicates much lower fat (10.9%) and protein (12.1%) contents [10,19], however, this is related to a different production technique, the kind of raw material, and intended application. The values represent the mean ± standard deviation (n = 3, for each flour type). ...
Article
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Wheat bread, produced by the single-phase method, is a common food consumed all over the world. Due to changes in lifestyle and nutritional trends, alternative raw materials are sought to increase the nutritional value and improve the taste of daily consumed products. Additionally, customers seek a wide variety of foods, especially when it comes to basic foods. Nuts, such as coconuts or chestnuts, might provide an attractive flavour with benefits to the nutritional quality. In this study, the effect of substituting wheat flour with coconut or chestnut flour (flour contribution level: 5, 10, 15, 30, 50 % w/w), was evaluated in terms of the breads specific volume, texture, colour, nutritional composition, and dietary fibre fraction contents. Moreover, a sensory evaluation was conducted to assess potential consumer acceptance. Based on the consumer’s perception, the overall acceptance of bread with 15 % w/w of coconut and chestnut flour was in privilege compared to the control sample. As a result, taking all of the tested parameters into account, the breads with 5, 10, and 15% supplementation of chestnut or coconut flour were still of good quality compared to the wheat bread and their fibre content was significantly higher.
... 10 Tepung ampas kelapa ini mengandung serat makanan 60.9% yang terdiri dari serat larut 3.8% dan serat tidak larut 56.8%. 11 Tepung ampas kelapa ini dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku dalam industri makanan seperti roti, biskuit, dan sereal. Roti merupakan makanan yang dapat diterima oleh semua lapisan masyarakat karena praktis, mudah didapatkan, mudah diolah, mudah disajikan dan memiliki harga yg relatif terjangkau. ...
... Akan tetapi kapasitas foaming dan gelatinisasi tepung ampas kelapa lebih rendah sehingga dalam pembuatan roti perlu ditambahkan protein dari telur. 11,18 Gelatinisasi dan foaming yang rendah pada bahan mempengaruhi tingkat volume pengembangan. 11 Pembuatan bahan makanan dengan tepung ampas kelapa pernah dilakukan pada penambahan tepung ampas kelapa sebesar 10% pada roti kayu manis mempunyai IG 44.5 serta pembuatan roti yang menggunakan berbagai macam tepung substitusi sebelumnya sudah dilakukan penelitian yaitu pembuatan roti yang dengan penambahan 10% tepung kedelai dan substitusi tepung ganyong 10-15%. ...
... 11,18 Gelatinisasi dan foaming yang rendah pada bahan mempengaruhi tingkat volume pengembangan. 11 Pembuatan bahan makanan dengan tepung ampas kelapa pernah dilakukan pada penambahan tepung ampas kelapa sebesar 10% pada roti kayu manis mempunyai IG 44.5 serta pembuatan roti yang menggunakan berbagai macam tepung substitusi sebelumnya sudah dilakukan penelitian yaitu pembuatan roti yang dengan penambahan 10% tepung kedelai dan substitusi tepung ganyong 10-15%. 11,13,14 Namun demikian substitusi tepung ampas kelapa untuk pembuatan roti belum dilakukan. ...
Article
Latar Belakang : Prinsip terapi DM yaitu dengan memperhatikan IG makanan. IG dipengaruhi oleh karbohidrat total, kadar serat, protein dan lemak. Roti dengan substitusi tepung ampas kelapa merupakan salah satu inovasi alternatif makanan yang tinggi serat dan rendah karbohidrat untuk penderita DM. Tepung ampas kelapa memiliki kapasitas foaming dan gelatinisasi lebih rendah. Foaming dan gelatinisasi yang rendah pada bahan mempengaruhi tingkat volume pengembangan roti.12Tujuan: Menganalisis pengaruh substitusi tepung ampas kelapa terhadap kandungan gizi, serat dan volume pengembangan roti.Metode: Penelitian eksperimental dengan rancangan acak lengkap satu faktor yaitu konsentrasi tepung ampas kelapa (0%, 10%, 20%) yang disubstitusikan dengan tepung terigu pada pembuatan roti. Setiap taraf perlakuan dilakukan 3 kali pengulangan dan diukur secara duplo. Parameter yang diamati adalah kandungan gizi (protein, lemak, karbohidrat), serat kasar dan volume pengembangan roti. Data dianalisis menggunakan one way ANOVA yang dilanjutkan uji Tukey.Hasil:Ada pengaruh substitusi tepung ampas kelapa pada roti terhadap kadar protein bk (p= 0.020), kadar karbohidrat (p = 0.010) dan kadar serat kasar (p=0.001). Tetapi substitusi tepung ampas kelapa pada roti tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar lemak bb (p = 0.13), dan volume pengembangan (p = 0.119). Roti dengan 20% substitusi tepung ampas kelapa kadar protein (bk) tertinggi 14.22% , kadar serat kasar tertinggi 5.98%, kadar karbohidrat terendah 49.14%, volume pengembangan terendah 179.49% dan belum memenuhi standar volume pengembangan. Roti dengan 20% substitusi tepung ampas kelapa dapat menyumbang 23.92% dari anjuran asupan serat tiap hari. Simpulan: Substitusi tepung ampas kelapa berpengaruh meningkatkan kadar protein (bk), serat kasar dan menurunkan kadar karbohidrat roti tetapi berpengaruh tidak bermakna menurunkan volume pengembangan dan belum memenuhi satandar volume pengembangan serta tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar protein (bb) dan kadar lemak (bb) roti.
... The nutritional composition of DCP shows that it is rich in healthy saturated fats and a good source of dietary fiber. The medium chain fatty acids (especially lauric acid) present in coconut meat has antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal properties (DebMandal & Mandal, 2011;Manikantan et al., 2018;Pandiselvam et al., 2019;Trinidad et al., 2006). Recently published reports confirm that coconut fat in human diet improves immune system of the body and protects the liver against alcohol damage (Coconut Development Board, 2017). ...
... The carbohydrates of DCP are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, glucose, mannose, and manno-oligosaccharides (Khuwijitjaru et al., 2012). Numerous studies have revealed that the consumption of fiber-rich foods could reduce the problems associated with heart diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol, and colon cancer (Kaczmarczyk et al., 2012;Park et al., 2011;Trinidad et al., 2006). ...
Article
Adulteration of desiccated coconut powder (DCP) with coconut milk residue (CMR) is an emerging problem in the coconut processing industry. Consumers and industries are looking for a simple non-destructive device to measure the purity of DCP. vis-NIR (350–2500 nm) spectroscopy along with the chemometric techniques have been used to assess the purity of DCP. In this study, DCP was adulterated with CMR at different levels such as 0 (pure DCP), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% (pure CMR). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were developed using whole spectral data and selected wavelengths. The spectral data were pre-processed using different techniques such as raw, MSC + SNV, SG-smoothing, and detrending. The R² of the models constructed with the pre-processed spectral data was higher than 0.950, irrespective of pre-processing technique. Pre-processing of spectral data does not have a significant effect on model performance when compared with the model developed using raw spectral data (R²P = 0.973; SEP = 9.681; RPDP = 9.381; RERP = 10.389), but the prediction accuracy was decreased. The wavelengths 653, 933, 1189, 1383, 1444, 1670, and 1911 nm were selected as the featured wavelengths for quantification of adulteration level in DCP. No significant difference in statistical results was observed between the PLSR model developed with selected wavelengths (R²P = 0.869; SEP = 11.701; RPDP = 9.381; RERP = 8.595) and the PLSR model for whole spectral data. The developed model can be used to predict the level of adulteration in DCP if the adulterant concentration was more than 10%. The overall results obtained in present study suggest that the vis-NIR spectroscopy along with suitable chemometric techniques have a great potential for rapid measurement of adulteration level in DCP.
... Trinidad et al [1] emphasized on coconut flour as a rich source of dietary fibre and income to the industry. Coconut flour is not just abundant in dietary fibre, but also free of trans-fatty acids and low in carbohydrates. ...
... Significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the calcium content of the flour blends. The calcium content of MC10, MC20, MC30, MC40, and MC50 was higher than that of the MC0 and this could be attributed to the higher calcium content of the defatted coconut flour [1]. According to Makinde and Eyitayo [38], an increase in calcium content of wheat/defatted coconut flour blends as the level of substitution of wheat flour with defatted coconut flour increased was reported. ...
Article
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Coconut residue obtained after the extraction of oil or milk is mostly used as animal feeds or discarded. However, this residue is high in dietary fibre which is known to significantly promote digestion. Therefore, in order to explore its potentials in food formulations, flour blends were produced with nixtamalized maize and defatted coconut flour which were analyzed for the dietary fibre, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties while the sensory acceptability of masa from the flour blends was evaluated. The outcomes revealed that protein, fat and fibre increased while carbohydrate decreased as coconut flour inclusion increased. Bulk density decreased and water and oil absorption capacity of the flour blends increased. The soluble and insoluble dietary fibre was significantly increased as well as the bioactive constituents and antioxidant properties. Sensory evaluation showed that 10% incorporation of coconut flour was comparable to the control and preferred by the consumers. Conclusively, defatted coconut flour significantly enhanced the dietary fibre, functional and antioxidant properties of the flour blends which suggests their application in diverse food products.
... Trinidad et al. reported earlier that the glycaemic index of coconut flour supplemented foods decreased with increasing levels of dietary fiber from coconut flour. Coconut flour is free from gluten and phytic acid and is loaded with numerous nutrients [10]. The health benefits of coconut flour include protection against strokes, significant reduction in blood pressure, enhanced energy production and it also boosts thyroid function, balances blood sugar and insulin level, and cleanses the body's internal systems [11]. ...
... Fats serve a variety of functions, including all three purposes of nutrition: to form and maintain body structures, to regulate metabolism, and to provide the second main source of energy [11]. Crude fibre content of the composite biscuits increased with increased inclusion of coconut flour, which is rich in dietary fiber [10]. Consumption of dietary fiber has numerous benefits in protection against heart disease and cancer, normalization of blood lipids, regulation of glucose absorption and insulin secretion and prevention of constipation and diverticulitis disease [47]. ...
Article
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The objective of this work was to evaluate the functional properties of flour blends from wheat, coconut and defatted fluted pumpkin seed, produce biscuits from these flour blends and evaluate the nutrient composition and physical characteristics of the composite biscuits. Wheat/coconut/defatted fluted pumpkin seed flours were blended in the ratio; 100/0/0, 80/10/10, 70/20/10, 60/30/10, 50/40/10, 40/50/10 and labelled as sample A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. Biscuits were baked with these composite flours using the creaming method. Swelling power, water absorption and oil absorption capacity of the composite flour ranged from 5.00-9.38, 0.14-2.50 and 0.39-1.58 ml/g respectively, with sample A flour given significantly higher swelling power of 9.38 ml/g followed by sample B flour (5.58 ml/g). Moisture content of samples A, E and F were not significantly different. The ash content of sample E was significantly higher (1.67%), followed by sample D (1.58%). Fat and crude fibre content of the biscuits increased significantly with increased inclusion of coconut flour. Sample B gave significantly higher protein content of 12.27% while sample A recorded higher carbohydrate content of 72.27%. Energy value increased with increased addition of coconut flour from 444.69-485.37kcal/100g. There was no significant difference in the Spread ratio of samples A, B and C. Break strength was shown to reduce significantly as the substitution ratio of coconut flour increased. Production of wheat-based composite biscuits with 10 to 40 % coconut and 10% defatted fluted pumpkin seed flour is highly recommended.
... However, this may interfere with the absorption of several micronutrients. The physical and chemical highdensity structure of glucomannan may clarify its hypocholesterolemic activity (Trinidad et al. 2006). ...
Chapter
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in the world, different strategies have been sought to prevent or limit its consequences. Diet is an important factor in the treatment, particularly dietary fiber. Several clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that fiber consumption decreases the risk of developing CVD and coronary heart disease (CHD). There are some proposed mechanisms by which dietary fiber decreases the risk of CVD: modifying cholesterol metabolism through direct interaction with pancreatic lipase, its binding to bile acids, increased intraluminal viscosity and modulation of cholesterol by intestinal microbiota. In addition, dietary fiber can have beneficial effects on blood pressure, which generates an additional benefit to reduce CVD. In this chapter, emphasis is placed on the use of dietary patterns to reduce the risk of CVD, as well as the modulation of intestinal microbiota by the dietary fiber. Finally, recommendations are generated for the use of the dietary fiber and the management of CVD in accordance with international guidelines.
... This behavior could be because the extracts from the fruits mentioned are very rich in sugars (saccharose, glucose disaccharide and fructose, among others) soluble in water and with a vast amount of Hydroxyl groups (OH) in the molecule (King et al., 1984;Dib Taxi et al., 2003). The CP+PAC has dietary fiber content equivalent to 23.9±1.6 of which close to 93% is insoluble in water (Trinidad et al., 2006;Raghavendra et al., 2006;Yalegama et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to optimize the process of Spray Drying (SD) for the obtaining of coconut powder fortified with Physiologically Active Compounds (PAC), according to the dryer's operating characteristics and the product, being (SD) is one of the most used technologies in the powder industry, guaranteeing good quality attributes for various applications in the food sector; it was used a response surface design based on five independent variables:: Maltodextrin (MD), Inlet Air Temperature (IAT), Outlet Air Temperature (OAT), Atomizing Disk Velocity (ADV) and drying Chamber Vacuum Pressure (VPC) and the dependent variables: yield (*R), Deposit Formation (DF) in the drying chamber, humidity (Xw), water activity (aw), Hygroscopicity (H), Solubility (S), wettability (Hu), color (L*, a* y b*), recovery of PAC (Ca, vitamins C, D3 and E), Peroxide Index (PI) and particle size (D10, D50 y D90). The results were analyzed statistically from the Statgraphics XVI.I software and through analysis of variance with 5% level of significance. In general, response variables were affected by all independent variables. The experimental optimization defined the CP+PAC process conditions as follows: IAT: 170°C; OAT: 85.8°C; ADV: 26676 rpm; VPC: 1.6” H2O; MD: 7.0%; and with quality attributes: Xw: 1.7±0.4%; aw: 0.171±0.018; H: 8.4±0.5%; S: 58.4±2.1%; Hu: 263.0±19.8s; L*: 79.5±0.9; a*: 1.5±0.1; b*: 9.5±0.4; PI: 2.4±1.3 meq H2O2/kg oil; DFC: 32.4±2.3%; *R: 44.0%; D10: 1.70±0.05 μm; D50: 8.46±2.09 μm; D90: 78.18±24.30 μm; Ca: 41.7±2.3%; Vit.C: 32.4±6.2%; Vit.D3: 7.8±1.8%; Vit.E: 6.1±1.9%; making it a hygroscopic product, potentially sensitive to oxidative processes, which can cause changes in color, strange flavors or odors.
... Sufficient DF intake has been positively associated with the prevention of several common chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammation, all of which are leading causes of death and disability worldwide (Meijer et al., 2010;Ottevaere et al., 2011). Epidemiological evidence shows that insufficient DF intake is associated with increased incidences of obesity and diabetes (Howarth et al., 2001;Trinidad et al., 2006), and fiber treatment may help prevent or alleviate these conditions. For example, it has been shown that barley fiber treatment can reduce postprandial glycemia and insulin response (Behall et al., 2006) and improve the Glc-tolerance of patients with type Ⅱ diabetes, in addition to reducing systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin, and free fatty acid levels Li et al., 2004a). ...
Article
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Dietary fiber (DF) is one of the major classes of nutrients for humans. It is widely distributed in the edible parts of natural plants, with the cell wall being the main DF-containing structure. The DF content varies significantly in different plant species and organs, and the processing procedure can have a dramatic effect on the DF composition of plant-based foods. Given the considerable nutritional value of DF, a deeper understanding of DF in food plants, including its composition and biosynthesis, is fundamental to the establishment of a daily intake reference of DF and is also critical to molecular breeding programs for modifying DF content. In the past decades, plant cell wall biology has seen dramatic progress, and such knowledge is of great potential to be translated into DF-related food science research and may provide future research directions for improving the health benefits of food crops. In this review, to spark interdisciplinary discussions between food science researchers and plant cell wall biologists, we focus on a specific category of DF—cell wall carbohydrates. We first summarize the content and composition of carbohydrate DF in various plant-based foods, and then discuss the structure and biosynthesis mechanism of each carbohydrate DF category, in particular the respective biosynthetic enzymes. Health impacts of DF are highlighted, and finally, future directions of DF research are also briefly outlined.
... Among the benefits of dietary fibre consumption are protection against heart disease, cancer, normalization of blood lipids, regulation of glucose absorption and insulin secretion, prevention of constipation and diverticular disease are largely pronounced (Lopez et al., 2001;Adnan et al., 2010). The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes should consume 25 -50 g of fibre per day (Trinidad et al., 2006). Dietary fibre is highest in the bran layer (and the hull) and lowest in milled cereal grains. ...
Article
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This study investigated the nutritional composition and pesticide residue levels in cereal grains sold in Wukari market, Taraba State, Nigeria. Standard methods of AOAC were used for the nutrient analysis of the samples (wheat, sorghum, millet and maize). The organophosphate pesticide residue analysis was based on QuEchERs (Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method. The analysis was carried out using HP 5890 Gas Chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector (ECD) using helium as the carrier gas. Organochlorine residues were analysed using Shimadzu Gas Chromatograph 2010 equipped with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector (NPD), using nitrogen as carrier gas. The results showed that wheat had the highest moisture and ash contents of 9.19 and 2.92%, respectively; while the lowest ash value was obtained for maize. The following ranges were observed for the nutrient analysis carried out: crude fibre 2.38 (millet) to 5.18% (wheat), ether extract 2.19 (wheat) to 5.45% (millet); crude protein 9.87(maize) to 12.80% (wheat) and nitrogen free extract NFE 7.69(wheat) to 80.86% (maize). The results for the Organophosphate pesticide residues were below the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) of European Council, for organochlorine it was observed that the following Organochlorine Residues; aldrin, heptachlor, lindane and Methoxychlor detected were slightly above Maximum Residue Limits. Therefore, control of organochlorine pesticide in cereal grain is necessary for food safety.
... Fiber is needed to assist in digestion and in keeping the gastrointestinal tract healthy and also help to keep the blood sugar stable. It also slows down the release of glucose during digestion [21]. The fecal bulking action of insoluble fiber makes it useful in the treatment of constipation and diverticular disease [22]. ...
Article
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Aim: Jackfruit is an underutilized tropical and subtropical fruit that is consistently lost to wastages and postharvest losses, neither has it gained substantial research attention. Therefore, the study is aimed at the production and evaluation of breakfast cereals formulated from composite blends of maize flour and jackfruit seed flour. Study Design: This study was made to fit into a one way Analysis of Variance. Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out at the Department of Food Science and Technology laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, between February 2018 and October 2018. Methodology: Flaked breakfast cereals were produced from blends of different ratios of Maize flour to Jackfruit seed flour. The formulated breakfast cereal products were evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties, anti-nutritional properties, mineral content and sensory properties. Results: The mineral content of the formulated breakfast cereals showed significant difference (P<0.05) in Ca(156.23-184.14mg/100g), Mg (179.28-207.81mg/100g), K(70.62-78.53mg/100g), Fe(4.01-5.46mg/100g), Na(9.44-10.66mg/100g), Zn(1.72-2.29mg/100g) and P(10.38-13.62mg/100g). The moisture content (3.83 - 4.14%) of the formulated products was acceptable for shelf life extension of the flaked breakfast cereal products. Protein, ash, crude fiber and fat content of the formulated breakfast cereal products increased with increased addition of jackfruit seed flour while the carbohydrate and energy value of the formulated products decreased with increased addition of jackfruit seed flour. Bulk density and water absorption capacity of the formulated products increased with increased addition of jackfruit seed flour while oil absorption capacity, foam capacity, viscosity and gelation capacity decreased with increased addition of jackfruit seed flour. Processing method significantly reduced the relatively high level of anti-nutrients associated with Jackfruit seed. Panelist preference increased with a corresponding decrease in jackfruit seed flour addition. Conclusion: Utilization of jackfruit in food product development may solve the problem of wastage and postharvest losses associated with this fruit.
... This could probably be traced to inefficient debranning and processing of the local wheat grains, resulting also in a sandy taste in the mouth (as observed by panellists during sensory evaluation). The increased fibre content could however be of health benefit in preventing or reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus as well as constipation (Fernández-López et al., 2004;Trinidad et al., 2006). ...
Article
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The proximate composition and bread making performance of selected wheat varieties grown in Nigeria, including Atilla, Cettia, Reyna 28, Seri MSH and Norman have been reported in this study. Bread making was done using a straight dough method and the resulting loaves were evaluated in terms of their weight, volume and texture. The developed bread samples were subjected to sensory analyses using a 9 point Hedonic scale. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance ANOVA and means separation by Duncan multiple range test. The proximate results ranged as follows: moisture (11.90-13.23%), protein (11.37-16.77%), fibre (1.07-3.50%), fat (0.77-1.41%) and starch (60.01-73.67%). The flour samples had significantly higher (p < 0.05) protein, fat, fibre and starch contents compared with the commercial flour (CON). The bread making protocol revealed that Reyna 28 showed the highest water uptake (436mls) and a mixing time of 20 min, followed by Atilla, with 432mls but with a higher mixing time of 25 min signifying potential for optimal dough development. The mean sensory scores obtained showed no significant (p > 0.05) difference in the appearance, taste, texture and chewability of the local wheat bread samples but the control had significantly higher (p < 0.05) scores for these attributes. The present research work has shown that despite some significant variations in measured parameters, acceptable and standard bread loaves can be produced from improved wheat flour varieties grown in Nigeria.
... This could probably be traced to inefficient debranning and processing of the local wheat grains, resulting also in a sandy taste in the mouth (as observed by panellists during sensory evaluation). The increased fibre content could however be of health benefit in preventing or reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus as well as constipation (Fernández-López et al., 2004;Trinidad et al., 2006). ...
... Proximate composition of the coconut meal used in this research is shown in Table 1. The major components of the coconut meal were carbohydrate (67% w/w) followed by crude fat (23% w/w) and crude protein (4% w/w) which were similar to those reported in Khuwijitjaru et al. (2014) and only slightly differed from those for coconut flour (70.3% w/w carbohydrate, 10.9% w/w crude fat, and 12.1% w/w protein) reported by Trinidad et al. (2006). The freeze-dried hydrolysate obtained after the subcritical water treatment of coconut meal also contained carbohydrate as a main component (85% w/w) and small amounts of crude protein (7% w/w) and ash (2% w/w). ...
Article
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Subcritical water hydrolysis is an effective method for producing mannooligosaccharides from coconut meal, which is a by-product from coconut milk processing. In this study, the purification process to obtain mannooligosaccharides from coconut meal hydrolysate was investigated. The effects of adsorbent (activated carbon and bentonite), concentration (1–10% w/v), and adsorption time (5–60 min) were studied for impurities of removal. The activated carbon showed much higher efficiency for impurities removal. Mannooligosaccharides were precipitated using ethanol at different concentrations (0–90% v/v) and initial carbohydrate contents (50, 100, and 200 g/L). The results showed that the ethanol concentration at 90% v/v and initial carbohydrate content of 200 g/L gave the highest recovery of saccharides (31 g/L). The obtained precipitate contained 9.7, 22.6, 12.9, 19.4, 19.4, and 16.1% w/w of saccharides with 1 to 6 degree of polymerization, respectively.
... The seaweed samples were found to contain soluble and insoluble dietary fibers (Figure 2). K. alvarezii was found to have higher soluble dietary fiber (16.73 ± 0.03 g/100g) than that of C. lentillifera (3.50 ± 0.41 g/100g) suggesting that K. alvarezii may play a role in the prevention, reduction, and treatment of some chronic diseases such as coronary heart diseases and cancer due to its high soluble dietary fiber content (Trinidad et al., 2006). The soluble dietary fiber content Volume 31, Number 1, January 2020 • KIMIKA found in K. alvarezii also suggests that it can be further fermented to produce short chain fatty acids (Wong et al., 2006). ...
Article
Seaweeds like Caulerpa lentillifera and Kappaphycus alvarezii are used as main ingredients in Filipino delicacies. There is a need to investigate the mineral availability, dietary fiber contents, and short-chain fatty acid fermentation products of these Philippine seaweeds to assess its nutritional and health benefits. Results show that C. lentillifera contain higher levels of iron, zinc, and calcium (430.93 ± 1.46, 1.09 ± 0.19, and 988.44 ± 5.07 mg/100g, respectively) compared with K. alvarezii (11.34 ± 0.14, 0.29 ± 0.01, and 262.98 ± 2.83 mg/100g, respectively). The availability of calcium was shown to be higher in both seaweeds (94.10 - 96.45 %Ca) than iron and zinc availabilities. Both samples exhibited high amounts of dietary fibers. The soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber contents of K. alvarezii (16.73 ± 0.03, 42.24 ± 1.04, and 58.97 ± 1.01 g/100g, respectively) were higher than that of C. lentillifera (3.50 ± 0.41 g/100g for soluble, 27.17 ± 0.09 g/100g for insoluble, 30.67 ± 0.32 g/100g for total dietary fiber). In vitro fermentation using human fecal inoculum afforded short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The SCFA content analysis using HPLC showed that K. alvarezii produced propionate (35.53 ± 2.00 g/100g) and butyrate (3.19 ± 0.16 g/100g) SCFAs while C. lentillifera only produced propionate (15.92 ± 0.45 g/100g) SCFA suggesting the potential of these seaweeds for the prevention of some diseases.
... Dietary fiber is the remnants of the edible part of plant and analogous carbohydrates which includes polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, lignin and associated substances that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestines with complete or partial fermentation in the human large intestines (de Vries, 2010). Dietary fiber has been shown to have important health implications in the prevention for risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus (Trinidad et al., 2006). Recent studies indicated that dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) helps in preventing cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer and reducing cholesterol (Ajila & Prasadarao, 2013;O'shea, Arendt, & Gallagher, 2012). ...
Article
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This study is aimed at supplementing Watermelon rind flour (WF) into cakes production with Plantain Flour (PF). Six cake samples were produced from the composite mixture of PF and WF in varying proportions of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20,70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The composite flour of plantain-watermelon rind was evaluated for proximate, functional and pasting properties while the cakes were assessed for proximate, texture and sensory qualities using laboratory standard methods. The water absorption capacity (WAC) of the composite flours has a significant (P
... Coconut flour has been shown in several studies to decrease body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and visceral adiposity and to lower blood sugar and cholesterol, even in subjects with moderately high serum cholesterol. Based on these favorable health effects, several authors have proposed that coconut flour be considered a functional food (Table 3.4) (Arumugam et al. 2014;Franco et al. 2015;Trinidad et al. 2004Trinidad et al. , 2006. ...
Chapter
After a short presentation of the technical and legal challenges linked to coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm collecting, this chapter discusses how emerging ethnological and historical approaches have influenced these collecting activities. Then it discloses (i) the various collecting strategies with emphasis on the collection of germplasm showing tolerance to pests and diseases, (ii) varieties with special traits such as the Compact Dwarfs, and (iii) the contribution of geographical and molecular approaches to germplasm identification. In connection with the launching of the recent strategy of the International Coconut Genetic Resources Network (COGENT), an attempt is made to estimate what germplasm will need to be collected in the next decade and the expected outcomes in terms of the number of varieties and populations conserved ex situ. It is suggested that global coordination is needed to limit duplication in the COGENT’s ex situ germplasm collections. Also, special attention needs to be paid to strengthen the involvement of farmers and other stakeholders in the collecting activities.
... [2] DF is also responsible for enhancement of fecal bulk, stimulation of colonic fermentation, and reduction in postprandial blood glucose and preprandial cholesterol levels. [3,4] DF in various food products plays a significant role as a bulking agent, rationalizes calorie content, increases cooking yield, reduces lipid retention and increases moisture content. [5] Its well-documented health benefits lead to a recommendation for daily uptake of 30 to 45 g DF. ...
Article
Micron technology is an emerging method that plays a key role in food and biomaterial industries. This technology reduces the particle size of biomaterial, which increases the surface to volume ratio and thus, increases the accessibility of dietary components of the biomaterial. Application of micron technology improves the functional properties and bio-accessibility of bioactive compounds associated with dietary fiber (DF). Natural botanical foods, such as fruits, vegetables, cereals and other plants, contain high levels of DF. Consumption of DF is encouraged due to their beneficial health effects. However, the studies related to the impact of particle size reduction on functional properties of dietary fiber from plants have received inadequate attention. The exact mechanism behind the improved functional and bio-accessibility properties of various dietetic components associated with DF is still unknown. Henceforth, an extensive study related to the impact of micron technology on the bioavailability of DF has to be carried out. Abbreviations: ABTS: 2, 2ʹ-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); DF: dietary fiber; DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl; FRAP: ferric reducing antioxidant power; IDF: insoluble dietary fiber;OBC: oil-binding capacity; TPC: total phenolic content; WHC: water-holding capacity; WRC: water retention capacity; WWF: whole-wheat flour.
... Se caracterizează prin funcționalitate ridicată datorită proprietăților sale, cum ar fi: prevenirea bolilor cronice, de exemplu, diabetul zaharat, bolile cardiovasculare și cancerul de colon. Făina de cocos posedă proprietăți nutriționale și este o sursă bună de fibre dietetice ce pot adăuga valoare produselor de panificație (Trinidad et al., 2006). Producția de făină de cocos este foarte economică, deoarece poate .fi ...
Book
Lucrarea „Materii prime neconvenționale pentru industria de panificație” prezintă aspecte legate de importanța, compoziția și utilizările la obținerea produselor de panificație și produselor făinoase a unor noi materii prime, altele decât cele deja consacrate: făina de grâu, drojdia de panificație, sarea și apa. În lucrare sunt detaliate materiile prime neconvenționale din rețetele de fabricație ale produselor de panificație și produselor făinoase care au constituit și constituie obiectul cercetărilor specialiștilor din domeniu. Lucrarea se adresează specialiștilor din industria de panificație, din institutele de cercetare și învățământul de profil, cât și tuturor celor interesați de noi materii prime ce pot fi utilizate la obținerea produselor de panificație, produselor de patiserie-cofetărie, biscuiților și pastelor făinoase.
... This behavior could be because the extracts from the fruits mentioned are very rich in sugars (saccharose, glucose disaccharide and fructose, among others) soluble in water and with a vast amount of Hydroxyl groups (OH) in the molecule (King et al., 1984;Dib Taxi et al., 2003). The CP+PAC has dietary fiber content equivalent to 23.9±1.6 of which close to 93% is insoluble in water (Trinidad et al., 2006;Raghavendra et al., 2006;Yalegama et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Spray drying (SD) is one of the most used technologies in the powder industry, guaranteeing good quality attributes for various applications in the food sector. The SD process of coconut powder added with physiologically active components (CP+PAC) was optimized experimentally, according to the dryer's operating characteristics and the product, using a response surface design based on five independent variables: maltodextrin (MD), inlet air temperature (IAT), outlet air temperature (OAT), atomizing disk velocity (ADV), and drying chamber vacuum pressure (VPC), and the dependent variables: yield (*R), deposit formation (DF) in the drying chamber, humidity (Xw), water activity (aw), hygroscopicity (H), solubility (S), wettability (Hu), color (L*, a* y b*), recovery of PAC (Ca, vitamins C, D3, and E), peroxide index (PI), and particle size (D10, D50 y D90). The results were analyzed statistically from the Statgraphics XVI.I software and through analysis of variance with 5% level of significance. In general, response variables were affected by all independent variables. The experimental optimization defined the CP+PAC process conditions as follows: IAT: 170°C; OAT: 85.8°C; ADV: 26676rpm; VPC: 1.6”H2O; MD: 7.0%; and with quality attributes: Xw: 1.7±0.4%; aw: 0.171±0.018; H: 8.4±0.5%; S: 58.4±2.1%; Hu: 263.0±19.8s; L*: 79.5±0.9; a*: 1.5±0.1; b*: 9.5±0.4; PI: 2.4±1.3meqH2O2/kg oil; DFC: 32.4±2.3%; *R: 44.0%; D10: 1.70±0.05μm; D50: 8.46±2.09μm; D90: 78.18±24.30μm; Ca: 41.7±2.3%; Vit.C: 32.4±6.2%; Vit.D3: 7.8±1.8%; Vit.E: 6.1±1.9%; making it a hygroscopic product, potentially sensitive to oxidative processes, which can cause changes in color, strange flavors or odors; this is why it will require a package with low permeability to water vapor and O2, which minimizes these changes.
... Besleyici özelliğinin yanı sıra tahılların ekonomik olması da dünya nüfusunun kullandığı temel gıda maddesi olmasını etkilemektedir [12,58,59]. Bunların yanı sıra dünya popülasyonunun %1-2'sinde çölyak hastalığının görülme sıklığı bulunması sonucunda glütensiz gıdalara olan ilgi artmakta ve tahıllı gıdaların üretimi için alternatif yöntemler araştırılmaktadır [4,17,28,29,31,36,43,49,61]. ...
... Most of the carbohydrates are defined to dietary fiber which is not hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzymes in human small intestine (Marotti et al., 2012;Yapo & Koffi, 2008). Some researches revealed that in addition to lower risk of death from heart disease, adequate consumption of fiber-containing foods was also associated with reduced incidence of infectious and respiratory illnesses, and reduced risk of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and colon cancer (Brown et al., 1999;Kaczmarczyk et al., 2012;Park et al, 2011;Trinidad et al., 2006). ...
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Owing to the high content of lignocellulose, desiccated coconut become a healthy material for dietary fiber supplementation. In this study, the changes in solubility of the fibers of desiccated coconut were evaluated. The changes of the pHs and weight losses were studied. Furthermore, variations of the ingredient structures of desiccated coconut by hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After hydrolysis 30 s, the pHs of all systems increased, while six hours later, the pH of only system with initial pH = 1.00 decreased. The decline of pH only existed in hydrolysis systems with initial pH = 1.00, there is no relevant with the quantities of desiccated coconut. The lower initial pH of hydrolysis system was, the less the intrinsic viscosity of the desiccated coconut after hydrolysis was, the small the crystallinity was. After hydrolysis, the microstructure of the desiccated coconut become looser, and the secondary structure of the coconut protein became more stable and ordered. The results suggest that the hydrolysis of desiccated coconut mainly occurred in the branched chain and the non-crystalline region of lignocellulose, which transforms some insoluble dietary fiber into soluble dietary fiber. This improves the nutritional value of desiccated coconut.
... When using plant-based materials to replace the animal fat, the emulsion produced could be affected, thus resulted in different texture properties. The coconut flesh consists of high dietary fibre (Trinidad et al. 2006) and oil (Savva & Kafatos 2015) besides other components. Both the fibre and oil could interact with the myofibrillar proteins to form a stable emulsion. ...
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... In particular, the prevention and treatment of other diseases by regulating Table 3 The products of DF in functional food. Starch-based films DF Okara WHC, WSC Improved performance, reduced elongation at break [107] Other products Dietary fiber isolate DF Coconut flakes GAC, CAC Ameliorates glucose and lipid levels [108] Food gel SDF Tomato peels WHC, WSC Increased WHC, expansion ratio and freeze-thaw stability [109] Functional food ingredients DF Wine Grape Pomace Viscosity, WHC,WSC, GAC,CAC Enhancing the nutritional value and improving storability of the products [110] the gut microbiota requires a lot of experimental researches. Third, the intake of DF and the type of DF will have an impact on the prevention and treatment of diseases. ...
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Dietary fiber (DF) is believed to provide important health benefits and it has become a research hotspot. DF exists in most natural foods, including fruits (16.74%–91.24%), vegetables (6.53%–85.19%), grains (9.76%–69.20%) and so on. DF has different physicochemical properties such as water holding capacity (WHC) (2.01–25.03 g/g), water swelling capacity (WSC) (0.95–23.90 mL/g), oil holding capacity (OHC) (0.65–29.00 g/g), glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) (0.17–4.65 mmol/g), cholesterol adsorption capacity (CAC) (0.03–37.10 mg/g) and viscosity, which make it exhibits different physiological functions such as reducing the risk of obesity, diabetes, cancer, and intestinal diseases. On the basis of consulting related databases, the physicochemical properties of DF and its derived physiological functions are reviewed. It is found that DF has effect on the prevention and treatment of obesity due to good WHC, WSC, OHC and CAC. Good GAC can relieve the symptoms of diabetes. The physicochemical properties of WHC and WSC can reduce the risk of cancer. The WHC, WSC and viscosity are beneficial to intestinal health.
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Type-2-diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global non-communicable disease with dietary causes. This chronic disease is escalating to epidemic proportion. Medication expenditure puts additional burden on the nations already deprived of economy due to loss in terms of disability adjusted life years. Since there is no permanent cure as yet, dietary prevention and management remains the best mitigation strategy. Hyperglycemia is the characteristic symptom of T2DM. The glycaemic propensity of the food/diet is regulated at bio-accessibility, bio-availability and metabolic levels and is determined by the nutrient content and composition. Though qualitative information of certain dietary components on glycaemic regulation of the foods has been documented, studies pertaining to their effect and mechanisms have been fragmentary across several reports over the period of many years. Therefore, the present review has been conducted to interpret individual and synergistic effects of the most relevant nutritional components on the glucose propensity, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. This review identifies and enlists some of the most relevant nutrients to T2DM; provides various dietary sources along with their content in the context of their glycaemic indices and tracks the physiological participation of amino acid, fatty acids, cholesterol and dietary fiber. The pertinence of the nutritional components to different aspects of diabetic pathophysiology has been categorized. This study is of significance in formulations of diet and food supplements, meal planning as well as nutrition policy and regulation. Some of the identified nutrients may also function as metabolic biomarkers for prognosis and as potential therapeutic agents.
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Recently, consumer demand has increased for healthy snacks. Snack crackers are popular as healthy snacks and there is a high potential to enhance the nutritional value by incorporating natural ingredients. In the present study, the dietary fiber content of the snack crackers was improved by incorporating defatted coconut flour. Chemical and functional properties of defatted coconut flour and all-purpose wheat flour were studied. Snack crackers were prepared by incorporating defatted coconut flour into wheat flour at 10, 20, 30 and 40 % (w/w) levels. Sensory evaluation was conducted by using a 5-point hedonic scale with 31 panelists based on color, crispiness, texture, taste and overall acceptance. Physico-chemical characteristics and shelf life studies were carried out after packing in triple laminated aluminum foil and stored under ambient conditions. Defatted coconut flour was characterized with significantly higher crude fiber (17.69%), protein (22.10%) and mineral content (6.17%) than all-purpose wheat flour. The bulk density, water and oil holding capacities of defatted coconut flour were significantly higher than all-purpose wheat flour (p < 0.05). All prepared snack crackers were contained significantly high (p < 0.05) content of protein, mineral and crude fiber compared to control (100% wheat flour). The keeping quality was decreased with increasing level of defatted coconut flour. Collectively, the results revealed that up to 20% (w/w) defatted coconut flour can be incorporated in the formulation of healthy snack crackers without compromising physicochemical and sensory attributes.
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Type-2-diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global non-communicable disease with dietary causes. This chronic disease is escalating to epidemic proportion. Medication xpenditure puts additional burden on the nations already deprived of economy due to loss in terms of disability adjusted life years. Since there is no permanent cure as yet, dietary prevention and management remains the best mitigation strategy. Hyperglycemia is the haracteristic symptom of T2DM. The glycaemic propensity of the food/diet is regulated at bio-ccessibility, bio-availability and metabolic levels and is determined by the nutrient content and composition. Though qualitative information of certain dietary components on glycaemic regulation of the foods has been documented, studies pertaining to their effect and mechanisms have been fragmentary across several reports over the period of many years. Therefore, the present review has been conducted to interpret individual and synergistic effects of the most relevant nutritional components on the glucose propensity, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. This review identifies and enlists some of the most relevant nutrients to T2DM; provides various dietary sources along with their content in the context of their glycaemic indices and tracks the physiological participation of amino acid, fatty acids, cholesterol and dietary fiber. The pertinence of the nutritional components to different aspects of diabetic pathophysiology has been categorized. This study is of significance in formulations of diet and food supplements, meal planning as well as nutrition policy and regulation. Some of the identified nutrients may also function as metabolic biomarkers for prognosis and as potential therapeutic agents.
Chapter
Fruits and vegetables are important sources of dietary fiber (DF) with a balanced ratio of insoluble and soluble fractions. The DF obtained from these kinds of plant-based foods possess health-related attributes associated to their physiological and functional properties. Furthermore, they exert antioxidant characteristics derived from the bioactive substances that are linked to DF. This chapter focuses on the content, characteristics and health-related benefits of DF from different parts of fruits and vegetables as well as their by-products obtained after processing. Additionally, cases of food products developed with DF from citrus fruits are described considering their health attributes observed through epidemiological studies.
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Coconut meal is a by-product of coconut oil and coconut milk production. It is a rich source of dietary fiber which shows to have an important role in lowing the risk of various chronic diseases. Therefore, it is interesting to convert the coconut meal, previously recognized as a valueless by-product, into a nutritious food product. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of such conversion using a widely known extrusion method. The effect of extrusion variables, including the coconut meal content (0, 6, and 12 %), glutinous rice content (5, 10 and 15%) and screw speed of extruder (380, 400 and 420 rpm) were investigated on the properties of extruded products. Physical properties of the extrudates such as expansion ratio, density, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), crispness and moisture content were evaluated. Our study showed that the extrudates had expansion ratio of 2.30-2.78%, density of 0.55-0.76 g/cm ³ , WAI of 4.24-5.50 g/g, WSI of 21.51-33.37%, crispness of 16.87-27.73 kg.sec and moisture content of 6.76-8.27%. The regression models for true density, expansion ratio, crispness, WAI and WSI were derived and statistically significant ( p <0.05).
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Kunnu is an infamous non-alcoholic beverage among the inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a fermented product commonly made from millet, sorghum or corn and relatively cheap when compared to carbonated beverages. This study targets value addition of kunnu by fortification with tigernut extracts and coconut milk to further boost the consumption and acceptance among people of all ages. The beverages were then evaluated for the physicochemical properties, phytochemical content and colour analyses. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to measure the total phenolic content while the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The unfortified kunnu sample had the lowest pH of 3.24 which was significantly increased upon fortification with tigernut extract and coconut milk. Kunnu samples fortified with tigernut had the highest vitamin contents (28.07 mg/ml) and soluble fiber (8%) when compared to the other samples. The total phenol (0.85 mg GAE/ml) and flavonoids (4.59 mg RE/ml) were also highest when the kunnu beverages were fortified with tigernut extract. Fortification with tigernut and/or coconut milk result in elevated antioxidant potentials determined by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP. There was no significant difference in the taste, viscosity, colour and overall acceptability of the beverages when fortified with tigernut extract. The study revealed that fortification with tigernut and/or coconut milk improves the antioxidative potential of the beverages with very good acceptability. The beverage could serve as a healthy replacement for sugar-laden fizzy drinks.
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Ready-to-eat flakes are processed grain formulations suitable for human consumption without further cooking in the home. Ready-to-eat flakes was produced from the mixtures of yellow maize, defatted soybean, defatted groundnut, moringa seed, scent leaf, pepper, salt and gray fish using extrusion technology at five different proportions of the ingredients. The proximate, minerals, antioxidant, functional properties, cracking strength and sensory properties of the formulations were investigated using standard methods. The research established that the use of local cereal based for the production of flakes is possible and good when using extrusion technology. The extruded products provide good quality flakes when supplemented maize with soybean and groundnut. It was deduced from the chemical composition of the flakes, that blending of cereals and legumes cause a significant increase in protein and carbohydrate contents making it a suitable ingredient for controlling malnutrition in diets. With respect to the nutritional composition, the addition of moringa seed to the blend samples increased the potassium, calcium, iron and phosphorus content of the flakes; this makes the blends better source of micronutrients. Also, the incorporating of moringa seed increased the total phenolic compound, vitamin C and flavonoids content. The samples from composite flour had the ability to withstand cracking strength compare to 100% wheat flour. Highlights of this paper  Local blended flakes as ready to eat flakes.  Local blended flakes with Cereals and Legumes are better source of micronutrients.  Local blended flakes could be used as a means of preventing malnutrition among infants and aged people in rural communities.
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Effects of particles size of dietary fiber powder on the physico-chemical properties and antioxidant activity of corncob were investigated. Corncob was grounded in a regularly mill and grinding characteristics and the particles size were evaluated by particle size analyzer (PSA) using laser diffraction method and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The results showed that the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) powder from corncob had the highest crude fiber content (32.31%) and carbohydrates (55.07%). Spectral analysis shows that the IDF matrix structure does not change after grinding and has three characteristics of absorption spectra at 3433-3425 cm-1 (O-H); 2920 cm-1 (C-H) and 1635 cm-1 (aromatic) in presence of the special structures of polysaccharide and lignin compounds. Particle size analyzer (PSA) results showed that the size of IDF 200 mesh and 80 mesh powder were 63.13 and 260.89 μm, respectively. The insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) significantly shows a decrease in dietary fiber content in line with the reduction in particle size. The IDF powder with a particle size of 63.13 μm showed that highest total phenolic content accompanied with the best antioxidant activity through all antioxidant assays (p < 0.05). This study concluded that the IDF micro-powder particle size exerted influence on physico-chemical properties, dietary fiber, total phenolic and antioxidant activity.
Chapter
Coconut is a traditional resource with many uses. It is experiencing a revival in interest due to the health benefits from numerous consumable products that can be derived from it. Processing of the fruit provides coconut milk, which is a basic ingredient for many traditional diets worldwide. Coconut milk is also a nutritious lactose-free substitute for cow milk. Further processing of the milk produces coconut flour and virgin coconut oil (VCO). Coconut flour is a gluten-free cooking and baking ingredient, while VCO is a nutritional and energy-rich supplement with medicinal properties. The fruit also yields coconut water, which provides a nutritious and refreshing drink with therapeutic applications. The coconut water can also be converted into nata de coco and coconut vinegar through fermentation. Nata de coco is not only a popular dessert but has also been developed for various biomaterial applications. Furthermore, coconut elite varieties, such as Makapuno and Aromatics, have been gaining popularity. Makapuno nuts are filled with galactomannan that has also been developed as a natural biocompatible material. Recently, coconut sugar extracted from the inflorescence sap has been gaining popularity due to its high nutritional value and low Glycemic Index. Biotechnology can be used to further enhance the utilization of each of these valuable products as food, nutraceutical, and novel materials. The coconut is truly a bountiful resource with numerous existing and potential applications.
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This study aimed at producing gluten-free chicken sausages using High-Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) and coconut composite flour as fillers. The composite flour constituted 20% of the sausage recipe. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the inclusion of the two flours(HQCF (12.5–17.25%) and coconut flour (2.5 − 7.5%)) in the chicken sausages. The proximate composition, textural and physicochemical properties of the sausages were determined. Fiber content was highest in the sample having the higher inclusion amount of both flours. An optimized inclusion level of 15.20% HQCF and 4.80% coconut flour was selected as the best. Sensory acceptability of the optimized sausage revealed that there was no significant (p > .05) difference in the aroma, appearance, taste and tenderness compared to sausage processed from wheat flour and HQCF separately. The study concluded that coconut flour (4.80%) and HQCF (15.20%) can replace wheat flour as fillers in chicken sausages.
Chapter
The phrase “Let food be the medicine and medicine be the food,” coined by Hippocrates over 2500 years ago is receiving a lot of interest today as food scientists and consumers realize the many health benefits of certain foods. Lately, consumer's choice in food consumption has improved considerably due to the acknowledgment of the fact that foods influence the overall human health. There has been a growing interest over the years to explore beneficial gut microbiota and different interventions are devised to modulate the microbiota through the use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Besides improving intestinal health, functional food ingredients also have the potential to restore the gut homeostasis during intestinal disorders conditions. The human gut has a marked effect on the nutritional and health status of the host due to the presence of diverse bacterial species, which develop important metabolic and immune functions. This makes intestinal microbiota a target for nutritional and therapeutic interventions and a factor which influence the biological activity of other food compounds .This chapter attempts to highlight how the reciprocal interactions take place between the gut microbiota and functional food components and how these interactions affect human health and manage various metabolic disorders.
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Incorporation of coconut kernel fiber to the myofibrillar protein (MP) gel may enhance its properties with better uniqueness. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of coconut fiber on the water state, texture, rheological behavior and microstructural properties of the MP gel system. An increase in gel strength was induced by increasing the concentrations of coconut fiber compared to control (P < 0.05). Coconut fiber levels enhanced the gel-forming and generated a 3-dimensional gel matrix with higher values of G ′ and G". Increasing the concentration of coconut fiber from 0 to 1.5 g/100 g significantly improved the water holding capacity and the hardness of MP gel (P < 0.05). The micrographs images showed the evidence that coconut fiber was filled in the gel matrix and promoted a more homogeneous and stable structure. Overall, coconut kernel fiber could be a promising ingredient to improve the properties of MP gel and subsequently promote the development of healthier emulsion-type meat products with an increased proportion of unavailable carbohydrates.
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The paper considers how gluten-free flours, in particular, those made from coconuts and brown rice, can be used in the technology of gluten-free chocolate muffins in order to expand the range of special purpose products. Studies by domestic and foreign authors dedicated to using different flour types in today’s gluten-free technologies have been analysed. It has been proved that wheat flour can be fully replaced with gluten-free flour mixtures in the recipe of chocolate muffins. Analysis of the chemical composition of coconut flour has shown its higher fat content, compared with wheat flour, and twice as much protein and dietary fibre (18%). Coconut flour exceeds wheat flour not only in the main macronutrients, but also in the content of the main minerals. Brown rice flour, too, contains more fats and vitamins of the B-group than wheat flour does, and is a source of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, silicon, and sulphur. It contains up to 80% of starch and, like coconut flour, is gluten-free. Replacing wheat flour in the classical muffin recipe with mixtures of coconut and brown rice flours in the ratios 30:70, 40:60, and 50:50 reduces the moisture content and density of the dough. The moisture content in the finished muffins, too, is lower by 0.7, 1.2, and 1.5% respectively. It has been confirmed that if the gluten-free flour mixture contains over 50% of coconut flour, it reduces the specific volume of resulting muffins and worsens their quality parameters. The Harrington method was used to estimate the comprehensive quality index of the chocolate muffins. This has shown that full substitution of wheat flour for a mixture of gluten- free flours in the ratio 40:60 (coconut flour:brown rice flour) allows achieving the best-balanced sensory characteristics. Gluten-free muffins have a pleasant brown colour of the crust, their crumb is quite soft, homogeneous, and porous, with a balanced taste and an aroma of cocoa combined with light coconut notes.
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In this study, the physicochemical, bioactive, antimicrobial, and fat replacer properties of by‐products (black cumin seed [BOB], coconut [COB], flaxseed [FOB], and pumpkin seed [POB]) from the cold press oil industry were investigated. The by‐products were rich protein, carbohydrate, and fiber contents. TPC (total phenolic content), CUPRAC (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity) values, invitro‐bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, and phenolic profile were analyzed to determine bioactive properties of by‐products. FOB and BOB showed higher TPC and CUPRAC values and a higher antimicrobial effect, while phenolic compound diversity compared to other samples; therefore, they can be considered good bioactive sources. The steady and frequency sweep test rheological properties were conducted to determine the potential use of selected by‐products as a fat replacer in low fat salad dressing. The salad dressing samples enriched with by‐products showed strong pseudoplastic and solid‐like characteristics, except when enriched with 1% FOB and POB. This study suggests that by‐products can be used in low‐fat salad dressing as natural fat substitutes and functional ingredients.
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The present study consists on the characterization of six different flours in order to evaluate their ability to ferment alone and in mixtures. A discrepancy in the composition and physico-chemical characteristics of the flours was recorded. Three of these flours (oats, chickpea and coconut) were selected for the construction of the mixture design, which was used to formulate a base for a fermented vegetable dessert. Oat and chickpea flours have an effect on color accentuation (ΔE=17.37) as well as on increasing water retention (75.31 g/100 g). During storage, post-acidification of the media to pH 4.42 was recorded, with a water holding capacity ranging from 56.64 to 66.12 g per 100 g, indicating a change in the texture of the mixtures. The fermented plant product showed a high viability of lactic acid bacteria, more than 10⁷ CFU/mL for L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and more than 10⁸ CFU/mL for S. thermophiles after 30 days of storage. The use of flours in the formulation of fermented products was demonstrated as an alternative strategy for the development of new vegetable-based desserts.
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Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is a tropical plant that is almost spread throughout the archipelago. Coconut is a plant of the genus Cocos widely used in various fields ranging from food to cosmetics. Most coconut parts can be utilized so that the coconut is dubbed a versatile plant and has high economic value. This tree has a fruit which is also called coconut. Coconut fruit is the most widely used and processed. Coconut meat can be directly consumed or processed into coconut milk, coconut flour (desiccated coconut), and cooking oil. Coconut oil was obtained from dried or fresh coconut flour using the Soxhlet extraction method with organic solvents. Defatted coconut flour contained a high protein of approx. 19-20%. Coconut protein has a good quality compared to other vegetable protein sources. This research investigated solvent’s effect on solid ratio and oil content on coconut protein extraction yield and recovery from coconut flour. Based on experiments, the highest value of extracted protein and yield was obtained after coconut flour extraction at a solvent to flour ratio of 30 g/g. Coconut protein isolate and coconut whey protein were expected to have different functional properties which need to be further evaluated to determine their application as cosmetics or food ingredients.
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Resumo Os celíacos encontram dificuldades na adoção de uma dieta totalmente isenta de glúten e com qualidade nutricional. Para tanto, objetivou-se desenvolver e avaliar cookies sem glúten enriquecidos com farinha de coco. A farinha de coco com elevado teor de cinzas, proteínas e lipídios pode ser utilizada para enriquecer produtos alimentícios. Foram elaborados cookies com base na composição de uma mistura da Federação Nacional das Associações de Celíacos do Brasil - Fenacelbra (“mix de farinha preparada II”) para cookies sem glúten: Padrão FP (formulação semelhante à composição do “mix de farinha preparada II” da Fenacelbra), F1 (modificação de FP com substituição da fécula de batata por 10% de farinha de coco), F2 (modificação de FP com adição de 5% de farinha de coco), F3 (modificação de FP com substituição do polvilho doce por 5% de farinha de coco). Os cookies foram avaliados quanto às características físicas (peso pós-cocção, diâmetro e espessura pós-cocção, fator de expansão, rendimento, Aw, dureza e cor – L*a*b*), físico-químicas (umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos e valor calórico), aceitabilidade quanto aos atributos sensoriais (aceitação global, aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura) e atitude de compra. A adição de farinha de coco às formulações melhorou as propriedades nutricionais dos cookies sem glúten, aumentando o teor de lipídios e proteínas, e reduzindo o teor de carboidratos. Os cookies desenvolvidos apresentaram boa aceitação sensorial e intenção de compra satisfatória., A adição de 10% de farinha de coco em substituição da fécula de batata na formulação F1 não alterou as características sensoriais do produto, porém proporcionou propriedades físicas e físico-químicas superiores. Dessa forma, cookies sem glúten enriquecidos com farinha de coco constituem uma alternativa viável de alimentos destinados para pessoas portadoras de doença celíaca, mas também para quem busca produtos diferenciados e saudáveis no mercado.
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Flaxseed, the richest source of mammalian lignan precursors, such as secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SD), has been shown over the short term to decrease some early markers of colon cancer risk. This study determined whether over the long term flaxseed still exerts a colon cancer protective effect, whether its effect may, in part, be due to its high content of SD and whether any change in beta-glucuronidase activity plays a role in the protective effect. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 100 days either a basal high fat (20%) diet (BD), BD supplemented with 2.5 or 5% flaxseed or 2.5 or 5% defatted flaxseed (equivalent to the respective flaxseed diets) or bD with a daily gavage of 1.5 mg SD. All rats were injected with a single dose of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body wt) 1 week prior to commencing the dietary treatments. Urinary lignan excretion, which is an indicator of mammalian lignan production, was significantly increased in the flaxseed and defatted flaxseed groups. The total activity of cecal beta-glucuronidase was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner by the flaxseed and defatted flaxseed diet groups. Compared with the control the number of aberrant crypts per focus was significantly reduced in the distal colon of the treated rats. Four microadenomas and two polyps were observed in the control group, but not in the treated groups. The total activity of beta-glucuronidase was positively correlated with total urinary lignan excretion and negatively with the total number of aberrant crypts and the total number of aberrant crypt foci in the distal colon. There were no significant differences between the flaxseed and the corresponding defatted flaxseed groups, It is concluded that flaxseed has a colon cancer protective effect, that it is due, in part, to SD and that the protective effect of flaxseed is associated with increased beta-glucuronidase activity.
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The effect of Fe fortification on the absorption of Zn was studied by radioisotopic labelling of single meals, followed by measurements of whole-body retention of 65Zn at 14 d after intake. Healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. Weaning cereal, wheat bread and infant formula, foods that are all frequently Fe-fortified, were evaluated in the study. The amounts of Fe added as FeSO4 were similar to the levels in commercial products in Europe and the USA, and were 200 or 500 mg Fe/kg (weaning cereal), 65 mg Fe/kg (white wheat flour) and 12 mg Fe/l (infant formula). For comparison, Zn absorption was measured in the same subjects, from identical test meals containing no added Fe. No statistically significant differences were found when Zn absorption from the Fe-fortified test meals was compared with that from non-Fe-fortified test meals. Fractional Zn-absorption values from Fe-fortified v. non-fortified meals were 31.1 (SD 11.9) v. 30.7 (SD 7.0)% (weaning cereal; 200 mg Fe/kg), 37.7 (SD 16.6) v. 30.2 (SD 9.9)% (weaning cereal; 500 mg Fe/kg), 36.5 (SD 14.4) v. 38.2 (SD 18.1)% (bread; 65 mg Fe/kg flour) and 41.6 (SD 8.1) v. 38.9 (SD 14.5)% (infant formula; 12 mg Fe/l). The addition of Fe to foods at the currently used fortification levels was thus not associated with impaired absorption of Zn and the consumption of these Fe-fortified foods would not be expected to have a negative effect on Zn nutrition.
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To define the type of dietary fibre of fibre analogue with the greatest potential use in diabetic treatment, groups of four to six volunteers underwent 50-g glucose tolerance tests (GTT) with and without the addition of either guar, pectin, gum tragacanth, methylcellulose, wheat bran, or cholestyramine equivalent to 12 g fibre. The addition of each substance significantly reduced blood glucose concentration at one or more points during the GTT and generally reduced serum insulin concentrations. The greatest flattening of the glucose response was seen with guar, but this effect was abolished when hydrolysed non-viscous guar was used. The reduction in the mean peak rise in blood glucose concentration for each substance correlated positively with its viscosity (r = 0.926; P less than 0.01), as did delay in mouth-to-caecum transit time (r = 0.885; P less than 0.02). Viscous types of dietary fibre are therefore most likely to be therapeutically useful in modifying postprandial hyperglycaemia.
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The hypocholesterolemic effects of oat bran (OB) have been recently challenged. To carefully document the hypocholesterolemic effects of OB, 20 hypercholesterolemic men admitted to a metabolic ward were randomly allocated to either OB or wheat bran (WB) for 21 d after a 7-d control-diet period. Control and treatment diets were designed to be identical in energy content and nutrients, differing only in the amount of soluble fiber. After 21 d, OB significantly decreased total cholesterol by 12.8% (P less than 0.001), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol by 12.1% (P less than 0.004), and apolipoprotein B-100 by 13.7% (P less than 0.001) whereas WB had no significant effect. High-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I did not change significantly in either group. Serum triglycerides decreased by 10% in both groups but the decrease was only significant (P less than 0.04) in WB subjects. OB but not WB significantly reduced total cholesterol and other atherogenic lipoprotein fractions independent of other dietary changes.
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To compare high- and low-glycemic index (GI) diets in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Sixteen subjects with well-controlled NIDDM and normal lipid profile, 10 of whom continued oral hypoglycemic medication, participated in the study. A diet that emphasized low-GI foods (e.g., porridge, pasta) was compared with a high-GI diet (e.g., processed cereals, potatoes). The GI of the low-GI diet was 15% lower than the high-GI diet (77 +/- 3 vs. 91 +/- 1) but otherwise similar in macronutrient composition and fiber, as determined by a 4-day weighed record. The diets were instituted under instruction from a dietitian who visited subjects at home on a weekly basis. Body weight was maintained within 1-2 kg. Glycemic control was improved on the low-GI diet compared with the high-GI diet (statistically significant findings, P less than 0.05). Mean glycosylated hemoglobin at the end of the low-GI diet was 11% lower (7.0 +/- 0.3%) than at the end of the high-GI diet (7.9 +/- 0.5%), and the 8-h plasma glucose profile was lower (area under the curve above fasting 128 +/- 23 vs. 148 +/- 22 mmol.h-1.L-1, respectively). Mean fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol triglycerides, and lipoproteins did not show important differences. A low-GI diet gives a modest improvement in long-term glycemic control but not plasma lipids in normolipidemic well-controlled subjects with NIDDM.
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We measured the effect of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on whole-body retention of zinc-65 in 11 and iron-59 in 13 healthy, postmenopausal women. In a single-blind, controlled, crossover study, each subject, on three occasions, ingested a standard test meal supplemented with iron-59 or zinc-65 and capsules containing placebo or 500 mg elemental calcium as calcium carbonate or hydroxyapatite. Whole-body countings were performed prior to, 30 min after, and 2 wk after each meal. Mean (SEM) zinc retention was 18.1 +/- 1.0% with placebo (control) and did not vary significantly with calcium carbonate (110.0 +/- 8.6% of control) or hydroxyapatite (106.0 +/- 7.9% of control). Iron retention, 6.3 +/- 2.0% with placebo, was significantly reduced with both calcium carbonate (43.3 +/- 8.8% of control, p = 0.002) and hydroxyapatite (45.9 +/- 10.0% of control, p = 0.003). Iron absorption may be significantly reduced when calcium supplements are taken with meals.
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To see whether food form, the degree of cooking, or protein enrichment affected the glycemic response to pasta, we gave test-meal breakfasts to 13 diabetic patients. Macaroni had a significantly greater glycemic index (GI) (68 +/- 8) than spaghetti (45 +/- 6, P less than .01); the GI of star pastina was intermediate (54 +/- 6). The GI of spaghetti was not significantly affected by cooking for 5 or 15 min (45 +/- 6 and 46 +/- 5, respectively), or by protein enrichment (38 +/- 4). The GI of spaghetti was similar in 11 non-insulin-dependent and 6 insulin-dependent diabetic patients (49 +/- 7 compared with 57 +/- 8). We conclude that different types of pasta may produce different glycemic responses but that these are not necessarily related to differences in cooking or surface area.
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The glycemic and hormonal responses to protein, fat and carbohydrate alone and together were studied in normal, noninsulin-dependent (NIDD) and insulin-dependent (IDD) diabetic subjects. Fat and protein markedly reduced the glycemic response to oral carbohydrate in nondiabetics. In NIDD, the presence of protein and fat had no significant effect on the glycemic response. In IDD, while fat had no effect, protein enhanced the glycemic response. The insulin and GIP responses to the macronutrients together and individually were remarkably similar in all subject groups. Protein behaved as an insulin secretagogue in normal and NIDD while fat acted as a GIP secretagogue in normal and both diabetic groups. Protein appeared to function as a GIP secretagogue when combined with both fat and carbohydrate. It is concluded that caution is required when the glycemic responses to foods observed in nondiabetics are extended to diabetics.
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In acute test meal studies the relative glycaemic effect of two meals tested in diabetic children was shown to be identical to that found in adults. This encouraged the use of low glycaemic index (GI) foods in six week studies involving seven diabetic children which demonstrated a marked improvement in glycaemic response to a standard carbohydrate challenge and significant lowering of mean serum cholesterol and glycosylated albumin over the low GI period. Apart from the reduction in glycaemic index and an accompanying increase in fibre of 17 g/day, other dietary changes were modest. It is concluded that low GI diets may have a use in reducing serum cholesterol and also improving glucose control in diabetic children.
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Six commonly used dietary fiber supplements (pectin, tragacanth gum, psyllium gum, guar gum, soy fiber and cellulose) were fermented in vitro with human fecal microbiota for 4, 8,12, and 24 hr. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), hydrogen and methane productions, and neutral-detergent fiber digestibility differed significantly with fiber source. The most rapid fermentation rate was with pectin followed by psyllium gum, tragacanth gum, guar gum, soy fiber, and finally cellulose. Such differences in fermentability should be considered when food products are formulated. Dietary fiber source and intake may also affect breath hydrogen measurements and estimates of available carbohydrate malabsorption.
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Polysaccharide fractions were measured in coconuts at three stages of maturity, which corresponded to dietary usage in the Tokelau Islands of the South Pacific. Kernel was sequentially extracted with cold water (CW), hot water (HW) hot 0.5% ammonium oxalate (HOX), 1M H2 SO4 and 72% H2 SO4, and the monosaccharide compositions of the fractions determined. Total readily soluble fractions (CW+HW+HOX) were predominantly galactomannan, and decreased from 77% of the polysaccharide in the immature kernel to 8.8% of that in the mature kernel. Insoluble mannan increased during maturation to be the major polysaccharide component in mature kernel. This indicates that marked differences exist between the three stages of maturity examined, in the properties of their dietary fibre. The results suggest that in studies of diets in which coconut is a staple part, there is a need for careful definition of the coconut component with respect to maturity. Furthermore, they show the importance of using dietary fibre methods which are appropriate to the solubility characteristics of the indigestible polysaccharide.
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We previously have shown that ingested beef protein is just as potent as glucose in stimulating a rise in insulin concentration in type II diabetic patients. A synergistic effect was seen when given with glucose. Therefore, we considered it important to determine if other common dietary proteins also strongly stimulate an increase in insulin concentration when given with glucose. Seventeen type II (non-insulin-dependent) untreated diabetic subjects were given single breakfast meals consisting of 50 g glucose, or 50 g glucose plus 25 g protein in the form of lean beef, turkey, gelatin, egg white, cottage cheese, fish, or soy. The peripheral plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, alpha amino nitrogen, urea nitrogen, free fatty acids, and triglycerides were measured. Following ingestion of the meals containing protein, the plasma insulin concentration was increased further and remained elevated longer compared with the meal containing glucose alone. The relative area under the insulin response curve was greatest following ingestion of the meal containing cottage cheese (360%) and was least with egg white (190%) compared with that following glucose alone (100%). The glucose response was diminished following ingestion of the meals containing protein with the exception of the egg white meals. The peripheral glucagon concentration was decreased following ingestion of glucose alone and increased following all the meals containing protein. The alpha amino nitrogen concentration varied considerably. It was decreased after glucose alone, was unchanged after egg white ingestion, and was greatest after ingestion of gelatin. The free fatty acid concentration decrease was 4- to 8-fold greater after the ingestion of protein with glucose compared with ingestion of glucose alone.
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Low glycaemic index diets reduce blood glucose and lipid levels in humans but glycaemic index values are only available for a small number of foods. Thus, we determined the glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes. The values varied from 37 for bean thread noodles to 127 for Rice Chex cereal (p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the values of 14 different commercial leavened, wheat breads, which had a mean glycaemic index of 97. This supports the validity of using white bread as the standard food with an arbitrary glycaemic index of 100. There were significant differences between the glycaemic index values of individual foods in the following groups: rye breads, cakes, corn products, cookies, crackers, grains, pasta, potato, soups, legumes and breakfast cereals. Legumes and pasta tended to have low glycaemic index values. The glycaemic index values of the foods were weakly negatively related to their protein (r=−0.407; p<0.001) and dietary fibre (r=0.322; p<0.001) content but not fat (r=−0.054, ns). Thus, there are sufficient differences between the glycaemic responses of complex carbohydrate foods to make the glycaemic index classification a useful supplement to food tables in planning diets for patients with metabolic disorders such as diabetes or hyperlipidaemia.
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36 G of wheat fibre, pectin, or guar gum was given over 2-week periods to healthy volunteers taking normal diet. Mean serum-cholesterol levels fell significantly while the volunteers were taking guar and pectin by 36-3 and 29-2 mg, per 100. respectively, but rose slightly after wheat fibre by 6-7, mg per 100., Attention should be focused on fruit and vegetable gels rather than wheat fibre in the search of natural hypocholesterolaemic agents.
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Nine diabetic patients who were receiving various treatments supplemented their normal home diets (two patients) or metabolic ward diets (seven patients) with guar crispbread for five days. Their mean urinary glucose excretion fell significantly by 38% during the last two days. A significant fall in fasting blood glucose concentration of 1.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/1 (19.8 +/- 7.2 mg/100 ml) was seen only in those who took guar after the control period. Over eight weeks' treatment insulin dosage was reduced by 21% in five patients, and home testing showed that glycosuria was reduced by 68% in six patients. Guar crispbread is likely to be a useful adjunct to diabetic treatment irrespective of the type of treatment or insulin dosage used.
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Iron absorption was measured from five kinds of bread made from various types of flour and fermented in different ways in order to obtain a wide variation in the content of fiber, phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) and its degradation products, inorganic phosphate and inositol phosphates with fewer numbers of phosphate groups (inositol pentaphosphate through monophosphate). Each experiment had 9-10 subjects and, in each subject, iron absorption was measured from control rolls made from low extraction wheat flour and one kind of test roll using two different radioiron tracers: 55Fe and 59Fe. The inhibition of iron absorption was closely related to the content of phytate-phosphorous as determined using the AOAC method, and to the sum of the tri- through hexaphosphate groups as determined using the HPLC method. As an example, prolonged fermentation of whole-rye bread reduced total inositol phosphates to the same amount as in the control rolls and increased fractional iron absorption to the same high level, in spite of a fiber content five times as great. The results strongly suggest that the inhibitory effect of bran on iron absorption is due to its content of phytate and other inositol phosphates present after fermentation, rather than to its content of fiber or other constituents. Thus, effective fermentation will increase the bioavailability of iron in whole-meal bread.
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The effects of oat bran and wheat bran on plasma lipid concentrations were compared in a crossover study. Each bran (123 g oat bran or 54 g wheat bran) added nearly 18 g of nonstarch polysaccharide to a background diet containing about 10 g nonstarch polysaccharide. Twenty-three men (average plasma cholesterol level = 5.84 mmol/L, and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level = 4.11 mmol/L) were randomly assigned to either the oat or wheat bran diet for 4 weeks and then changed to the alternate bran diet for a similar period. The oat bran diet produced significantly lower levels of plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol: 5.65 +/- 0.16 and 3.88 +/- 0.15 mmol/L (mean +/- standard error) for oat bran vs 5.89 +/- 0.16 and 4.11 +/- 0.16 mmol/L for wheat bran. Food intake diaries showed that average consumption of total fat and saturated fat was identical during the two test periods, which excluded displacement of fat as an explanation for lowering of plasma cholesterol by oat bran. Our results indicate that in mildly hypercholesterolemic men, a diet high in soluble oat fiber can significantly lower plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and thus potentially lower the risk of coronary heart disease.
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To test the a priori hypothesis that consumption of oats will lower the blood total cholesterol level and to assess modifiers and confounders of this association. A computerized literature (MEDLINE) search and the Quaker Oats Co identified published and unpublished trials as of March 1991. Raw data were requested for all trials. Trials were included in summary effect size estimates if they were randomized and controlled, if a formal assessment of diet and body weight changes occurred, and, if raw data were not received, if there was enough information in the published report to perform calculations. Twenty trials were identified. Using the methods of DerSimonian and Laird, a summary effect size for change in blood total cholesterol level of -0.13 mmol/L (-5.9 mg/dL) (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.19 to -0.017 mmol/L [-8.4 to -3.3 mg/dL]) was calculated for the 10 trials meeting the inclusion criteria. The summary effect size for trials using wheat control groups was -0.11 mmol/L (-4.4 mg/dL) (95% CI, -0.21 to -0.01 mmol/L [-8.3 to -0.38 mg/dL]). Calculation of Keys scores demonstrated that substituting carbohydrates for dietary fats and cholesterol did not account for the majority of blood cholesterol reduction. Larger reductions were seen in trials in which subjects had initially higher blood cholesterol levels (greater than or equal to 5.9 mmol/L [greater than or equal to 229 mg/dL]), particularly when a dose of 3 g or more of soluble fiber was employed. This analysis supports the hypothesis that incorporating oat products into the diet causes a modest reduction in blood cholesterol level.
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To determine whether low-glycemic index (GI) diets have clinical utility in overweight patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Six patients with NIDDM were studied on both high- and low-GI diets of 6-wk duration with metabolic diets with a randomized crossover design. Both diets were of similar composition (57% carbohydrate, 23% fat, and 34 g/day dietary fiber), but the low-GI diet had a GI of 58 compared with 86 for the high-GI diet. Small and similar amounts of weight were lost on both diets: 2.5 kg on high-GI diet and 1.8 kg on low-GI diet. On the low-GI diet, the mean level of serum fructosamine, as an index of overall blood glucose control, was lower than on the high-GI diet by 8% (P less than 0.05), and total serum cholesterol was lower by 7% (P less than 0.01). In overweight patients with NIDDM, reducing diet GI improves overall blood glucose and lipid control.
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The cancer protective effects of flaxseed suggested by our previous short-term study were tested in a long-term tumorigenesis experiment. Feeding rats 5% flaxseed flour supplemented in a high-fat diet at the promotional stage of tumorigenesis, i.e., after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene administration, significantly reduced by 66.7% the size of the tumours that occurred. Although flaxseed feeding at the initiation stage also tended to reduce the number of tumors per tumor-bearing animal, significant differences were seen only between the group fed flaxseed throughout the experiment and the promotional group. Therefore the effect of flaxseed on mammary tumorigenesis is not consistent. Although it was speculated that the effect may be related to the lignans enterolactone and enterodiol produced in such large quantities on the ingestion of flaxseed, further studies are required to clarify the role of lignans and other flaxseed constituents in mammary tumorigenesis.
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Low glycaemic index foods produce low blood glucose and insulin responses in normal subjects, and improve blood glucose control in Type 1 and well-controlled Type 2 diabetic patients. We studied the effects of a low glycaemic index diet in 15 Type 2 diabetic patients with a mean fasting blood glucose of 9.5 mmol l-1 using a randomized, crossover design. Patients were given pre-weighed diets (59% energy as carbohydrate, 21% fat, and 24 g 1000-kcal-1 dietary fibre) for two 2-week periods, with a diet glycaemic index of 60 during one period and 87 during the other. On the low glycaemic index diet, the blood glucose response after a representative breakfast was 29% less than on the high glycaemic index diet (874 +/- 108 (+/- SE) vs 204 +/- 112 mmol min l-1; p less than 0.001), the percentage reduction being almost identical to the 28% difference predicted from the meal glycaemic index values. After the 2-week low glycaemic index diet, fasting serum fructosamine and cholesterol levels were significantly less than after the high glycaemic index diet (3.17 +/- 0.12 vs 3.28 +/- 0.16 mmol l-1, p less than 0.05, and 5.5 +/- 0.4 vs 5.9 +/- 0.5 mmol l-1, p less than 0.02, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
There is controversy regarding the clinical utility of classifying foods according to their glycemic responses by using the glycemic index (GI). Part of the controversy is due to methodologic variables that can markedly affect the interpretation of glycemic responses and the GI values obtained. Recent studies support the clinical utility of the GI. Within limits determined by the expected GI difference and by the day-to-day variation of glycemic responses, the GI predicts the ranking of the glycemic potential of different meals in individual subjects. In long-term trials, low-GI diets result in modest improvements in overall blood glucose control in patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Of perhaps greater therapeutic importance is the ability of low-GI diets to reduce insulin secretion and lower blood lipid concentrations in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.
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The cholesterol-lowering effects of oat products were recognized over a quarter of a century ago1. With the possible exception of beans, oat bran lowers serum cholesterol in humans more than any other food2. In metabolic ward studies, incorporating either 50 or 100 g of oat bran daily into a typical American diet lowered serum cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic men by 13–19%2,3. In ambulatory studies of healthy individuals eating their usual diet, providing 50 g of oat bran daily in the form of muffins decreased serum cholesterol by 12–26%4,5. Since every 1% decrease in serum cholesterol reduces estimated risk for coronary heart disease by 2%6, these oat bran-induced changes in serum cholesterol would theoretically reduce risk for coronary heart disease by approximately 10–35%.
Article
We investigated the effect of calcium on iron absorption in 126 human subjects. Addition of calcium chloride to wheat rolls significantly reduced iron absorption. Doses between 40 and 600 mg Ca were studied. The inhibition was clearly dose related up to 300 mg Ca. Calcium added to the dough when making the rolls reduced phytate degradation during fermentation and baking. As little as 40 mg Ca added to 80 g flour reduced phytate degradation by 50%, thus increasing the phytate content of the rolls to levels interfering with iron absorption. Calcium also had a direct dose-related inhibiting effect on iron absorption, noted by adding calcium to the rolls after they had been baked instead of to the dough. Iron absorption was reduced by 50-60% at doses of 300-600 mg Ca. Giving 165 mg Ca as milk, cheese, or calcium chloride reduced absorption by 50-60%. The same amount of calcium also significantly reduced heme-iron absorption, suggesting that the effect of calcium is related to the mucosal transfer of iron. The observed marked inhibitory effect on iron absorption of calcium in amounts frequently encountered in normal meals has important nutritional implications.
Article
The influence of calcium supplements on the absorption of dietary nonheme iron and of iron supplements was evaluated in 61 normal volunteer subjects by use of a double-radioisotope technique. When taken without food, calcium carbonate did not inhibit the absorption of ferrous sulphate with doses of either 300 mg Ca and 37 mg Fe or 600 mg Ca and 18 mg Fe. However, at the latter levels, calcium citrate and calcium phosphate reduced iron absorption significantly by 49% and 62%, respectively. All calcium supplements inhibited absorption of the iron supplement when taken with food. The absorption of dietary nonheme iron was also inhibited by all three supplements. This inhibition was less pronounced from a meal of high iron availability and low calcium content (28%) than from a breakfast meal of low iron availability and high calcium content (55%). These results suggest that taking regular calcium supplements with meals makes it more difficult for women to meet their daily iron requirement.
Article
Nonheme-iron absorption from a typical Southeast Asian meal was studied to examine the effect of a common vegetable, Yod Kratin, which contains a considerable amount of iron-binding phenolic groups. Yod Kratin (leaves of the lead tree) is a very popular vegetable in Thailand. It is consumed at least once a week year round, sometimes every day, together with the main meal. With a common portion size of the vegetable (20 g), iron absorption was reduced by almost 90%. As little as 5 g inhibited iron absorption by 75%. Addition of ascorbic acid partly counteracted inhibition. Adding 100 mg ascorbic acid reduced inhibition of iron absorption from 5 g Yod Kratin by half and the inhibition from 10 g Yod Kratin by a quarter. The study illustrates the marked effect of iron-binding phenolic compounds on iron nutrition and, thus, the importance of acquiring knowledge of the content of such compounds in different foods.