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... Temperature is considered one of the main factors influencing the phenology of grapevine (Vitis sp.) (Keller, 2015), and variations in temperature during the developmental and ripening phases have an impact on the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites, specifically during berry growth (Mira de Orduña, 2010;González-Barreiro et al., 2015). Temperature rises due to global warming have been reshaping the dynamics of grapevine harvest and wine production worldwide by globally increasing seasonal heat accumulation (Santos et al., 2020;Venios et al., 2020), a variable often assessed through the sum of GDDs. ...
... Temperature rises due to global warming have been reshaping the dynamics of grapevine harvest and wine production worldwide by globally increasing seasonal heat accumulation (Santos et al., 2020;Venios et al., 2020), a variable often assessed through the sum of GDDs. Increases in GDD accumulation have been shown to accelerate plant development and advance grapevine phenology (leading to earlier harvest dates), shorten the time between bud break and flowering, increase the concentration of sugars, and decrease the acidity content of berries (Mira de Orduña, 2010;van Leeuwen and Darriet, 2016;Cameron et al., 2021). However, in addition to temperature rises, larger temperature ranges throughout the growing season could also have a potential impact on plant growth, phenology, and metabolism (Barnuud et al., 2014). ...
... During the second phase, called veraison, berries soften and organic acids break down, while sugars and many secondary metabolites, such as terpenes, C 13 -norisoprenoids, and other volatile compounds (VCs), accumulate (Jackson, 2008;Keller, 2015). Variation in abiotic conditions, including temperature, can influence the biosynthesis of these metabolites (Mira de Orduña, 2010;González-Barreiro et al., 2015). ...
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Volatile compounds (VCs) in grapevine berries play an important role in wine quality; however, such compounds and vine development can be sensitive to environmental conditions. Due to this sensitivity, changes in temperature patterns due to global warming are likely to further impact grape production and berry composition. The aim of this study was to determine the possible effects of different growing-degree day accumulation patterns on berry ripening and composition at harvest. An experimental field was conducted using Vitis sp. L'Acadie blanc, in Nova Scotia, Canada. Using on-the-row mini-greenhouses, moderate temperature increase and reduced ultraviolet (UV) exposure were triggered in grapevines during pre-veraison (inflorescence to the beginning of berry softening), post-veraison (berry softening to full maturity), and whole season (inflorescence to full maturity), while controls were left without treatment. Free and bound VCs were extracted from berries sampled at three different phenological stages between veraison and maturity before analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Berries from grapevines exposed to higher temperatures during early berry development (pre-veraison and whole) accumulated significantly higher concentrations of benzene derivatives 2-phenylethanol and benzyl alcohol at harvest, but lower concentrations of hydroxy-methoxy-substituted volatile phenols, terpenes, and C13-norisoprenoids than the control berries. These results illustrate the importance of different environmental interactions in berry composition and suggest that temperature could potentially modulate phenylpropanoid and mevalonate metabolism in developing berries. This study provides insights into the relationships between abiotic conditions and secondary metabolism in grapevine and highlights the significance of early developmental stages on berry quality at harvest.
... Since the grapevine is indigenous to the Mediterranean region and was mostly cultivated over narrow climatic and geographical ranges (mid-latitude regions) it was originally thought to be sensitive to changes in climate (Jones & Webb, 2010). However, new wine regions in tropical and mesotropical climates started to emerge (Mira de Orduña, 2010) and currently, grapevines are cultivated on six of the seven continents across a wide climatic range (Schultz, 2016). It is clear that the grapevine has in fact a natural ability to adapt to the environmental conditions in which it is grown. ...
... Due to changed migration patterns, the occurrence of pests and diseases is increasing in areas that were previously considered too cool, and therefore uninhabitable (Tate, 2001;Anderson et al., 2008;Mira de Orduña, 2010). The biggest challenges with regard to crop protection are the higher survival rate of pests and diseases during the warmer winters, and the afore-mentioned change in species within a specific region (Santos et al., 2020). ...
... Shorter time intervals between phenological stages (Jones & Davis, 2000) were generally noted, which may translate into smaller optimum harvest windows for quality wines (Jones, 2007) and a compression of harvest dates (Anderson et al., 2008). Grape ripening now tends to occur during the warmer and drier months in summer (Mozell & Thach, 2014;Fraga et al., 2016), with higher respiration rates resulting in accelerated ripening with higher sugar concentrations (among other things also due to higher transpirational water loss from berries); a lack of phenolic and flavour expression; lower acid levels; higher pH, and an overall unbalanced juice composition (Jones 2007;Van Leeuwen et al., 2008;Keller, 2010;Mira de Orduña, 2010;Koch & Oehl, 2018). Adaptation of cultivation practices may delay berry ripening and ensure that it still occurs during the milder temperatures later in the growth season (Van Leeuwen et al., 2019). ...
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In South Africa, environmentally and socioeconomically sustainable wine grape production is promoted by governmental and private initiatives. All the initiatives contribute to establishing a scientifically based response strategy of agro-systems to ensure sustainable production under future expected climate conditions. South African wine grape producers would probably have to cultivate their grapevines under higher atmospheric CO 2 levels and in warmer, mostly drier, conditions. Due to the projected increase in climatic variability, an effort must be made to improve the resilience of vines against these environmental conditions. Whole-vine functioning and balances should be considered when adjustments are made to current long and short term cultivation practices. All practices should be aimed at promoting the development of a deep, dense and buffered root system that is able to support a well-developed canopy with optimal microclimate that would sustain a high yield of good quality. Mitigation and adaptation strategies would most likely have to be region specific, and small scale terroir data, (which should include both climate and terrain/soil information) may play a critical role in decision-making.
... Adaptation, on a basic level, consists of farmers adjusting their practices, infrastructure, capital, and processes to reduce risks posed by the environment, with climate change being a main driver of this environmental risk (Cradock-Henry et al., 2020;Roesch-McNally et al., 2017). Wine grapes are particularly sensitive to the environmental risk caused by climate change (Webb et al., 2008;Hannah et al., 2013) and vineyards are already seeing impacts from climate change, with the intensity of impacts only predicted to increase (Mira De Orduña, 2010;Santos et al., 2020;Jones et al., 2005b;Fraga et al., 2012;Webb et al., 2012;Hannah et al., 2013). Climate change is projected to reduce area suitable for winegrowing in main viticultural areas (Hannah et al., 2013) and have direct impacts on the wine grapes such as changes to their microbiological makeup (Mira De Orduña, 2010). ...
... Wine grapes are particularly sensitive to the environmental risk caused by climate change (Webb et al., 2008;Hannah et al., 2013) and vineyards are already seeing impacts from climate change, with the intensity of impacts only predicted to increase (Mira De Orduña, 2010;Santos et al., 2020;Jones et al., 2005b;Fraga et al., 2012;Webb et al., 2012;Hannah et al., 2013). Climate change is projected to reduce area suitable for winegrowing in main viticultural areas (Hannah et al., 2013) and have direct impacts on the wine grapes such as changes to their microbiological makeup (Mira De Orduña, 2010). Wine grapes have a productive lifespan of 20-50 years, meaning that vines being planted now will experience the predicted increasingly intense climate impacts in future decades, often limiting adaptation options and requiring long-term planning (Babin et al., in press;Battaglini et al., 2009;Nicholas & Durham, 2012). ...
... Viticulture is predicted to be significantly impacted by climate change (Mira De Orduña, 2010;Santos et al., 2020;Jones et al., 2005a;Fraga et al., 2012;Webb et al., 2012). Changing climate is influencing vine phenology, the grapevine yield, and berry and wine quality (Mira De Orduña, 2010;Santos et al., 2020). ...
Article
This paper examines vineyard perceptions and adoption of climate change adaptation and water conservation measures in the Paso Robles American Viticultural Area (AVA). A survey was distributed to all 220 vineyards and vineyard management companies that operate in the AVA, with a 53.64% response rate. The objective of the survey was to determine vineyard manager and owner attitudes towards climate change and adaptation, as well as their perceptions of how these threats would impact their operation. A second objective was to document the current level of water conservation and climate adaptation while identifying the barriers and opportunities for further adoption of these practices. The third objective was to share a climate projection to assess perceived impacts, attitudes, and perceptions of the projection and capacity to adapt. The final objective was to develop a typology to assist targeted outreach of vineyards. Our results showed that the most important current climate impact is heat, with water regulations and supply being the biggest concern in the future. Vineyards were also found to be relatively unsure about their capability to further implement adaptation measures, with relatively low adoption of most practices already. Decision support tools, like the climate projection, were found to be useful and desired by vineyards for management. Results of our study showed that trust in the information source can be a barrier to use of these tools. We identified further barriers to adoption of practices and identified an outreach strategy using a typology of vineyards, which focused on smaller vineyards and those without wineries. These results can be used to increase efficacy of government and NGO programs that aim to support climate adaptation and water conservation in the region.
... Düşük sıcaklıklar antosiyanin konsantrasyonlarını etkilemezken 30°C'nin üzerindeki sıcaklıklar antosiyanin sentezinde azalmaya neden olmaktadır. Sıcaklığın 37°C'nin üzerine çıkması inhibisyonla sonuçlanabilmekte ve buna bağlı olarak azalan üzüm renginden ve aroma bileşiklerinin artan uçuculuğundan dolayı şarap kalitesi olumsuz yönde etkilenebilmektedir (19). ...
... Böylece özellikle yüksek yaz sıcaklıklarında uygun terbiye sistemleri kullanılarak olgunlaşma periyodunun değiştirilmesi iklim değişikliğinin olumsuz etkilerini azaltmada fayda sağlayacaktır. Gölgelendirme ağlarında kullanılan katkı maddelerinin olumlu etkisinden de faydalanılmaktadır (19). Örneğin; güneş ışınlarını yansıtıcı özelliği olan kaolin gibi antitranspirant maddelerin örtü malzemesine eklenmesi güneş yanıklığını azaltmada oldukça etkilidir (44). ...
... Especially inhibitory to wine microorganisms is the combination of ethanol, low pH, and temperature along with SO 2 [1,7,8]. In warm to hot climate wine regions, the potential alcohol content of the wine can already be high, but with issues related to climate warming, ethanol contents in wine have been increasing [9]. As a result, the incidence of ...
... The ethanol tolerance assay (Figure 3) determined that they could grow well in MRS-AJ that contained 19% (v/v) ethanol, which was much higher than previously reported [35]. Nowadays, climate warming can mean greater grape maturity at harvest resulting in wines with higher pH and ethanol, which have a critical impact on the MLF of wines [9,36]. Therefore, it is of great importance to further understand whether these L. hilgardii strains have potential as MLF starter cultures in future wines, which may have stressful pH values and ethanol contents. ...
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Lactic acid bacteria are very important in winemaking. In this study, 108 lactic acid bacteria isolates were obtained from high-ethanol-content (~17% (v/v)) Grenache wines during uninoculated malolactic fermentation (MLF). The 16S rRNA and species-specific PCR showed that 104 of these were Oenococcusoeni, three were Lactobacillus hilgardii, and one was Staphylococcus pasteuri. AFLP of HindIII and MseI digests of the genomic DNA of the O. oeni strains was developed for the first time to discriminate the strains. The results showed that the method was a suitable technique for discriminating the O. oeni strains. Based on the cluster analysis, nine O. oeni strains were chosen for inclusion in an ethanol tolerance assay involving monitoring of optical density (ABS600nm) and viable plating. Several O. oeni strains (G63, G46, G71, G39) survived and grew well in MRS-AJ with 17% (v/v) ethanol, while the commercial O. oeni reference strain did not. Strain G63 could also survive and grow for 168 h after inoculation in MRS-AJ medium with 19% (v/v) ethanol. These results suggest that O. oeni G63, G46, G71, and G39 could potentially be used as MLF starters for high-ethanol-content wines. All three L. hilgardii strains could survive and grow in MRS-AJ with 19% (v/v) ethanol, perhaps also indicating their suitability as next-generation MLF starter cultures.
... Moreover, just think that in the last 10 years, the number of publications on abiotic stresses in Vitis vinifera L. increased by about 90%, showing the importance of climate change impacts and abiotic constraints on viticulture, as well as the attempts by researchers towards adapting to these problems [39]. In fact, climate change is exerting a progressively greater influence on grapevine phenology and grape composition (Figure 1), affecting the vinification, microbiology, chemistry, and sensory aspects of wine [40,41]. [40,42,43]. ...
... In fact, climate change is exerting a progressively greater influence on grapevine phenology and grape composition (Figure 1), affecting the vinification, microbiology, chemistry, and sensory aspects of wine [40,41]. [40,42,43]. ...
Article
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Climate change and disproportionate anthropogenic interventions, such as the excess of phytopharmaceutical products and continuous soil tillage, are jeopardizing viticulture by subjecting plants to continuous abiotic stress. One of the main physiological repercussions of abiotic stress is represented by the unbalanced redox homeostasis due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultimately leading to a state of oxidative stress (detrimental to grape quality). To these are added the direct and indirect damages caused by pathogens (biotic stresses). In light of this scenario, it is inevitable that sustainable techniques and sensitivity approaches for environmental and human health have to be applied in viticulture. Sustainable viticulture can only be made with the aid of sustainable products. Biostimulant (PB) applications (including resistance inducers or elicitors) in the vineyard have become interesting maneuvers for counteracting vine diseases and improving grape quality. These also represent a partial alternative to soil fertilization by improving nutrient absorption and avoiding its leaching into the groundwater. Their role as elicitors has important repercussions in the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by triggering the activation of several enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase, lipoxygenase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase (with the accumulation of phenolic compounds). The present review paper summarizes the PBs' implications in viticulture, gathering historical, functional, and applicative information. This work aims to highlight the innumerable beneficial effects on vines brought by these products. It also serves to spur the scientific community to a greater contribution in investigating the response mechanisms of the plant to positive inductions.
... In Portugal, in the summer, the precipitation may be as low as 40% of its current levels by 2050, when compared with data from 1961-1990 [4]. Severe drought in combination with high evaporative demand negatively influences vines' survival and longevity, and higher temperatures and severe droughts anticipate phenology by several days, while warmer and dryer ripening periods modify berry composition, increasing alcohol contents, and altering the characteristic sensory profiles of wine [5]. The combination of all these changes makes traditional Mediterranean viticulture more difficult, inducing the vinegrowers to adapt to climate change by altering the production systems and choosing different grapevine varieties [6]. ...
... For the plant, reproduction is the major issue, but for the producer of an economically valuable crop, the quality of the harvestable organ is of extreme relevance. Concerning grapevine, it has been shown that abiotic stress can influence physiological parameters, fruit composition, and wine quality [5]. These changes can be monitored by scanning the transcriptome of leaves and berries of several varieties [7][8][9]. ...
Article
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Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most economically important crops worldwide, especially due to the economic relevance of wine production. Abiotic stress, such as drought, may contribute to low yield, shifts in quality, and important economic loss. The predicted climate change phenomena point to warmer and dryer Mediterranean environmental conditions; as such, it is paramount to study the effects of abiotic stress on grapevine performance. Deficit irrigation systems are applied to optimize water use efficiency without compromising berry quality. In this research, the effect of two deficit irrigation strategies, sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), in the grape berry were assessed. The effects of different levels of drought were monitored in Touriga Nacional at key stages of berry development (pea size, véraison, and full maturation) through RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis and by specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs) monitoring through RT-qPCR. Handy datasets were obtained by bioinformatics analysis of raw RNA-Seq results. The dominant proportion of transcripts was mostly regulated by development, with véraison showing more upregulated transcripts. Results showed that primary metabolism is the functional category more severely affected under water stress. Almost all DEGs selected for RT-qPCR were significantly upregulated in full maturation and showed the highest variability at véraison and the lowest gene expression values in the pea size stage.
... Figure 2 : Sensibilité relative de la composition de la baie en fonction de la température (Combe 1987) Parmi les conséquences associées au réchauffement climatique, une modification des concentrations en arômes et précurseurs d'arômes variétaux de la baie de raisin impactant le potentiel aromatique de la baie et affectant la composition finale du vin est aussi notable (Mira de Orduña, 2010). ...
Thesis
Les changements climatiques mondiaux ont déjà affecté et continueront d’affecter la physiologie de la vigne, en particulier le rendement et la composition des baies à la récolte, et donc, en définitive, la qualité et la typicité des vins produits. Parmi les différentes stratégies possibles d’adaptation de la viticulture au changement climatique (modifications de l’encépagement, création de nouvelles variétés mieux adaptées aux conditions futures,...), le contrôle de la composition des baies à la récolte par le biais d’une modification des pratiques culturales et notamment par des manipulations de la canopée (rapport feuilles/fruits (Fe/Fr), manipulation de l’exposition des grappes, échardage) est certainement celle qui serait la plus rapide à mettre en œuvre.Ma thèse a pour but de rechercher le meilleur point de compromis entre diminution du taux de sucres et maintien de l’acidité, de l’accumulation des composés phénoliques et d’une complexité aromatique proche de l’actuelle, en réponse aux manipulations de canopée (rapport Fe/Fr, échardage) couplées ou non à l’application d’acide abscissique (ABA).Différents ratio Fe/Fr ont ainsi été étudiés sur le cépage d’étude Cabernet-Sauvignon en conditions semi-contrôlées en serre sur boutures fructifères puis au vignoble au sein d’une parcelle de production. L’analyse de la composition des baies en métabolites primaires et secondaires, réalisée lors de ces deux expériences, a permis de déterminer que le ratio 6 feuilles restantes par grappe était la valeur seuil en dessous de laquelle un effet sur les métabolites primaires est visible. Une diminution du taux de sucres a notamment été observée, également associée à la diminution de la concentration en anthocyanes totales qui sont particulièrement importantes dans la définition de la typicité des vins de Bordeaux. L’application d’ABA exogène sur les baies avant la véraison a permis de diminuer les effets négatifs de la modification du ratio Fe/Fr sur l’accumulation des anthocyanes et n’a pas montré d’impact sur la typicité des vins lors des dégustations des microvinifications réalisées au cours de cette étude. Ces résultats analytiques obtenus ont été couplés à des analyses transcriptomiques de type RNAseq et PCR quantitative en temps réel (Fluidigm) afin d’identifier les gènes clefs associés au voies métaboliques primaires et secondaires réagissant aux modulations du ratio Fe/Fr couplées ou non à l’ajout d’ABA. Ainsi, le couplage modulation du ratio Fe/Fr et application d’ABA exogène sur les baies serait une méthode potentiellement utilisable afin de réduire le taux de sucres et de maintenir une typicité bordelaise proche de l’actuelle.La caractérisation fonctionnelle d'un gène potentiellement associé à la voie de biosynthèse des méthoxypyrazines, impliquées dans le caractère végétal du raisin et du vin, a également été mise en œuvre. Différentes approches ont été testées et ont fourni des indices utiles, cependant les résultats obtenus sont encore en cours de confirmation.
... Consumers are willing to pay more for so-called "sustainable" wines, which they consider more environmentally friendly, such as sulfite-free wines (Poveda et al., 2005;Forbes et al., 2009;Pérès et al., 2018;Galati et al., 2019). Furthermore, faced with global warming, as wines become richer with higher pH levels, the effectiveness of SO 2 will be reduced, with significant consequences for fermentation and the management of microbial populations (De Orduna, 2010;Drappier et al., 2019). ...
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Changes are currently being made to winemaking processes to reduce chemical inputs [particularly sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )] and adapt to consumer demand. In this study, yeast growth and fungal diversity were investigated in merlot during the prefermentary stages of a winemaking process without addition of SO 2 . Different factors were considered, in a two-year study: vintage, maturity level and bioprotection by the adding yeast as an alternative to SO 2 . The population of the target species was monitored by quantitative-PCR, and yeast and filamentous fungi diversity was determined by 18S rDNA metabarcoding. A gradual decrease of the α-diversity during the maceration process was highlighted. Maturity level played a significant role in yeast and fungal abundance, which was lower at advanced maturity, while vintage had a strong impact on Hanseniaspora spp. population level and abundance. The presence of SO 2 altered the abundance of yeast and filamentous fungi, but not their nature. The absence of sulfiting led to an unexpected reduction in diversity compared to the presence of SO 2 , which might result from the occupation of the niche by certain dominant species, namely Hanseniaspora spp. Inoculation of the grape juice with non- Saccharomyces yeast resulted in a decrease in the abundance of filamentous fungi generally associated with a decline in grape must quality. Lower abundance and niche occupation by bioprotection agents were observed at the overripened stage, thus suggesting that doses applied should be reconsidered at advanced maturity. Our study confirmed the bioprotective role of Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Torulaspora delbrueckii in a context of vinification without sulfites.
... One of the environmental factors that can affect these enzymes is radiation. High radiation and temperatures on grape bunches are closely related to the production of polyphenols, since these compounds have photoprotective functions [43]. An increase in temperature and an increase in dryness may be climatic conditions influencing the production of anthocyanin or polyphenols in grapes [44], these conditions being similar to those found in a warm climate zone such as the one where the study was conducted. ...
Article
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Grapevine varieties can be identified genetically by microsatellite markers. However, these molecular markers are not available to discriminate between somatic mutations that give rise to clones. Therefore, the study of compounds with oenological interest could be used to identify variability in grapevine somatic variants. In this research, sugars (glucose, fructose), acids (tartaric and malic acid) and polyphenols (22 phenolic compounds, including 13 anthocyanins) were analyzed in grape berries of two somatic variants known with different names—‘Graciano’ and ‘Tintilla de Rota’—cultivated in the same vineyard under warm climate conditions. The organic acid results show significant differences between the performance of the two accessions. Regarding phenolic compound (excluding anthocyanins) content, significant differences were observed between the two accessions. Kaempferol, caftaric acid and epicatechin were the compounds responsible for the reported differences. Differences in anthocyanin content showed opposite behavior between ‘Tintilla de Rota’ and ‘Graciano’. In this sense, ‘Graciano’ accession showed an increase in all forms of anthocyanins, with a remarkable increment of peonidin 3-O-glucoside. Principal component analysis of polyphenolic compounds revealed clearly distinguished behaviors concerning these compounds, besides showing similar tendencies between the two accessions during the ripening stage. These results could allow for the discrimination of the two accessions into somatic variants highlighting their individual identity.
... La gradation alcoolique des vins a en moyenne augmenté de 0,5° à 3° en fonction des cépages et des régions (Adelsheim et al., 2016;Alston et al., 2015;Mira de Orduña, 2010;van Leeuwen et Darriet, 2016) dans les principales régions viticoles, en partie en conséquence des effets du réchauffement sur la vigne ces dernières années (Fraga et al., 2013;Moriondo et al., 2013). Si les consommateurs ne sont pas prêts à se tourner vers les vins allégés en alcool, l'alcool est un attribut fondamental dans le processus de décision d'achat (Sorio et Siadou-Martin, 2019). ...
Thesis
La Responsabilité Sociétale des Entreprises (RSE) est devenue un enjeu majeur du secteur agroalimentaire face aux défis de l’alimentation, de l’environnement, des conditions sociales du travail et des attentes sociétales fortement exprimées. Pour y répondre, les entreprises déploient de nombreux dispositifs de renforcement des contraintes de production, au-delà du strict respect des réglementations nationales et européennes, comme des démarches de certifications générales de l’entreprise (norme ISO 26 000), et diverses actions pouvant être communiquées auprès des consommateurs par le biais notamment d’allégations et certifications-produits. La question de la valorisation de la RSE repose donc sur l’éthique de l’entreprise, l’image qu’en a le consommateur, tout autant que la fonctionnalité des produits qu’elle propose sur le marché.A partir de l’exemple du marché du vin, l’objectif de cette thèse est de mieux comprendre les motivations des consommateurs pour valoriser ces démarches de RSE sur les marchés. Le travail méthodologique s’appuie sur les acquis de l’économie expérimentale, en proposant des extensions conceptuelles susceptibles de mesurer efficacement l’évolution des consentements à payer (CAP) des consommateurs pour des produits responsables. La crédibilité des marchés expérimentaux proposés et la pertinence des informations transmises aux consommateurs, sont assurées par des démarches pluridisciplinaires avec les sciences œnologiques et écologiques, mais aussi par une approche de recherche partenariale avec le milieu professionnel.La première partie de cette thèse permet de mesurer les réactions des consommateurs vis-à-vis des certifications, tout en évaluant les premiers arbitrages entre les différentes caractéristiques des produits. Si nous démontrons l’existence d’une pérennité de niches de marché des certifications, nous expliquons pourquoi cette interprétation doit être relativisée, notamment du fait des croyances des consommateurs concernant ces affichages responsables. En particulier, nous avons pu proposer une analyse du CAP influencé par un affichage purement environnemental concernant la biodiversité, grâce à la mise en place d’un indicateur opérationnel (‘Biodiv-Score’). Nous analysons alors les réactions des consommateurs sur le niveau de cet indicateur et mesurons précisément les croyances et les attentes associées au label BIO par rapport à la biodiversité.Ces attentes ne sont pas nécessairement durables dans le temps et dépendent de différents leviers que nous abordons dans la deuxième partie de cette thèse. Tout d’abord, à partir d’une méthodologie originale de mesure des CAP que nous proposons (G&A Method), nous provoquons une plus grande réflexion des consommateurs sur la place accordée au sensoriel, aux performances environnementales et sanitaires des produits, et au processus de production. Nous montrons alors que, si les entreprises viticoles ne pourront se passer de faire un produit qui plaise au consommateur sur le plan sensoriel, l’engagement dans une démarche responsable est indispensable pour maintenir leurs parts de marchés sur le long terme. Par ailleurs, nous abordons la question des interactions sociales qui influencent l’achat, en traitant l’implication des entreprises dans le bien-être au travail de leurs salariés. Il apparaît que si la volonté personnelle de correspondre à une norme sociale est un moteur indéniable de la transition vers une consommation responsable, la pression du regard de l’autre n’est significative que si cet autre appartient effectivement à l’environnement social du consommateur.Ces résultats nous conduisent à tirer les enseignements sur le plan des stratégies d’entreprises, non seulement par rapport aux développement d’une production vertueuse, mais aussi par rapport aux choix stratégiques des circuits de commercialisations (vente en grande distribution, en direct, via nternet…) qui conditionnent le contexte d’achat et de la valorisation RSE.
... Mean data from Languedoc, France shows that over a 35-year time span, grape sugar content expressed in potential alcohol increased from 11% to 14%, pH from 3.50 to 3.75 and total acidity decreased from 6.0 to 4.5 g/L ( Figure 5). Similar observations have been made in many regions around the world (Schultz 2000;Duchêne and Schneider 2005;Mira de Orduña 2010). ...
Article
Receptomics is a novel bio-analystical approach based on parallel screening of large numbers of biological recpetors to evaluate potential bioactives, such as aroma and taste compounds. It also holds promise to augment or replace human sensory evaluation of food and beverages. This paper describes a novel microfluidic technique developed in Wageningen for anlaysis of complex liquitd food samples against large arrays of human sensory and health-related receptors- expressed in a human cell line, inside a flow cell. A small pre-study on the analysis of red and white wine against a nearly complete set of bitter receptors is also reported. To ensure the cells would tolerate undiluted wine, it was necessary to first neutralisee the wine pH and remove the alcohol. To observe specific activation of receptors, the 16-times diluted sample was contrasted with the 2-, 4- and 8-times diluted samples. Surprisingly, it was found that both Shiraz and Gewurztraminer wines induced at higher concentrations a negative signal with some of the receptors that were expected to give positive signals (TAS2-R4, -R7, -R39 and -38PAV) in this two wines. This is somewhat unexpected in light of pure compound assays and observations in other bitter drinks such as beer and coffee. The lack of positive signals may be due to the fact that the pH was adjustd and/or that the assay lacked sensitivity as it was only possible to analyse diluted wine. To further evaluate the potential of receptomics for direct analysis of wine taste, it will be required to (i) identify and correct for the dip-inducing factor (ii) analyse non-bitter wines after the addition of bitter compounds as positive controls and compare them to bitter wines, and (iii) repeat the tests with pH-insensitive reporters of receptor activation.
... Die zeitlichen Veränderungen in der phänologischen Entwicklung der Reben, der frühere Austrieb, die um zwei bis drei Wochen frühere Blüte und auch der frühere Reifebeginn und Erntezeitpunkt lassen keinen Zweifel aufkommen, das Klima hat sich bereits deutlich verändert [1] [2] [3] [4]. Wir ernten heute Trauben mit höheren Zuckergehalten, die Gesamtsäuregehalte sind niedriger, oft so niedrig, dass ein Zusatz von Säure notwendig wird. ...
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Seit dem Jahr 1985 werden am Versuchszentrum Laimburg alljährlich im Herbst, in den Wochen vor der Reife, bei den wichtigsten Südtiroler Rebsorten Tests durchgeführt, um die Reifesituation zu ermitteln und den Weinbaubetrieben die Planung der Ernte zu erleichtern. Diese Daten stellen zugleich eine interessante Dokumentation der Veränderungen in diesem Zeitraum dar. Neben der Klimaänderung mit einer Zunahme der durchschnittlichen Temperaturen, waren die letzten dreieinhalb Jahrzehnte in Südtirol auch von großen Veränderungen im Weinbau und insbesondere durch das Streben nach höherwertiger Trauben- und Weinqualität geprägt. Derselbe Reifegrad der Trauben wird heute um 19 bis 50 Tage früher erreicht als zu Beginn der Reifetests im Jahre 1985. In den allermeisten Fällen ist eine Reifeverfrühung von etwa 3 Wochen zu erkennen. Aus den vorliegenden Daten kann nicht ermittelt werden wieweit diese Veränderungen auf die veränderten Klimabedingungen oder auf Veränderungen im Anbau zurückzuführen sind. Letztere dürften jedoch auch eine Rolle spielen, insbesondere in den Fällen mit überdurchschnittlicher Reifeverfrühung. Die Gesamtsäurewerte der Moste sind bei gleichem Zuckergehalt nicht abgefallen bzw. sind auch die pH-Werte bei gleichem Zuckergehalt nicht angestiegen. Dies wäre eigentlich, aufgrund der inzwischen wärmeren Bedingungen während der Traubenreife, zu erwarten gewesen. Vielmehr ist es so, dass bei gleichem Zuckergehalt die Gesamtsäurewerte entweder ähnlich geblieben sind oder heute höher liegen als früher. Teilweise sind bei gleichen Gesamtsäurewerten auch die pH-Werte heute niedriger als früher.
... The comparison of the analysis of the microvinifications for both seasons shows higher absorbance values for both color intensity and phenolic compounds for the 2018 season, in agreement with other studies that obtained better results with cooler temperatures [66]. This seems to be one of the key factors to consider [67], since vegetative growth and phenolic compound synthesis are affected by temperature [68]. Global warming produces an increase in the gap between technological maturity, corresponding to the stage of higher sugar accumulation and low acidity (which comes earlier) and phenolic and aromatic maturity (which comes later) [69,70] which is ratified by the results obtained in this study, where the best correlations occur in April the first season (warmer). ...
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The inclusion of technological innovation and the development of remote sensing tools in wine production are an efficient and productive factor that supports the production and improves the quality of the wine produced. In this study we explored models based on Sentinel-2 image bands and spectral indices to estimate key wine quality variables, such as phenols (TP), anthocyanins (TA) and color intensity (CI), providing different sensory characteristics of wine. Two Cabernet Sauvignon wine harvest seasons were studied, 2017 and 2018, and models with coefficients of determination (R2) higher than 60% were obtained for color intensity and total anthocyanins during the first season, both in a period very close to harvest during the first days of April, so the high periodicity of Sentinel 2 becomes strategic. In addition, homogeneous sectors can be identified in the plots for selective harvesting and thus the winery space can be programmed appropriately. These results suggest further work on the number of samples in order to transform it into a useful tool with the potential to define a differentiated harvest and estimate the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the intensity of wine color, key elements in the final quality of the wine.
... Similar findings were previously reported by Muñoz et al. [27] and Dicks and Endo [28], which showed that the density of LAB in the initial phases of winemaking (the must phase and onset of alcoholic fermentation) ranges from approximately 10 3 to 10 4 CFU/mL and the numbers and proportions of species vary according to the ripeness and condition of the grapes at the time of harvesting. Moreover, De Orduna mentioned that climate conditions are exerting a profound influence on wine microbiology [29], while Bokulich et al. introduced the term "microbial terroir" as a determining factor in regional variation among wine grapes [30]. ...
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Malolactic fermentation (MLF) or biological decrease of wine acidity is defined as the enzymatic bioconversion of malic acid in lactic acid, a process performed by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The procedures for the isolation of new indigenous LAB strains from the red wines produced in Copou Iasi wine center (NE of Romania) undergoing spontaneous malolactic fermentation, resulted in the obtaining of 67 catalase-negative and Gram-positive LAB strains. After testing in the malolactic fermentative process, application of specific screening procedures and identification (API 50 CH), two bacterial strains belonging to the species Oenococcus oeni (strain 13-7) and Lactobacillus plantarum (strain R1-1) with high yield of malolactic bioconversion, non-producing biogenic amines, and with active extracellular enzymes related to wine aroma, were retained and characterized. Tested in synthetic medium (MRS-TJ) for 10 days, the new isolated LAB strains metabolized over 98% of the malic acid at ethanol concentrations between 10 and 14 % (v/v), low pH (>3.0), total SO2 doses up to 70 mg/L and temperatures between 15 and 35 °C, showing high potential for future use in the winemaking process as bacterial starter cultures, in order to obtain high quality wines with increased typicity.
... Briefly, the changes in grape composition that have been described, due to increased temperatures during the ripening period, include decreases in a range of grape attributes such as berry colour and tannins (Bonada and Sadras, 2015;Buttrose et al., 1971), acidity (Buttrose et al., 1971;Kliewer et al., 1967), rotundone levels (Wood et al., 2008;Zhang et al., 2015) and levels of other flavour compounds such as methoxypyrazine and isoprenoids (Sadras et al., 2013). Increases in pH are also reported (Mira de Orduña, 2010). ...
Article
Advancement of grapevine phenological stages due to climate change has been well documented. There is less information regarding which phenological intervals in the grapevine growth cycle are most affected by temperature and thus drive this advancement. This study focused on investigating the relationship between temperature and the phenological interval lengths between budburst, flowering, veraison (onset of grape ripening) and maturity, to identify the interval most influenced by temperature change. Historical data from four climatically different vineyards in Victoria, Australia were used that included 15 cultivars and covered 7 years, 2012–2018, to investigate trends in the intervals between phenological stages. The interval between budburst and flowering shortened significantly more than the subsequent intervals between flowering and veraison and between veraison and maturity, as related to average daily springtime temperature (max). We found the best relationships between temperature and interval length were for the budburst to flowering interval, and for the relationship between the average daily maximum temperature during this interval and interval length. We found this relationship was best described by a curvilinear rather than linear function, which also varied between cultivars. These findings indicated that with increasing spring maximum temperatures, the rate of decrease in length of the interval between budburst and flowering will slow and plateau. The study showed the importance of the budburst to flowering interval to the length of the grapevine growth cycle and indicates that there is cultivar diversity of response to temperature. This knowledge helps our ability to understand and predict phenological timing and assists development of our adaptation strategies to climate change.
... In grapes, the adaptability of genotypes of a particular region enables it to produce fruit efficiently (Akram et al., 2019). High-temperature effects sugars, acids and antioxidant compounds in grapes, besides it may affect the aroma and color of grape vines (De-Orduna, 2010). In grapes, high temperatures lead plants towards prematurity due to which berry size does not develop properly. ...
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Oman is located in an arid region of the world that is characterized by adverse climatic conditions, including heat and drought. In recent years, it has also been affected by climate turbulence and the occurrence of severe weather, such as cyclones and heat/cold waves affecting large agricultural areas of the country. Fruit cultivation area represents 31% of the total cultivated area (97,239.58 ha) in the country. However, the production share is only 17% of the total crop production in the country (2.6 million tons). About 90% of the fruit cultivation area is dominated by date palm, banana, lime, and mango. In addition to the abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, and salinity, major fruit crops have declined in recent years due to various biotic stressors, primarily insect pests, and diseases. For several decades, the date palm has suffered from the Dubas bug and in recent years from Red Palm Weevil. Lime has been infected with Witch’s Broom Disease of Lime (WBDL) caused by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ that has led to the decline of production to 25% from its peak in the nineties. Banana is Oman`s second-largest fruit crop in production and export. It has also been the subject of studies due to losses incurred by farmers during pre-and post-harvest stages, in addition to several pests and diseases that affect bananas in Oman. Mango is another major fruit crop that is primarily cultivated in northern Oman. Severe infection with mango decline has led to the eradication of mango orchards from many regions of Oman, particularly in Batinah Coast, where increased salinity has led to a decline in mango yield. Research conducted in Oman has investigated several aspects of these challenges. This review paper summarizes the outcome from studies conducted in the country and proposes directions towards resolving current and future challenges to the fruit industry.
... Geographically, grapevines are historically cultivated on six out of seven continents, between latitudes 4 and 51 in the northern hemisphere and between latitudes 6 and 45 in the southern hemisphere and across a large diversity of climates (oceanic, temperate, continental, Mediterranean, etc.), with the majority occurring in temperate climate regions [2]. However, climate change is exerting an increasingly profound influence on vine phenology and grape composition, and ultimately affects winemaking, wine microbiology, and chemistry and sensory aspects [3]. Observed changes in 27 premium viticultural regions across the globe have shown an increase in the average growing season temperature of 1.3 • C from 1950 to 2000, while in Europe, an increase of 1.7 • C was observed from 1950 to 2004 [4][5][6]. ...
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Grape over-ripening is a technique that has historically been used for the production of white wines in southern Spain. However, this technique is still widely used for the production of sweet wines. In this study and after recently proving the feasibility of making dry white wines from overripe grapes with and without the presence of grape skin in a warm climate zone, the sensory characterisation and analysis of the major and minor volatile compounds in dry white wines made from overripe grapes are presented for the first time. Two over-ripening techniques (sun-drying and climatic chamber drying) were studied for two different periods of time (48 and 96 h), as has the presence of grape skins during alcoholic fermentation. Grape over-ripening implies modifications in the composition of both the major and minor volatile compounds in wines. In terms of sensory analysis, wines with a similar profile were obtained year-on-year. The results of the preference test show that the wines made from grapes that had been over-ripened in the sun for 96 h were preferred by the tasting panel for both vintages. Thus, grape over-ripening under the sun could be considered as a resilience and adaptation technique for increased temperature conditions during the ripening season caused by the effects of climate change.
... Air temperature rise, combined with ever-earlier grape harvests, changes the typicity and character of the wines produced (Jones and Webb 2010;Spayd et al. 2002;van Leeuwen and Darriet 2016). Thus, the final sugar concentration and potential alcohol content of wines both tend to increase, while total acidity decreases (Battaglini et al. 2009;De Orduna 2010). Other aromatic and phenolic elements are also altered (De Orduna 2010; Dequin et al. 2017). ...
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In this study, we investigated the consequences of climate change on bioclimatic indices in vineyards along the edge of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Like in other vineyards all around the world, the typicity of wines and the phenology of vines have changed, particularly since the 1970s. Trends in the growing season average temperature and in Huglin’s heliothermal index show that the climate in the Neuchatel vineyards changed from very cool or cool to temperate during the last decades. Trends in the cool night index and in the prior to harvest cool night index both indicate that in the near future this wine region will frequently experience temperate instead of cool nights during the weeks leading up to harvest. Our results highlight the need for adaptation strategies, such as an upward elevational shift for Pinot Noir, as climatic conditions will become too warm at its current location in the next decades. They also show that conditions in this region are already favorable for more thermophilic varieties such as Merlot. In the context of global warming, this kind of analysis should be conducted throughout winegrowing regions in order to develop efficient adaptation strategies at the microclimatic scale.
... On the other hand, the consumer demand for tasty, structured, and full-bodied wines has pushed the market towards winemaking styles that require the harvest of very ripe grapes. As a result, quality grapes today tend to be richer in sugar content, leading to the observed increase in wine alcohol levels when all this sugar is fermented by yeasts [1]. ...
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One of the most prominent consequences of global climate warming for the wine industry is a clear increase of the sugar content in grapes, and thus the alcohol level in wines. Among the several approaches to address this important issue, this review focuses on biotechnological solutions, mostly relying on the selection and improvement of wine yeast strains for reduced ethanol yields. Other possibilities are also presented. Researchers are resorting to both S. cerevisiae and alternative wine yeast species for the lowering of alcohol yields. In addition to the use of selected strains under more or less standard fermentation conditions, aerobic fermentation is increasingly being explored for this purpose. Genetic improvement is also playing a role in the development of biotechnological tools to counter the increase in the wine alcohol levels. The use of recombinant wine yeasts is restricted to research, but its contribution to the advancement of the field is still relevant. Furthermore, genetic improvement by non-GMO approaches is providing some interesting results, and will probably result in the development of commercial yeast strains with a lower alcohol yield in the near future. The optimization of fermentation processes using natural isolates is, anyway, the most probable source of advancement in the short term for the production of wines with lower alcohol contents.
... It passes in a co-current direction through the membrane cell and collects the dialyzed alcohol from the wine. Finally the ow rate is controlled by a rotameter type Parker owmeter (6). Both Erlenmeyer asks are covered with Para lm® to prevent oxidation and loss of aromas and alcohol from the synthetic and real wine. ...
Preprint
Membrane dialysis is studied as a promising technique for partial dealcoholization of white wines. The performance of three membrane processes applied for the partial dealcoholization of white wines of the Verdejo variety has been studied in the present work. Combination of Nanofiltration with Pervaporation, single step Pervaporation and, finally, Dialysis, have been applied to White wines from same variety and different vintages. The resulting wines have been chemically and sensorially analyzed and results have been compared with initial characteristics of the wines. From the results obtained, we can conclude that the best procedure consists in the application of Dialysis to the wines which resulted in a reasonable alcohol content reduction while maintaining organoleptic properties and consumer acceptability of the original wine. Therefore, membrane dialysis, as a method of partial dealcoholization of white wines, has undoubted advantages over other techniques based on membranes, which must be confirmed in subsequent studies under more industrial conditions.
... Malolactic fermentation is a complex process that can improve other quality parameters (Table 3) because of additional virtues of O. oeni (Capozzi et al., 2021;Virdis et al., 2021). Several works report improvements in aroma composition (Pripis-Nicolau et al., 2004;Knoll et al., 2010;Antalick et al., 2012;Costello et al., 2013;Bartowsky et al., 2015;Fia et al., 2018;Gammacurta et al., 2018;Lasik-Kurdyś et al., 2018;), protein stabilization (Virdis et al., 2021), clarification (Rodríguez et al., 2019;Virdis et al., 2021), acetaldehyde reduction (Osborne et al., 2000;De Orduña, 2010;Virdis et al., 2021). Most studies show that these positive characteristics of the species O. oeni are strain-dependent (Capozzi et al., 2021;Virdis et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Climate change is generating several problems in wine technology. One of the main ones is lack of acidity and difficulties performing malolactic fermentation to stabilize wines before bottling. Among the different available acidity management technologies, such as direct acid addition, ion exchange resins, electro-membrane treatments, or vineyard management, the microbiological option is reliable and deeply studied. The main approach is the increase in malic acid content because of the metabolism of specific Saccharomyces strains and to increase lactic acid because of the metabolism of Lachancea genus. Other non-Saccharomyces yeasts, such as Starmerella bacillaris or Candida stellata can also acidify significantly because of the production of pyruvic or succinic acid. Wine industry needs the removal of malic acid in most red wines before bottling to achieve wine stability. Oenococus oeni performs the malolactic fermentation of red wines on most conditions because of the metabolization of malic acid into lactic acid. However, modern oenology challenges such as high ethanol concentrations, high pH or low levels of malic acid have made researchers to look for other options to reduce potential risks of deviation. Other wine-related microorganisms able to de-acidify malic acid have appeared as interesting alternatives for specific difficult scenarios. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Schizosaccharomyces genus make up nowadays the main studied alternatives.
... Most soil types are suitable, but the sites that are susceptible to water stress will not be as productive due to restrictions in yield (Bowen, 2010). The climate and microclimate exert a profound influence on the vine phenology and grape composition and then affect the vinification conditions and wine microbiology, ultimately affecting the chemistry and sensory aspects of the wines (De Orduna, 2010). Compared with other microclimate factors, the growing season length and temperatures are the factors that exert the greatest influence on the wine quality because they affect the ability of the grapes to ripen with optimal levels of sugar, acids, and odorants. ...
Thesis
Icewine was used as an experimental object, and hundreds of wine- or food-related odor mixtures were designed and investigated for the first time based on the identification and analysis of icewine’ odorants. The aim of the thesis work was to explore the key odor elements that affected the perception of odor mixtures and the general laws behind olfactory perceptual interactions. The thesis manuscript contains seven chapters:The first review of the literature gives a brief introduction to the olfactory system and odor perception. Then, odorants’ mixture perception is highlighted through examples of interactions between odorants at the perceptual level. Research progress in perceptual interactions between odorants observed in foods and beverages and methodologies involved in the researches of perceptual interactions are also briefly summarized.The second review of the literature aims to provide comprehensive information related to our research objects, the odor of a special wine, namely icewine, which made from late harvested and frozen grapes by unconventional production process. The uniqueness of icewine’s aroma, the mechanism of odor generation in icewine and the effects of natural and human factors in the vineyard and winery on aroma composition of icewines are systematically summarized. The current research status and future research needs of icewine aroma are also put forward in this chapter. Some of these research needs are exactly the content included in this thesis.The first study analyzed the odorants and the odorants’ aroma perception in icewine. In this study, the key aroma compounds of Chinese Vidal icewine were characterized by means of gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on polar and non-polar columns. Aroma recombination experiments and omission tests were used to verify and rank the aroma contribution for investigating the key aroma compounds.The second study is among the very first attempts to evaluate the contribution of odor-active compounds considering the mixture-induced perceptual effect on a complex aroma (here icewine). In this study, we used the advanced Olfactoscan setup, which allowed us to consider the impact of a single odorant, identified by GC × GC−TOFMS, on the global wine aroma delivered as a background odor during GCO analysis. To analyze the data, a new semiautomatic method was applied to allow the identification of odor zones in a similar way both in GCO and Olfactoscan approaches based on the detection frequency method (19 trained judges).The third study systematically explored the perceptual interactions between key odor-active compounds. Based on the findings of the first two studies, more than 150 odor mixtures samples, related to the key odorants of icewine and wine aroma vectors, were designed to assess the influence of odor intensity, number of odorants in the mixture, and combinations of odorants on the overall perception. The experiment was performed with a 12-channels computer-controlled dynamic-dilution olfactometer.The last study selected 72 representative odorants in food and beverage systems based on the differences in their structural parameters, and 222 sets of binary odor mixtures were designed among the 2556 possible combinations. By measuring the intensity and pleasantness of the binary odor mixtures and of their two unmixed components, general laws of perceptual interactions, as well as hypotheses on their putative influencing factors in a simple system are established.The manuscript ended with a general conclusion and discussion (Chapter 7) about the four studies conducted, then the innovation of this work and the perspectives for further research were addressed.
... They can be grown with limited water supplies, occupying also dry and semidry lands [4,5]. However, climate change could exacerbate drought stress in many viticultural regions, causing serious problems in grape and wine production [6,7]. ...
Article
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Nitrogen (N) deficiency causes a morphological disequilibrium between shoots and roots, favoring hypogeal growth. Our hypothesis is that short-term nitrogen deficiency could induce an increase in vine resilience, inducing root growth before the appearance of significant dysfunctions in the epigeal part of the plant. Then, nitrogen availability could be promptly restored through a well-thought-out fertilization plan. In this experiment, two table grape cultivars grafted onto three different rootstocks were studied in three hydroponic growing conditions characterized by different nitrogen availability. After 53 days of treatment, plant morphologies were described, and leaf photosynthetic pigments were quantified. The short-term nitrogen deficiency induced root growth, leading to significantly different proportions among the hypogeal and the epigeal parts, despite no significant differences were recorded concerning shoot growth. Some small differences in the leaf pigmentations indicated an incipient symptom of nitrogen deficiency, and significant differences in the phytomer morphology indicated the possibility of developing low-cost indices for prompt identification of incipient symptoms. This will allow the exploitation of the advantages of short-term nitrogen deficiency while avoiding negative effects on shoot growth by promptly restoring the nitrogen availability.
... Grape is one of the world's most economically valuable fruit crops and grape quality is the foundation for high quality wines. Global warming has resulted in advanced maturity date, higher temperatures during ripening, higher sugar content, and lower acidity [1][2][3][4] , all contributing to changes in wine quality and style 5,6 . With continually increasing temperature expected in the near-future, growers can expect more far-reaching impacts on the sustainability of viticulture and typicality of wine in the coming decades 7,8 . ...
Article
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Grape quality is regulated by complex interactions between environments and cultivars. Growing suitable cultivars in a given region is essential for maintaining viticulture sustainability, particularly in the face of climate change. We created a database composed of three different subsets of data. The first subset was created by digitizing and curating the seminal report of Amerine and Winkler (1944), which provided grape harvest dates (GHDs), the quality of musts and wines, and wine tasting notes for 148 cultivars from 1935–1941 across five contrasting climatic regions of California. To put this dataset into a climate change context, we collected GHDs and must sugar content (°Brix) records from 1991 to 2018 for four representative cultivars in one of the five studied regions (Napa). Finally, we integrated meteorological data of the five regions during 1911–2018 and calculated bioclimatic indices important for grape. The resulting database is unique and valuable for assessing the fitness between cultivars across environments in order to mitigate the effects of climate change.Design Type(s) Cultivars design • Regions design Measurement Type(s) Climate data • Harvest date • Quality • Tasting notes Technology Type(s) Phenology characterization • Quality determination Sample Characteristic(s) Grape harvest dates • °Brix • Tannin • Total acid • pH • Alcohol • Fixed acid • Extract Measurement(s) maximum air temperature • minimum air temperature • total soluble solids (oBrix) • must total acid • must pH • wine alcohol • wine extract • wine tannin • wine total acid • wine volatile acid Technology Type(s) weather station • a oBrix hydrometer • titration with sodium hydroxide to a phenolphthalein end point • a quinhydrone electrode or a Beckman pH meter • hydrometer • a special 0° to 8° Balling hydrometer • the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists method • titration with phenolphthalein as an indicator • titration with pretreated wines by method II of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists
... In general, high temperatures lead to less intense aromas such as pyrazines or monoterpenes, and might promote undesirable flavors such as o-Aminoacetophenone, a compound whose aroma is often described as varnish of mothball like (De Orduña, 2010). Yue et al. (2015) demonstrated by solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPM-GC/MS) that the number of volatile compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon wines increased with altitude (from 2,110 m to 2,778 m a.s.l.). ...
Article
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Grapevine berry quality for winemaking depends on complex and dynamic relationships between the plant and the environment. Winemakers around the world are demanding a better understanding of the factors that influence berry growth and development. In the last decades, an increment in air temperature, CO2 concentration and dryness occurred in wine-producing regions, affecting the physiology and the biochemistry of grapevines, and by consequence the berry quality. The scientific community mostly agrees in a further raise as a result of climate change during the rest of the century. As a consequence, areas most suitable for viticulture are likely to shift into higher altitudes where mean temperatures are suitable for grape cultivation. High altitude can be defined as the minimum altitude at which the grapevine growth and development are differentially affected. At these high altitudes, the environments are characterized by high thermal amplitudes and great solar radiations, especially ultraviolet-B (UV-B). This review summarizes the environmental contribution of global high altitude-related climatic variables to the grapevine physiology and wine composition, for a better evaluation of the possible establishment of vineyards at high altitude in climate change scenarios.
... In recent years, the increase in temperature and the changes in rainfall distribution caused by climate change are affecting vine and grape physiology and are consequently impacting wine composition and quality (Jones et al., 2005;Santos et al., 2020;Schultz, 2000). As a consequence of global warming, the grape pulp ripens faster, and the pH and sugar concentration become too high and titratable acidity too low (Godden et al., 2015;Mira de Orduña, 2010;Schultz, 2016). Therefore, grapes reach a very high potential alcoholic degree and pH sooner than usual. ...
Article
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Climate change is affecting vine and grape physiology and consequently wine composition, causing a decrease in titratable acidity and an increase in ethanol content and pH. These effects are especially problematic in sparkling wines that need higher acidity to maintain an adequate freshness. Therefore, the wine industry is currently using certain procedures for reducing wine pH, among which cation exchange stands out as it is probably the most widely used. To study the influence of cation exchange treatment on the composition and quality of sparkling wines, a grape juice of Macabeo (pH 3.21 and titratable acidity 5.70 g of tartaric acid/L) after settling was treated to obtain a very acidic grape juice (pH 1.9 and titratable acidity 8.70 g of tartaric acid/L). The original grape juice was then blended in different proportions (0-45 %) with a treated grape juice. These different grape juices were used for obtaining their corresponding base wines which in turn were used for elaborating their corresponding sparkling wines using the traditional method. The cation exchange treatment reduced the pH from 3.15 (Control) to 2.87 (45 % of treatment) and increased the titratable acidity from 4.61 (Control) to 7.69 (45 % of treatment). No significant effects were observed on the concentration of any of the protein or polysaccharide fractions and the foaming properties of the base wine or young sparkling wines were not affected; however, cation exchange caused a decrease in foamability and persistence of the foam in older sparkling wines, especially when the proportion of treated grape juice was higher. A trained panel only found clear sensory differences in the acidity of the sparkling wines without the rest of the attributes being affected by the treatment.
... This increase of sugar in must lead to wines with higher alcoholic content [3,4], which also increases the perception of a health risk from consumers, [5], a sensitivity that also could be supported by the restrictive legislation on alcohol rates allowed when driving. An excessive alcohol content also affects the taxes associated with the exportation of wines, making them difficult to compete in markets that are already very saturated and to consumers who traditionally have little appetite for high alcohol content beverages. ...
Article
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Membrane dialysis is studied as a promising technique for partial dealcoholization of white wines. The performance of three membrane processes applied for the partial dealcoholization of white wines of the Verdejo variety has been studied in the present work. Combination of Nanofiltration with Pervaporation, single step Pervaporation and, finally, Dialysis, have been applied to white wines from same variety and different vintages. The resulting wines have been chemically and sensorially analyzed and results have been compared with initial characteristics of the wines. From the results obtained, we can conclude that all procedures lead to significant alcohol content reduction (2%, 0.9% and 1.23% v/v respectively). Nevertheless, the best procedure consists in the application of Dialysis to the wines which resulted in a reasonable alcohol content reduction while maintaining organoleptic properties (only 14 consumers were able to distinguish the filtered and original wines, with 17 consumers needed to be this differences significant) and consumer acceptability of the original wine. Therefore, membrane dialysis, as a method of partial dealcoholization of white wines, has undoubted advantages over other techniques based on membranes, which must be confirmed in subsequent studies under more industrial conditions. This work represents the first application of Dialysis for the reduction of alcohol content in wines.
... As we can see from Figure 2D, CK and T1 decreased sharply from 50-70 DAA, CK, and T1 to keep a higher content of titratable acids at maturity. The results of this study indicate that different training systems had significant effects on fruit quality, and therefore it will have a significant influence on secondary metabolism and subsequent fermentation [22,23]. ...
Article
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Soil burial is a survival strategy for grapevines that can safely overwinter in north-western regions of China. A suitable training system was beneficial for soil burial to provide winter protection. Moreover, the training system can also significantly affect fruit quality during the development of grape berries, such as primary and secondary metabolites. In this study, four-year-old Cabernet Gernischt grapevines were used as experimental material and exposed to four training systems, including the Ningxia traditional vertical trunk (control, CK); the gobelet (T1); single guyot (T2); slant trunk with vertical shoot positioning (STVSP) (T3). The results showed that total soluble solid total phenol content was 12.69%, 57% higher under T3 training systems than in the control, and T3 alleviated the canopy density, leading to improving the leaf photosynthetic efficiency gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assay used to detect the aroma compounds. The results indicated that the T3 training system enhanced the accumulation of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, C6/C9 and esters, which account for the largest proportion of volatile compounds, and the qRT-PCR reveals that VvEcar, Vvter, VvCCD1, and VvLis were raised under T3 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, T3 contributes to most free amino acid synthesis. Additionally, the PCA reveals the correlation of free amino acids under four training systems, which reflected the mostly amino acid related to T3, and thus, we could speculate that T3 enhances the overall aroma. These results may lead to new strategies to select a new, short trunk training system to achieve mechanized buried soil, to prevent cold and produce high-quality wine in this area.
... Changes may also occur at the physiological level, and the qualitative characteristics of the grapes and eventual wine will likely be affected [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. Smaller yields can be expected in line with reductions in berry and bunch weight, together with restricted growth, smaller leaf surface areas (with early senescence and premature leaf fall), increased respiration and evapotranspiration, and reduced photosynthetic activity [3,[13][14][15][16][17]. ...
Article
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One alternative for adapting viticulture to high temperatures and the scarcity of water is the development of new varieties adapted to such conditions. This work describes six new genotypes, derived from “Monastrell” × “Cabernet Sauvignon” (MC16, MC19, MC72, MC80) and “Monastrell” × “Syrah” (MS104, MS49) crosses, grown under deficit irrigation and rainfed conditions in a semi-arid wine-producing area (Murcia, southeastern Spain). The effect of genotype, year, and irrigation treatment on the phenological, productiveness, morphological, and grape quality data was evaluated. The study material was obtained and selected as part of a breeding program run by the Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarollo Agrario y Medioambiental (IMIDA). The results obtained show that under rainfed conditions, the values for productive variables decreased, while those referring to the phenolic content increased. Notable variation in the parameters evaluated was also seen for the different genotypes studied. The behavior of the genotypes MC80 and MS104 under rainfed conditions was noteworthy. In addition to maintaining very adequate yields, phenolic contents, must pH, and total acidity values, MC80 fell into the best ‘phenolic quality group’ and MS104 returned a low º°Baumé value, ideal for the production of low-alcohol-content wines. These genotypes could favor the development of sustainable quality viticulture in dry and hot areas.
... Moretti et al. [10] discussed the importance of the climatic conditions on postharvest quality and concluded that increased temperature patterns have a negative effect on flavour, firmness, dry matter, mineral and antioxidants accumulation as well as making the berries more susceptible to physiological disorders and associated internal and external symptoms. Many researchers have associated the aforementioned climatic indices with grape production and quality at harvest [14,18] or viticultural zoning (characterization of a region as suitable or not for viticulture) [19] although information regarding the influence of these indices on the postharvest properties of grapes after harvest, during grapes' cold storage, is still limited. ...
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Climatic conditions have been acknowledged to affect table-grapes production and postharvest quality. The correlation of the monitored environmental conditions such as rainfall and ambient temperature, with postharvest quality properties such as pedicel detachment force, pH, brix, grape volume, for three cultivation years 2015-2017 was analysed. The significance of the climatic variability on the postharvest quality was examined based on a hydrothermic index used in viticultural zoning namely Branas, Bernon, Levadoux (BBL) for two phenological stages the Budbreak-Flowering and Flowering-Veraison. Their analysis revealed correlations of good efficacy between the BudBreak-Flowering BBL and Flowering-Veraison BBL with the postharvest quality, adopting the Box-Cox transformation for variance stabilization and accuracy improvement of Pearson correlation between the analysed variables. The statistical analysis also revealed specific dependencies of the tested quality properties from the climatic indices and management zones that could be implemented in the postharvest management of table-grapes, according to the management zones delineation as these are determined in the context of the precision viticulture.
... Sherry base wine fermentation has been traditionally carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains naturally present on grapes and winery equipment. However, climatic change is exerting an increasing influence on vine phenology, grape composition and (lately) fermentation performances, wine microbiology and chemistry, and sensory traits [4]. Thus, to overcome the possible inconveniences derived from increasing climatic change and to improve the organoleptic characteristics of the sherry base white wines, an increasing number of wineries use selected yeast strains as a starter culture. ...
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There is growing interest in yeast selection for industrial fermentation applications since it is a factor that protects a wine’s identity. Although it is strenuous evaluating the oenological characteristics of yeasts in selection processes, in many cases the most riveting yeasts produce some undesirable organoleptic characteristics in wine. The aim of the present work is to improve an industrial yeast strain by reducing its hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. To accomplish this, two different improvement approaches were used on said yeast: hybridization by mass mating and adaptive laboratory evolution, both performed through spore generation and conjugation, thus increasing genetic variability. Three evolved variants with lower H2S production were obtained and used as starters to carry out fermentation at an industrial level. Wine quality was analyzed by its principal oenological parameters and volatile aroma compounds, which were both corroborated by sensory evaluations. Significant differences between the produced wines have been obtained and a substantial improvement in aromatic quality has been achieved. Both hybrids were the most different to the control due to terpenes and esters production, while the evolved strain was very similar to the parental strain. Not only have organoleptic defects been reduced at an industrial level, more floral and fruitier wines have been produced.
... Over the last decades, a trend toward earlier grape ripening, marked by fast berry sugar accumulation, has been reported in many regions around the world as a consequence of global warming (Martínez-Lüscher et al., 2016;Mira de Orduña, 2010;Petrie & Sadras, 2008;van Leeuwen et al., 2019). This advanced maturity has also been coupled with a lower concentration of acids and anthocyanins, high pH and the lessening of aromatic components in the must (Keller, 2010;Kuhn et al., 2014). ...
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The implications of grape berry transpiration for the ripening process and final grape composition were studied. An experiment was conducted, under controlled conditions, with fruit‐bearing cuttings of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo. Three doses of the anti‐transpirant di‐1‐p‐menthene were applied directly to the bunch at the onset of veraison: 1%, 5% and 10% (v/v) (D1, D5 and D10, respectively). A treatment with bunches sprayed with water (D0) was also included as a control. Grape and bunch transpiration, and total soluble solids (TSS) accumulation rate decreased as the dose of anti‐transpirant increased, thus resulting in the lengthening of the ripening period. Bunch transpiration rates were linearly correlated with the elapsed time between veraison and maturity, and with the TSS accumulation rate. The evolution of pH, malic acid and total skin anthocyanins during ripening did not show remarkable changes as a consequence of the artificially reduced bunch transpiration. However, a decoupling between TSS and anthocyanins was observed. At maturity, the bunches treated with D10 had significantly lower must acidity and higher pH and extractable anthocyanin levels, these differences being likely associated with the lengthening of the ripening period. The results show a clear implication of grape transpiration for the ripening process and final grape composition, and give new hints on the direct application of anti‐transpirants to the bunch as a way to regulate sugar accumulation while avoiding the concurrent delay of color development.
... It is evident that, synthesis of secondary metabolites, specifically phenolic and flavonoid contents is mainly affected by various environmental factors such as day length, intensity of light, temperature, concentration of nutrients, and water in the soil [58,59]. Measured levels of TPC and TFC in the bulbs and leaves of onion varieties planted at three localities having different growing conditions are presented in Table 1. ...
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Genetic diversity and Agro-climatic conditions contribute significantly to the agronomic and morphological features of the food plant species, and their nutraceutical potential. The present study was intended to evaluate the impact of growing conditions on total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential in the bulbs and leaves of onion varieties planted under diverse environmental conditions. Standard analytical methods were used to quantify total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and free radicals’ scavenging/antioxidant capacity. The impact of climatic and soil conditions was assessed using statistical tools. In general, onion varieties cultivated at three different locations viz. Kalar Kahar, Lahore and Swabi exhibited significant variations in TPC and TFC, and antioxidant activities. The bulbs and leaves of Mustang (V1) variety planted at Lahore and Swabi had significantly (p < 0.05), high levels of TPC (659.5 ± 6.59, and 631.1 ± 8.58 mg GAE/100 g, respectively). However, leaves of Red Orb (V2) and bulbs of Mustang (V1), and Golden Orb (V6), harvested from Kalar Kahar depicted the highest concentration of TFC (432.5 ± 10.3, 303.0 ± 6.67, and 303.0 ± 2.52 mg QE/100 g DW, respectively). Likewise, bulbs of V1 planted at Kalar Kahar, Lahore and Swabi exhibited maximum inhibition of DPPH, ABTS, and H2O2 radicals (79.01 ± 1.49, 65.38 ± 0.99, and 59.76 ± 0.90%, respectively). Golden Orb (V6) harvested from Lahore had the highest scavenging of OH radical (67.40 ± 0.09%). Likewise, bulbs of V1 variety planted at KalarKahar and Swabi had significant capacity to scavenge ferric ions (415.1 ± 10.6 mg GAE/100 g DW), and molybdate ions (213.7 ± 0.00 mg AAE/100 g DW). Conversely, leaves of Amazon (V8), planted at Lahore and Swabi depicted significant levels of DPPH, ABTS, H2O2 radical scavenging (90.69 ± 0.26, 63.55 ± 1.06, 51.86 ± 0.43%, respectively), and reduction of ferric ions (184.2 ± 6.75 mg GAE/100 g DW). V6 leaves harvested from Lahore and that of Super Sarhad (V3) from Swabi showed the highest inhibition of OH radical (61.21 ± 0.79%), and molybdate ions (623.6 ± 0.12 mg AAE/100 g DW), respectively. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis revealed strong relationships of climatic conditions, soil properties and elevation with TPC, TFC and free radicals’ scavenging potential in the bulbs and leaves of onion varieties. The variations in the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant potential of different varieties, and their associations with climatic and soil factors revealed the complexity of the growing conditions and genetic makeup that imposed significant impacts on the synthesis of secondary metabolites and nutraceutical potential of food and medicinal plant species.
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Phenolics compounds in grapes contribute to berry and must color, organoleptic properties, nutritional value, antioxidant properties and provide protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has place mammoth challenges for the viticulture industry in different viticulture regions. Environmental variables determine to the greater extent, suitable grapes varieties for fresh as well as premium quality wine production. Grape berry composition is particularly affected by heat, drought, and intensity of solar irradiation. It is expected that climatic extremes will have an adverse effect on berry quality traits such as phenolic compounds in different grape cultivars. Polyphenols particularly anthocyanins decrease at elevated temperature, similarly flavanols levels increase with better exposure to solar radiation. Water availability is crucial for better vine growth and good production, however modest water stress particularly near veraison, upregulates the activity of key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways. Therefore, it is important to know that how and when phenolic substance accumulate in berries and how various cultivars respond. This review elaborates the effect of weather conditions on biosynthesis of different phenolic compounds in grapes. Berry phenolic substances e.g., total phenolic compounds (TPC), total anthocyanins (TAC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) synthesis is strongly regulated under the influence of environmental conditions during growing season. In this chapter we, shall focus on accumulation of phenolic compounds in grapevine in relation to climatic variations.
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Background and objective: The global average surface temperature increased by about 0.6°C, and the global sea level increased by 15 to 20 cm during the last century. As the temperature rise, crops and forests will experience failure. In Baja California, Mexico, there is no systematic evaluation of the spatial variability of future temperature and precipitation. The aim of this research was to identify how the precipitation and temperature will change in the basins according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate projections. Materials and methods: We used the MPI ECHAM5 model scenarios A2 (pessimistic) and B2 (optimistic) of total annual precipitation (TAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) for 2030 and 2050; we also used the HADGEM1 model, (scenarios A2 and B2) of TAP and MAT (2030-2050). All procedures were carried out in a geographic information system. Results and conclusion: We evaluate for the first time which basins at the peninsula will be more affected by changes in TAP and MAP. The relative increase of MAT per basin depicted a trend north to south. The highest values reach 6.0° to 6.5°, the minimum values are around 2.0°. The reduction of TAP will be 21 mm from the baseline to 2030. The model also depicted an increase in TAP in the south of the peninsula (12-40 mm). The northern basins will suffer by reduction of water availability, especially for agriculture activities. The southern basins could be affected more by flooding and landslides.
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The aromatic complexity of a wine is mainly influenced by the interaction between grapes and fermentation agents. This interaction is very complex and affected by numerous factors, such as cultivars, degree of grape ripeness, climate, mashing techniques, must chemical–physical characteristics, yeasts used in the fermentation process and their interactions with the grape endogenous microbiota, process parameters (including new non-thermal technologies), malolactic fermentation (when desired), and phenomena occurring during aging. However, the role of yeasts in the formation of aroma compounds has been universally recognized. In fact, yeasts (as starters or naturally occurring microbiota) can contribute both with the formation of compounds deriving from the primary metabolism, with the synthesis of specific metabolites, and with the modification of molecules present in the must. Among secondary metabolites, key roles are recognized for esters, higher alcohols, volatile phenols, sulfur molecules, and carbonyl compounds. Moreover, some specific enzymatic activities of yeasts, linked above all to non-Saccharomyces species, can contribute to increasing the sensory profile of the wine thanks to the release of volatile terpenes or other molecules. Therefore, this review will highlight the main aroma compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts of oenological interest in relation to process conditions, new non-thermal technologies, and microbial interactions.
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Oftmals wird die Weinbranche in nördlichen Weinanbaugebieten, wie in Hessen der Rheingau und die Hessische Bergstraße, als pauschaler Gewinner des Klimawandels dargestellt. Durch den Klimawandel aber ist die Weinbranche auch in kühleren Regionen zunehmend vor eine Reihe von unterschiedlichsten Herausforderungen gestellt.
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Wine making has evolved since its origins in the Caucasus more than 8000 years ago to a modern scientific and technological discipline. Novel methodologies and practices have been implemented continuously in the elaboration of wines. The industry has been normally keen to accept those developments and incorporate them into their protocols. However, the complexity of some of the new developments, the “return” to old practices driven by some influencing wine makers or opinion makers, commercial regulations, and consumer concerns are growing limitations for the incorporation of new methodologies. This chapter is focused on new microbial methodologies that can be applied to modern winemaking to control the process microbiologically and discuss about the possible challenges of their incorporation.
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Worldwide the interest for biological control of food spoilage microorganisms has significantly increased over the last decade. Wine makes no exception to this trend, as consumer demands for wines free of preservatives that are considered negative for human health, increase. Biological control during wine fermentation aims at producing high quality wines, while minimizing, or even eliminating, the use of chemical additives. Its success lies in the inoculation of microorganisms to prevent, inhibit or kill undesired microbes, therefore maintaining wine spoilage at the lowest level. The food industry already makes use of this practice, with dedicated commercial microbes already on the market. In winemaking, there are commercial microbes currently under investigation, particularly with the aim to reduce or replace the use of sulphur dioxide. In this review, the potential of wine yeasts and lactic acid bacteria as bioprotection agents and their mechanisms of action during wine fermentation are presented.
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The European climate is changing displaying profound on agriculture, thus strongly reaching the scientific community’s attention. In this review, the compilation of selected scientific research on the agroclimatic conditions’ changes and their impact on the productivity parameters (phenology timing, product quality and quantity) of grapevines and on the spatiotemporal characteristics of the viticultural areas are attempted for the first time. For this purpose, a thorough investigation through multiple search queries was conducted for the period (2005–2021). Overall, increasing (decreasing) trends in critical temperature (precipitation) parameters are the reality of the recent past with visible impacts on viticulture. The observed climate warming already enforces emerging phenomena related to the modification of the developmental rate (earlier phenological events, shortening of phenological intervals, lengthening of the growing season, earlier harvest), the alteration of product quality, the heterogeneous effects on grapevine yield and the emergence of new cool-climate viticulture areas highlighting the cultivation’s rebirth in the northern and central parts of the continent. The vulnerability of the wine-growing ecosystem urges the integration of innovative and sustainable solutions for confronting the impacts of climate change and safeguarding the production (quantity and quality) capacity of viticultural systems in Europe under a continuously changing environment.
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Rising temperatures in most viticultural regions are associated with a higher incidence of drastic weather circumstances such as heatwaves. The consequences are reflected in qualitative and quantitative white grapes characteristics. In fact, there is an enhancement in alcohol content and a jeopardized reduction in the aromatic potential. We performed a scientific test to assuage the bump of heatwaves and exposure of grapes on Vitis vinifera cv. “Sauvignon Blanc” with exposed vines (untreated) or with kaolin foliar treatment or with partial fruit-zone shading (shading net 30 and 70%). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of shading net (SD-30% and SD-70%) and foliar kaolin (K) treatment on physiology, technological maturity, and thiolic precursors in Italy during the 2020–2021 seasons. For this purpose, four treatments were established: SD-30% (green artificial shading net at 30%), SD-70% (green artificial shading net at 70%), K (foliar kaolin), and CTRL (no application). During the two vintages, single-leaf gas exchange appraisal, leaf temperature, berry temperature, chlorophyll fluorescence, pre-dawn, and leaf water potential were measured. Moreover, berry weight, pH, ◦Brix, acidity (technological maturity specifications), and the following thiolic precursors were analyzed: 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol (Glut-3MH), S-4-(4-methylpentan-2-one)-L-cysteine (Cys-4MMP), and 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol (Cys-3MH). SD-70% and K denoted less negative water potential, a lower berry temperature, and a higher level of all precursors than the other treatments. Acidity and sugar parameters indicated significant differences among treatments. The lower berry weight and the lower tartaric acidity were found in the CTRL treatment. In comparison, SD-70% and K showed lower and more balanced sugar contents. As a result of global warming, color shading net and kaolin have been demonstrated to be good practices to counterpoise the divergence between aromatic and technological maturity in Sauvignon Blanc grapevines.
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Grapevines, an economic mainstay of the Douro Demarcated Region, are under increasing stressful conditions and they can suffer further losses due to climate change. Observations on weather patterns and behavior of two autochthonous grapevines and two exotic ones were made over several years. There are indications of an increase of 2°C from 2003 to 2019 responsible for the advancement of 10 to 15 days of phenological events on all grape varieties, a clear biological sign of climate change. Against the forecasted trends, rainfall showed a trend for increasing total amount but a lower proportion during the growing season that resulted in stronger seasonality. The yields of native varieties were about 2600 kg ha−1 higher than exotic varieties, a difference supported by a larger leaf area, on average 1.7 m2 higher, and better stomatal conductance in average 2.6 mm s−1 and 2.1 mm s−1 for native and exotic varieties, respectively. These differences suggest that natives are better suited to withstand aggravated environmental conditions than the exotic. The composition of the must show significantly higher total soluble content in autochthonous grapevines but they have a lower concentration of organic acids, tannins, and polyphenols, meaning poorer organoleptic profiles.
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Two of the main challenges of Mediterranean viticulture is low water quality and the risk of increasing concentrations of mineral salts in the root zone. This work was undertaken to study the impact of saline deficit irrigation on grape and wine phenolic composition, as well as on the sensory profile of the wines. The experiment was carried out during three consecutive years (2016-2018) in a commercial vineyard of cv. Monastrell (Vitis vinifera L.) grafted onto 1103P rootstock located in D.O. Jumilla (SE Spain). Three watering regimes were carried out: i) the control (“Control”): the vines were irrigated with water of standard quality, ii) Sulfate treatment (“Sul”): the vines were irrigated with saline water (Na₂SO₄ + MgSO4), and iii) Chloride treatment (“Chl”): the vines were irrigated with saline water (NaCl). The same amount of irrigation water was applied to all the treatments. The water electrical conductivity was 1.8 dS/m for Control and 5 dS/m for the saline treatments (Sul and Chl). Both the Sul and Chl treatments reduced the berry weight in all the study years compared to Control, although this difference was statistically significant in the last year only (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in the grape quality parameters. However, the saline treatments slightly increased grape total soluble solids (TSS) in two out of the three study years compared to Control. Regarding the phenolic composition, no significant differences (p > 0.05) among treatments were found in grapes and wines. In general, the wines from vines irrigated with saline waters received the best scores by the panel in the sensory profile analysis. The use of saline waters could be employed in the case of water scarcity, as long as the vineyard is planted on a rootstock tolerant to salinity, such as 1103P, and the vineyard soil has a texture that favours leaching.
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In recent years, climate change has strongly influenced viticulture, with a higher concentration of sugars in grapes, a lower concentration of organic acids and, therefore, increases in alcohol concentration and pH. This work aimed to increase the concentration of organic acids and total acidity in Cava base wine with different commercial strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (IO), a hybrid S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum (VE) and Lachancea thermotolerans (LA). Several laboratory and industrial fermentations were carried out with Macabeo must. Our results show that strains VE and LA are capable of producing high concentrations of succinic acid and lactic acid, respectively. The initial amount of nitrogen in grape must directly influences the production of these acids. By adopting different inoculation strategies, the co-inoculation of LA + VE brings about a significant increase in total wine acidity. The results also reveal that LA has excellent fermentative capacity when the initial SO2 concentration is low and the competitive ability of LA against the VE hybrid is good. In short, our results demonstrate that using strains LA and VE acts as a microbiological strategy to increase total acidity and to lower the pH of Cava base wines.
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Non-Saccharomyces yeasts have been suggested for use in wine production for lowering alcohol content. In this study 23 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were investigated in laboratory-scale trials using previously frozen grape must. Both aerated and standard fermentation conditions were investigated and the fermentations were co-inoculated with a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae reference yeast strain. Sugar consumed for percentage alcohol formed was calculated from sugar and alcohol measurements. The non-Saccharomyces yeasts showed greater variability in sugar consumption compared to the S. cerevisiae reference yeast. Two of the yeast strains (Starmerella bacillaris and Wickerhamomyces anomalus) consumed more sugar than the S. cerevisiae reference yeast under the same conditions. These two strains were subsequently used in a small-scale wine production trial following a similar aeration and standard fermentation strategy. The wine production trials using aeration compared to the standard strategy showed shorter fermentation times, increased biomass formation, more sugar utilised for alcohol produced, but reduced wine quality. The same yeasts under standard fermentation conditions also showed increased use of sugar, but neutral or positive effects on wine quality. The S. bacillaris strain showed the most potential for use in wine production for lowering alcohol content.
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The phenology, growth traits and fruit composition of cultivars in the CSIRO germplasm collection, located in a hot Australian region, were assessed to identify those adapted to climate change. The study involved 465 cultivars assessed over four seasons. Differences in key traits included a 5‐week range in budburst; a 4‐month harvest window; a twofold difference in the growth period from budburst to harvest; a fivefold difference in fruitfulness and in leaf area index; a 15‐fold difference in berry mass; and a five‐ to 15‐fold difference in berry mineral ion concentration and large differences in fruit composition. The latter included pH (range 3.48–4.95), titratable acidity (1.60–9.07 g/L), tartaric acid (2.20–7.95 g/L), malic acid (0.80–7.74 g/L), yeast assimilable nitrogen (70–505 mg/L) and, in red wine cultivars, total anthocyanins (0.04–5.79 mg/g) and phenolic compounds (0.55–3.60 a.u.). Cultivars grown under hot conditions with late budburst to minimise frost risks; short growth periods and small canopies to improve water use efficiency; and early and late ripening to extend the season have been identified. Early ripening cultivars had better fruit composition than late ripening cultivars. Opportunities to broaden genetic diversity will enhance the capability of the wine industry to meet challenges associated with climate change. Poor fruit composition, however, associated with high pH is a limiting factor under hot conditions.
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Floor management in organic viticulture plays a key role as weed suppression and soil health must be warranted through practices that minimise the recourse to extensive tillage and herbicides, while any resident vegetation or sown cover crop should exert moderate competition for water and nutrients towards the consociated vines. Lack of knowledge exists about the fraction of soil cover crop coverage (Scc) which might represent the best compromise between the above needs. A four-year study (2017–2020) was conducted in an organically managed cv. Barbera/420 A vineyard in the North-West of Italy, comparing five floor management treatments each having light tillage as the practice chosen to control the under trellis weed growth. Inter-row treatments were permanent grass (PG), tillage (T), alternate tillage and permanent grass every second mid-row (AGT), a variant of this last treatment, where the tilled mid-row was used for growing a temporary winter cover crop terminated in spring (AGC) and temporary grass (TG) where grass was disked post-harvest (mid-October) until natural growth resumption in late winter (mid-February). An assessment was made for soil profile and physicochemical composition, floristic analyses performed in T, PG, and TG treatments, vegetative growth, yield components, grape maturity at harvest, single leaf gas exchange as well as midday and pre-dawn leaf water potentials. While overall scant, mostly season-related differences were found for leaf function and water status, soil management heavily impacted vine performance. Year-round soil cover crop coverage (Scc) regressed towards total pruning weight/vine and yield/vine showed high linear correlation (R² = 0.93) for pruning weight/vine (to be reduced by 38% at 75% Scc vs. 0% Scc of the T treatment), whereas yield/vine was quite poorly correlated (R² = 0.21) showing a 15% decrease in PG vs. T. Regressing Scc vs total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), total anthocyanins and phenolics concentration disclosed mild linear correlation (R² = 0.52) for the two technology ripening parameters and a much tighter fit for colour and phenolics (R² = 0.79 and 0.90, respectively). AGT had an intermediate behaviour between its two extremes (i.e. T and PG) without assuring any significant marginal gain. Conversely, modulating PG into TG through a temporary removal of the resident vegetation in the fall and AGT into AGC by growing a winter cover crop terminated in the spring as mulching, gave the highest yield at adequate technological and phenolic ripeness. PG assured maximum grapes total soluble solids and total anthocyanin concentration at harvest; however, due to its low vigour, several shortcomings also followed, such as low yeast available nitrogen and malic acid concentration, as well as a tendency to accumulate high amounts of flavonols. Our work led to the conclusion that AGC and TG treatments are quite valuable choices under the specific environment for successful soil management in organic vineyards.
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An innovative method against late frosts in vineyard has been developed at CIRIAF, University of Perugia. It consists of an organic coating made by cotton candy and straw to prevent the vine shoots freezing due to late frosts. This technique has already tested at lab-scale with very encouraging results. This paper aims to experiment the effect of the organic coating applied on young shoots of grapevine during artificially controlled frost events. A vine shoot covered by the organic coating was positioned in the climatic chamber and a thermocouple was rolled up to the vine shoot to control its temperature. Also, a vine shoot rolled up to the thermocouple and without organic coating was positioned inside the climatic chamber, used as a reference case. Results show that the temperature gap, gained with the adoption of the insulating layer was approximately in the range 0.2 – 3.2 °C, but the organic coating was not enough to maintain temperature above the ice-point able to prevent the vine shoot freezing in lab. Even thought, the experimental application of the present technique allowed to detect some crucial challenges which need to be solved before to test this technology in real situations.
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Aims: This work reviews the latest knowledge concerning the role of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine alteration. Results and conclusion: The origin of this yeast species and its place in the wine microbial consortium are discussed as well as microbial equilibriums with the other species, notably Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. As a consequence, fermentations are described as key steps in Brettanomyces development management. Furthermore, the influence of ageing through the use of traditional winemaking practices is explained. Significance and impact of study: Finally, this paper emphases the need for a better understanding of chemical and microbial analysis together in order to better control this undesirable yeast and prevent the production of volatile phenols.
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Current assessments of climate change effects on viticulture are primarily based on global climate models. With respect to temperature and temperature-based indices, this may produce reasonable first approximations. Recent studies indicate that several viticultural regions may become more successful, and others less so, as high-quality wine production areas. However, it is not only average temperature but also a variety of other climate parameters and their variability that the allocation of chances and risks in impact assessments depends on. In this respect, global model resolutions are of limited value. However, current methods of regionalization by statistical downscaling or embedded regional climate models also show deficiencies and uncertainties. This paper presents a new method for the evaluation of regional climate scenarios using the statistical regional model STAR. This model offers improved applicability and reliability concerning viticultural aspects and primarily aims at evaluating measures of adaptation rather than predictions. The results demonstrate the extent and effects of climate change on viticultural areas in Europe. Possible impact on grapevine phenology and wine quality for the Rheingau and pest risks for Sardinia is given as example.
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Background: Systems to calculate metabolizable energy (ME) in foods and diets are often based on Atwater factors. The accuracy of these factors with low-fat diets high in fiber is unknown when food intake is reduced spontaneously. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the accuracy of Atwater factors and other systems for calculating ME available from low-fat, high-fiber diets when food intake was reduced spontaneously. Design: The ME contents of a high-fat, low-fiber diet and 2 low-fat diets, one high in fruit and vegetable fiber and the other high in cereal fiber, were determined in a randomized parallel study in humans (n = 27) and compared with various factorial and empirical models for calculating ME. Results: Food intakes decreased with both the high fruit and vegetable fiber and cereal fiber diets. The difference between ME calculated by using Atwater and similar factors and determined ME values was up to 4% for the refined diet and up to 11% for the low-fat, high-fiber diets. Various factorial and empirical systems for calculating food energy failed to reflect the results of the direct determinations. Conclusion: Atwater factors were inaccurate with low-fat, high-fiber diets. Although modified Atwater factors may be accurate under standardized conditions of zero-nitrogen and zero-energy balance, they overestimate energy availability from high-fiber fruit and vegetable and cereal diets when food intake is reduced spontaneously in addition to when intake is reduced voluntarily.
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Origin and Aims. The United Nations is an association of states, or intergovernmental organizations, pledged to maintain international peace and security and to co-operate in solving international political, economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. The name ‘United Nations’ was devised by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 Jan. 1942, during the Second World War, when 26 nations pledged to continue fighting the Axis Powers.
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Two strains of lactic acid bacteria previously found to slow some alcoholic fermentations were identified using biochemical and genetic analyses. Strains YH-24 and YH-37 were Gram positive cocci, produced acid and gas from glucose, did not form ammonia from arginine or mannitol from fructose, and were catalase negative. These traits support genetic analyses which concluded that the strains were Leuconostoc oenos. YH-24 and YH-37 grew in modified Rogosa broth adjusted to pH 3.5 or above but did not grow in media below pH 3.1. Sulfur dioxide retarded growth up to 0.42 mg/L molecular SO2 with no growth at 0.56 mg/L.
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From wines (Vitis vinifera cvs Müller-Thurgau, Riesling, Silvaner) with an untypical aging note (also called 'naphthalene note' or 'hybrid note') 2-aminoacetophenone could be identified as the causal compound by GC-MS technique, after enrichment of the aroma constituents and fractionated separation of the extracts. This aroma compound known as 'foxy' smelling component of Labruscana grapes has not been found in V. vinifera cvs up to now.
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There is an increasing scientific interest in the effects of elevated CO2 concentration on both cultivated and natural ecosystems. The possibility, however, to predict plant responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 will mainly depend on the capability to simulate future atmospheric conditions in free enrichment experiments. To quantify the growth and yield responses to CO: enrichment a grapevine variety (cv Sangiovese) was exposed throughout the growing season to two CO? concentrations (ambient and 700 ppmv) in a free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) system which allowed to fumigate vineyard rows and to keep CO2 concentration constant on these. The results showed that growth and yield of plants exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations were increased in comparison with those in ambient CO2 concentration.
Article
AAP (o-aminoacetophenone) is the aroma substance responsible for the untypical ageing off-flavour (UTA). The impact of nitrogen supply on the formation of AAP was investigated between 1994 and 1999. The experiment was carried out in the Rheingau (Germany) with six fertigation treatments of annual quantities of N (0, 30, 60, 90, 150 kg·N·ha-1). Results indicated that the long-term varied N fertilization affected AAP concentration in wine as much as the year. Whereas a better N supply of the grapes due to effects of the year coincided with lower AAP values, the fertilization effect was reversal: higher N fertilization increased the concentrations of AAP. AAP did not correlate with its precursor IAA and only slightly with antioxidative capacity. Neither varying yield nor soluble solids could explain the high variance of AAP. An indicator for potential AAP formation could not be found, neither in must nor in wine.
Book
Since publication of the first edition of Wine Microbiology in 1997, the volume of new information and concepts has dramatically increased. Even with the tremendous increase in available information, a comprehensive understanding regarding the role of individual microorganisms towards wine quality as well as the impact of complicated interactions between microorganisms and processing techniques is lacking. Wine Microbiology, Second Edition, fills this void. Like the first edition, the book addresses real world problems such as characterization and enumeration of yeast, bacteria and molds common to juice and wine environments and their impact on wine quality and stability. In addition, the potential of solving processing problems through rapid, real-time molecular methods and new applications for using starter cultures of non-Saccharomyces yeast are discussed. The book is a great resource for professionals and students in the field of enology and viticulture. About the Authors: Kenneth C. Fugelsang has been associated with California State University (Fresno) since 1970 and is now wine master and professor of enology. He is an author of 12 books and over 100 technical papers and presentations. Charles G. Edwards has been a professor with the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Washington State University since 1989. He has authored over 150 technical papers and presentations and is author of the book Illustrated Guide to Microbes and Sediments in Wine, Beer, and Juice. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Odorant release from alcoholic beverages creates the pleasant odor before drinking as well as contributing to the overall flavor during consumption, thus an important feature for the consumer. Odorant release between a gas and a liquid phase is conventionally explained by the partition coefficient. Partition depends on the polarity of the liquid phase and changes in odorant equilibria have been noted as the liquid phase changes from a purely aqueous environment to an ethanolic solution. However, the dynamics of odorant release rely on physicochemical mechanisms other than partition and, with ethanolic solutions; odorant release is affected by the nature of the gas-liquid interface and the access of ethanol to that interface. Using a range of surface active agents and by using thermal imaging of the surface, the effect of these interfacial effects on odorant release has been probed. The conclusion is that the nature of the interface affects mass transfer in the bulk phase and therefore has the most effect on odorant release prior to consumption.
Article
The parameters influencing the malolactic fermentation in wine are multiple. The wine making process methods can be critical but the main cause of delay appear to be the physical and chemical factors especially acidic pH and ethanol content. However, the interactions of lactic acid bacteria with yeast have to be considered to master this fermentation process. The cumulative effect of these multiples stresses increases the limitation for bacterial growth. Several adaptative mechanisms at the genetical and physiological levels are implied for bacterial development and adaptation in wine. Some of them are discussed in this chapter.
Article
In wineries, the fermentation process could be improved and better controlled by using technologies such as lower energy consumption and efficient tank management. Thus, we designed a mathematical model of fermentation based on physiological considerations, including the effects of assimilable nitrogen and temperature. The ability of this model to simulate the kinetics of many experiments performed in winemaking conditions was tested. The model was first validated on synthetic media with various nitrogen concentrations and at various temperatures. Simulations were then run for fermentations performed on grape musts. Most fermentation kinetics and durations were predicted accurately (with the exception of "atypical" musts leading to sluggish fermentations). The model predicted accurately the fermentation kinetics of >80% of experiments performed with 20 wine yeast strains. The superimposition of fermentation kinetics of experiments performed on laboratory, pilot, and industrial scales showed that it is possible to use the model for winemaking fermentations in tanks. Copyright © 2005 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.
Article
Grape berry development is reviewed with special focus on berry growth, structure, substances imported, organic acid and sugar metabolism. Berry growth is divided into two growth periods. Berry structure and ultra-structure are adapted to sink function. Exocarp cells are characterized by intensive metabolic capacities, flesh cells by a storage role. Early growth is highly sensitive to internal and external parameters. Berry size is largely defined during the first growth period. After « véraison », the berry becomes a major storage sink. Many changes occur in berry metabolism and gene expression. Genomic researches are promising to elucidate the mechanisms of berry development.
Article
The off-flavour UTA (untypical ageing) of wines produced from the vintages 1996-1999 within the scope of a long-term N fertilization experiment was compared to the o-aminoacetophenone (AAP) concentrations found in these wines. The wines were made of plants treated with 0, 60 and 150 kg N ha -1·N fertilization led to higher UTA intensities and AAP concentrations in aged wines; due to stronger fruity aromas with increasing N fertilization, young wines were able to mask AAP. Controls had a stronger masking effect in older wines, caused by antioxidants (phenols) and possibly higher alcohols. Moreover, at the same AAP level, wines from the vintages 1996 and 1998 exhibited lower UTA intensity than wines from 1997 and 1999. This is influenced by N supply, yield and time of harvest which can not be separated from each other.
Article
Lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial wines undergoing slow/stuck alcoholic fementations and from wines without any known problems were tested for antagonistic activity against wine yeasts. Using a microbiological medium screening method, the majority of bacterial strains tested did not retard growth of Saccharomyces bayanus (strain Prise de Mousse) or S. cerevisiae (strain Epernay), with the exceptions of Leuconostoc oenos strain OENO and unidentified strains YH-15, YH-24, and YH-37. To determine whether or not these organisms could cause a slow/stuck fermentation of a grape juice, bacterial strains were inoculated into sterile-filtered Chardonnay grape juices at initial populations of ca 105 cfu/mL. Two days later, either Epernay or Prise de Mousse was inoculated into the same juices at ca 105 cfu/mL. Inoculation of Lc. oenos did not result in slow/stuck alcoholic fermentations. However, inhibition of the fermentations catalyzed by Epernay were observed in the presence of YH-24 or YH-37, in contrast to fermentations with Prise de Mousse. Strain YH-15 greatly inhibited the alcoholic fermentations by both yeast strains. Wines inoculated with YH-15 had significantly higher concentrations of volatile acidity (≈0.30 g/100 mL) than control wines (≤ 0.037 g/100 mL) or wines inoculated with YH-24 or YH-37 (≤ 0.055 g/100 mL). Other compositional differences were observed.