Antidepressant activity of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa in mice
Institute of Functional Biomolecule, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, ChinaJournal of Ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 12/2002; 83(1-2):161-165. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00211-8
Curcuma longa (turmeric) is a well-known indigenous herbal medicine. The aqueous extracts, when administered orally to the mice from 140 to 560 mg/kg for 14 days, were able to elicit dose-dependent relation of immobility reduction in the tail suspension test and the forced swimming test in mice. The effects of the extracts at the dose of 560 mg/kg were more potent than that of reference antidepressant fluoxetine. The extracts, at the dose of 140 mg/kg or above for 14 days, significantly inhibited the monoamine oxidize A (MAO) activity in mouse whole brain at a dose-dependent manner, however, oral administration of the extract only at a dose of 560 mg/kg produced observable MAO B inhibitory activity in animal brain. Fluoxetine showed only a tendency to inhibit MAO A and B activity in animal brain in the study. Neither the extracts of C. longa nor fluoxetine, at the doses tested, produced significant effects on locomotor activity. These results demonstrated that C. longa had specifically antidepressant effects in vivo. The activity of C. longa in antidepression may mediated in part through MAO A inhibition in mouse brain.
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- "In addition, turmerones are also reported for their anti-inflammatory effects in both acute and chronic models of inflammation[7,8]. However , only few reports on the pharmacological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, antioxidant , anti-depressant and immune modulatory of polar fractions that constitute majorly polysaccharides of C. longa are available9101112. While, curcuminoids and turmerones were explored and established for their anti-inflammatory potentials, the polar extracts or polysaccharides containing extracts of C. longa were seldom reported for antiinflammatory activity. "
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.
- "Depression is a major psychiatric disorder affecting nearly 17% of the world population and imposes a substantial health burden on society (Nemeroff, 2007; Yu et al., 2002). According to the monoamine theory, which is a widely accepted explanation for depression, the major neurochemical process in depression is the *Corresponding author. "
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- "They have been used to treat the symptoms of mental stress, hypochondriac pain and mania. Antidepressant activity of curcumin has been explored in various animal models of depression such as the forced swimming test, tail suspension test and chronic stress model (Yu et al., 2002; Xu et al., 2005; Xia et al., 2007; Xu et al., 2007; Kulkarni et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2008). It has been attributed to two primary effects: neurogenesis in the hippocampus (Xu et al., 2007) and rise in the serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline brain levels by inhibiting monoamine oxidase enzyme (Xia et al., 2007; Kulkarni et al., 2008). "
ABSTRACT: Curcumin, an active ingredient of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae), has shown potential antidepressant-like activity in animal studies. The objectives of this trial were to compare the efficacy and safety of curcumin with fluoxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, 60 patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio for six weeks observer-masked treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg) and curcumin (1000 mg) individually or their combination. The primary efficacy variable was response rates according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version (HAM-D17 ). The secondary efficacy variable was the mean change in HAM-D17 score after six weeks. We observed that curcumin was well tolerated by all the patients. The proportion of responders as measured by the HAM-D17 scale was higher in the combination group (77.8%) than in the fluoxetine (64.7%) and the curcumin (62.5%) groups; however, these data were not statistically significant (P = 0.58). Interestingly, the mean change in HAM-D17 score at the end of six weeks was comparable in all three groups (P = 0.77). This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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