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Government-community relationships: Extending the relational theory of public relations

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Abstract

A study of government-citizen relationships found that public relations can contribute to community building. The study also found that the Bruning-Ledingham Relationship Scale is an effective tool for assessing relationship quality, and for predicting citizen behavior. Moreover, social exchange was found to serve as a useful concept for explaining human behavior within the broader framework of relationship management. Further, the study demonstrates the usefulness of the relational perspective as a paradigm for public relations.

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... Specifically, we proposed a structural relationship between government communication and citizen attitudes. From a relational perspective, communication can be pivotal in cultivating symbiotic and trust-based relationships between organizations and citizens, thereby achieving organizational missions and goals [4,12]. Government communication can improve the relationship between government and citizens [13], affecting citizens' perceptions of and attitudes toward government. ...
... As mentioned earlier, the relational perspective applied to the literature of public relations concerns managing stakeholder relationships effectively for mutual understanding and benefit for multiple interested parties [12,16,30,31]. The extant literature suggests a need to redefine the concept of government-citizen relationships as a communication process of maintaining mutually beneficial participation and collaboration [24,32]. ...
... Previous studies have demonstrated that a positive relationship between an organization and its key publics has a close association with positive perceptions and attitudes [2,31,34]. For example, Ledingham suggested that the quality of government-citizen relationships, as reflected and sustained by government communication initiatives, produces substantive benefits to good governance by improving residents' views of the role of government in local communities [12]. Some prior studies have also shown that organizations that support well-nurtured relationships with their key constituencies are likely to reduce organizational vulnerability to organizational crises, such as financial, perceptual, or reputational damage, particularly in turbulent and complex situations [33]. ...
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By analyzing survey data on nuclear energy policy in South Korea, this study examined the influence of citizens’ knowledge on the perceptions of and attitudes to government communication initiatives that are characterized by symmetry and transparency, and their effects in developing institutional legitimacy and policy acceptance. The findings indicate that symmetrical and transparent communication are involved in forming institutional legitimacy and policy acceptance of government decisions on the controversial topic of nuclear energy, but the process differs depending on citizens’ knowledge of the topic. Well-informed citizens who used reasoning were more likely than others to respond positively to symmetrical and transparent communication, which shaped their support for institutional legitimacy and policy acceptance on nuclear energy policy issues. These findings provide some of the first empirical evidence of the effectiveness of government communication.
... The term "organization" typically referred to for-profit organizations and reflected a corporate-centric focus on how public relations could be used to pursue strategic goals. However, though not as prevalent, researchers also studied municipal governments (Bruning et al., 2006;Ledingham, 2001) and third-sector organizations such as non-profits and NGOs as organizations (Hon and Grunig, 1999;Seo et al., 2009). ...
... Though the general relationship metaphor received widespread support from the academy, it was not until the late 1990s that researchers responded by developing research-based relationship management approaches to organization-public relationships (OPRs) (Broom et al., 1997), relationship management theory (e.g. Ledingham, 2001Ledingham, , 2003Bruning, 1998, 2000) and incorporating it into Excellence theory (Hon and Grunig, 1999). Appropriate definitions and operationalizations of "relationships" were needed to conceptualize approaches and establish their utility for public relations theory and practice (Broom et al., 1997). ...
... Additionally, some researchers examined OPR characteristics by asking participants to consider simultaneously three relationship typespersonal, professional and communityand to compare relational qualities and expectations associated with those types (e.g. Bruning and Ledingham, 1999;Bruning and Galloway, 2003;Ledingham, 2001;Ledingham et al., 1997; see also Hon and Grunig, 1999, for intra-individual comparisons among different organizations). Ledingham and Bruning's (2000) book, Public Relations as Relationship Management: A Relational Approach to Public Relations, was an important milestone because it assembled a collection of chapters on various approaches to relationships, described the importance of relationships in various contexts, demonstrated the utility of the perspective and helped to popularize OPR approaches. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe three foundational concepts that contribute to conceptual heritage of the field of public relations (publics, organizations and relationships). Conceptual heritage is positioned as a type of shared public memory, a dominant narrative, that encourages adherence to the past whilst recognizing that counter-narratives can pose useful alternatives to foundational concepts. Design/methodology/approach The approach is a selective literature review that describes three dominant concept categories and presents more recently developed alternative concepts and approaches to illustrate how public memory is subjective and evolving. Findings The concepts of publics, organizations and relationships have grounded the dominant narrative and development of the field of public relations. Though these concepts continue to be influential as researchers rely upon and expand upon their legacies, counter-narratives can spur the innovation of ideas, measurement and practice. Research limitations/implications The paper focuses on only three major foundational concepts selected by the authors. The importance of these concepts as well as additional examples of the field’s conceptual heritage and evolution could be identified by different authors. Practical implications The analysis demonstrates how the public memory contributes to the development and evolution of the field of public relations. Counter-narratives can offer appealing, subjectively constructed challenges to dominant narratives. Originality/value This paper describes and critiques public relations’ conceptual heritage and argues that conceptually and methodologically-based counter-narratives have contributed to its evolution.
... Several researchers have emphasized the importance of managing relationships between governments and the public (e.g., Ledingham, 2001;Lee Jenni, Peterson, Katz Jameson, & Cubbage, 2015). They focused on the benefits of quality relationship that allows government to achieve its goals such as loyalty to government; however, it is noteworthy that quality relationships can not only engender public support for government activities but can also create social capital, which maintains democratic societies (Warner, 2001). ...
... 160). Second, the three types of relationships provided by Bruning and Ledingham (1999) do well demonstrating the value of the government-public relationship in the context of community building, given that Ledingham (2001) empirically tested the effect of relationship quality in predicting citizen behavior. Revealing that the types of OPR influenced the residents' decision to leave or stay in the city, Ledingham's (2001) study discerns the necessity of common interest between organizations and the public to achieve community building. ...
... Second, the three types of relationships provided by Bruning and Ledingham (1999) do well demonstrating the value of the government-public relationship in the context of community building, given that Ledingham (2001) empirically tested the effect of relationship quality in predicting citizen behavior. Revealing that the types of OPR influenced the residents' decision to leave or stay in the city, Ledingham's (2001) study discerns the necessity of common interest between organizations and the public to achieve community building. Yet, recent studies exploring government public relations have heavily focused on Hon and Grunig's (1999) OPR outcomes, particularly on only one relationship dimension-public trust in a government-as a key indicator of the relationship between a government and its public (e.g., Hong, Park, Lee, & Park, 2012;Hong, 2013;Kim, 2015). ...
Article
This study examines the relationship between factors central to community building, including local government-public relationships, sense of community, positive Word-of-Mouth (WOM) toward community, and community participation. A national survey of U.S. respondents (n = 447) was conducted through MTurk. The results indicate that the effects of local government-public relationships on positive WOM and community participation are mediated by individuals’ sense of community. This study advances the relationship-management scholarship by demonstrating that managing government-public relationships is ineffective in community-building when a sense of community is absent. In addition, the results of this study may benefit government public relations practitioners who are interested in public engagement.
... In addition to the behavioral outcome, this study focuses on the organization-public relationships (OPR) as the relational outcome of social media engagement with government entities. Public relations research has presented a strong relationship management focus and is rooted in a two-way symmetrical communication model (Ferguson, 1984;Grunig & Hunt, 1984;Ledingham, 2003), which considers the relationship quality a major measure of successful public relation practices (Grunig, Grunig, & Dozier, 2002;Ledingham, 2001). The quality of the government-public relationship (GPR) is centered on public trust in the government (Hong, 2013;Kim, 2015;Wang & Wan Wart, 2007) and reflects the public's perception of government integrity, reliability, and competence (Scott, 2007). ...
... For online GPR, citizen satisfaction has been increasingly used to evaluate e-government performance, which is also positively related to trust in the government (Welch et al., 2005). In a study about government-community relationships, Ledingham (2001) suggested that mutuality and commitment are central units of the GPR quality because citizens want to maintain a reciprocal, communal relationship rather than a manipulative, government-dominant relationship with the public administration. In addition, social exchange theory has been used to explain citizens' societal needs, suggesting that citizens calculate the social costs and gains in their interaction with governments (Ledingham, 2001). ...
... In a study about government-community relationships, Ledingham (2001) suggested that mutuality and commitment are central units of the GPR quality because citizens want to maintain a reciprocal, communal relationship rather than a manipulative, government-dominant relationship with the public administration. In addition, social exchange theory has been used to explain citizens' societal needs, suggesting that citizens calculate the social costs and gains in their interaction with governments (Ledingham, 2001). Following this line of literature, this study focuses on trust, satisfaction, commitment, and a communal relationship as indicators of GPR. ...
Article
Young adults’ increasing disconnection with public affairs and heavy reliance on social media for political communication suggest a strategic use of social network sites (SNS) by the government to foster relationships with young citizens and to improve their citizenship. However, scholars and practitioners have not reached consensus about the exact influence of individuals’ experience with government SNS. Focusing on young eligible voters, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model that measures the perceptual, relational, and behavioral outcomes of public engagement with government agencies on SNS. Specifically, the findings revealed a positive influence of government SNS engagement on perceived government transparency, perceived political efficacy, and public participation but to varying degrees depending on the government level (e.g., federal, state, and local). This study suggests that there is limited influence of public engagement on the perceived government-citizen relationship quality through SNS. This empirical research demonstrates how a contextualized investigation of public engagement and relationship management provides insights into the role that SNS can play in connecting young adults to democracy.
... One type of organization that has not received much attention in relationship management research is government organizations (Bruning et al., 2006;Liu & Horsley, 2007;Kim & Cho, 2019;Ledingham, 2001;Lee et al., 2021;Waymer, 2013). Compared to the private sector, the public sector has historically devalued the managerial function of public relations and lacked skillful professionals to perform public relations responsibilities . ...
... For instance, Ledingham (2001) surveyed citizens to assess their perception of a relationship through three dimensions of a GPR: personal, community, and professional. Results suggest each of the three types of relationships were strongly related to citizens' decisions to stay or leave the citythus severing or continuing the OPR established. ...
Article
In this study, we explore the potential contribution of care ethics to government-public relationship (GPR) management. Drawing on the ethics of care and relationship management theory, this study examined government communicators’ conceptualizations of care and care-based relationship cultivation strategies by interviewing 32 public relations practitioners working at county government agencies in the United States. Findings suggest that care is a complex, multidimensional construct that involves relational, emotional, humanistic, and personal components in the context of government public relations. The study advances public relations scholarship by proposing a Care-Based Relationship Cultivation Model and suggests measures for seven care-based relationship cultivation strategies highlighting care ethics. Our findings are useful for local government practitioners across countries to infuse care into their public relations efforts.
... .the organization, nor the public, nor the communication process," should be the unifying concept of public relations. Since then, the relationship between an organization and publics has been explored as a unit of study by public relations scholarship (Broom et al., 1997;Huang, 1997Huang, , 2001Ledingham and Bruning, 1998;Hon and Grunig, 1999;Bruning and Ledingham, 1999;Grunig and Huang, 2000;Ledingham, 2001). ...
... The relationship between government and citizens is an area of organization-public relationship research that has received little scholarly attention. The first study extending the relational theory of public relations to government-community relationships was conducted by Ledingham (2001). This study focused on explaining if public relations functions as community builder and testing the ability of the relationship scale to predict public behavior. ...
Article
Purpose -This study seeks to provide further testing of access in the context of government-community relations within the political context of the Republic of North Macedonia. The study analyses relationship cultivation strategy of access and explains how it contributes to achieving trust and relationship satisfaction in government-community relations. This paper also provides insights into the importance of access to achieving positive government-community relations based on mutual trust and satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach - For this research, a qualitative inquiry was conducted, and qualitative in-depth interviewing was used as the main research method. In total, 39 interviews were conducted: 12 interviews with Macedonian civil servants, eight interviews with Albanian civil servants and 19 interviews with Albanians. Findings -The findings of this study showed citizens not to have enough access to government and its institutions. Besides, the results showed access to be crucial to building positive government-community relations based on mutual trust and satisfaction. In particular, discrimination and social distance were crucial in building trust between government and citizens. Originality/value -The study provided evidence on the importance and contribution of the cultivation strategy of access to government-community relationships in general and to the relational outcomes of trust and satisfaction in particular. The findings supported the initial assumptions that access constitutes an important factor in predicting the government-community relationship quality.
... Because, according to Grunig and Jaatinen (1999, p. 219), although the general principles for relational outcomes in public relations are the same for all organizations, the specific conditions under which the principles should be applied may vary. Ledingham (2001) found that relationship building strategies (trust, satisfaction, commitment, control mutuality) are an effective tool in evaluating the relational quality of public institutions with their citizens and predicting citizen behavior. According to Hong et al. (2012), "citizens are not homogeneous and therefore a wide range of factors such as demographic characteristics (income, gender, education, etc.), media use, social cognition, and participation in social groups should be taken into consideration." ...
... The communicative process contributes to the formation of positive attitudes and behaviors. Similarly, Ledingham (2001) found that relational elements are an effective tool for evaluating the relational quality of public institutions with their citizens and predicting citizen behavior. Therefore, the power of control mutuality in the communicative process should be recognized and incorporated into all public relations practices. ...
Article
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Public relations practitioners can assume many different roles in public institutions. The common goal of these different roles is to try to influence the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of the target groups through effective communication strategies. Thus, support from the public is considered. In this study, it is aimed to find out the effective strategies to improve the quality of the relations with the target groups of public institutions. For this purpose, the relationship between the communicative process established by public institutions with their target groups and relational results were examined. The research conducted on 251 people revealed that perceived communicative skills of local public institutions had positive effects on public relations perceptions (trust, commitment, satisfaction). The most important dimension is satisfaction. On the other hand, a weak relationship was found between the communicative process and control mutuality. This finding indicates that public relations department is not effective in the decision making process in public institutions. The results of the research are proposed to improve the relational results between public institutions and target groups.
... Strategic communication scholars in line with the relational theorists' viewpoints have studied the relationship between an organization and its public as a focal concept of public relations (e.g., Bowen, Hung-Baesecke, and Chen 2016;Bruning and Ledingham 1999;Chon and Park 2019;Dozier, Grunig, and Grung 2013;Huang 2001;Ledingham 2001). From the relationship theory perspective, which stresses a two-way model, or mutuality, the quality of a relationship strengthens the effectiveness of public relation practices. ...
... That is, public relations strongly contributes to organizations' effective operation by building robust relationships with key publics (Grunig, Grunig, and Dozier 2002). Relationship theorists in public relations maintain that relationship building will eventually create mutual understanding and benefits for both organizations and publics (Bruning and Ledingham 1999;Ledingham 2001). Conceptually, the relationship between organizations and publics has been scrutinized to identify its components, antecedents and effects (e.g., Broom, Casey and Ritchey 1997). ...
Article
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Voluntary citizen attention and actions are key to successful public-sector communication. We investigated the conditions which increase such attention and actions using the situational theory of problem solving (STOPS) and government-citizen relationships (GCRs). Using three national issues consisting of an environmental issue, a social issue, and a political issue from South Korea (N=275), this study examined three hypotheses regarding public engagement effect (the effect of GCRs on political conversations on national issues), government empowerment effect (the effects of GCRs and issue-specific trust toward government on constraint recognition), and public serenity effect (the effect of issue-specific trust on problem recognition and involvement recognition). We found significant public engagement and government empowerment effects and partially significant public serenity effect. The results of the public serenity investigation found that issue-specific trust toward government was significant with problem recognition but insignificant with involvement recognition. Consequently, the findings illustrate strategic values in government-citizen relationships on public engagement, empowerment, and serenity to enable participatory democracy.
... Las relaciones públicas describen complejos sistemas que, estratégicamente planificados, se orientan hacia la gestión de los públicos utilizando de forma auxiliar técnicas de comunicación (Almiron y Xifra, 2019; Page y Parnell, 2019). Bajo el prisma de la comunicación institucional, esta perspectiva relacional de las relaciones públicas (Ledingham, 2001(Ledingham, y 2003 permite a las instituciones alinear su comportamiento institucional con las necesidades y demandas de los ciudadanos: he aquí la importancia del uso institucional de Twitter. ...
Article
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El fin de la fase aguda de la pandemia, inicia una vuelta a la normalidad en convivencia con el Coronavirus. Así, se inicia un periodo de transición e incertidumbre social, política y económica que, para la OMS y el FEM, podría implicar un reinicio de carácter mundial desde principios más equilibrados. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar las claves que marcan el comportamiento relacional del Gobierno de España en Twitter desde su cuenta oficial @Desdelamoncloa, en relación con estos principios y los intereses de la población. Metodología: se realiza un análisis cuantitativo (análisis de contenido) multivariable en SPSS (coeficiente alfa de Krippendorff = 0,867) sobre un corpus de 2735 tuits emitidos entre el 1 de abril de 2021 y el 30 de marzo de 2022. Resultados: los resultados muestran una mayor prevalencia de contenido con carácter institucional y económico, el empleo de un lenguaje formal/solemne, y regularidad en la frecuencia de emisión por fecha y hora (Jordan, 2017; Acebes y Montanera, 2019). Discusión y conclusiones: Twitter se consolida como una poderosa herramienta de gestión de las relaciones en el ámbito institucional (Marcos-García, 2021; Castillo-Esparcia et al., 2020a) orientada a generar confianza en la opinión pública (Greenhill, 2020; Hucker, 2020), pero se observa: a) un relevante desajuste entre las temáticas de los mensajes emitidos y los intereses de la población en este periodo de transición y, b) consolida las tesis que destacan una infrautilización institucional de su potencial interactivo (Rivas-de-Roca et al., 2021).
... Public relations describe complex systems that, strategically planned, are oriented towards the management of the publics using communication techniques in an auxiliary way (Almiron and Xifra, 2019;Page and Parnell, 2019). Under the prism of institutional communication, this relational perspective of public relations (Ledingham, 2001 and2003) allows institutions to align their institutional behavior with the needs and demands of citizens: that is the importance of the institutional use of Twitter. ...
Article
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The end of the acute phase of the pandemic, begins a return to normality in coexistence with the Coronavirus. Thus, a period of transition and social, political and economic uncertainty begins that, for WHO and WEF, could imply a global reset from more balanced principles. The objective of this work is to identify the keys that mark the relational behavior of the Government of Spain on Twitter from its official account @DesdelaMoncloa, in relation to these principles and the interests of the population. Methodology: multivariate quantitative analysis (content analysis) is performed in SPSS SPSS (Krippendorff alpha coefficient = 0.867) over a corpus of 2735 tweets issued between April 1, 2021 and March 30, 2022. Results: the results show a higher prevalence of content with an institutional 1Author responsible for correspondence and economic character, the use of a formal/solemn language, and regularity in broadcast frequency by date and time (Jordan, 2017; Acebes and Montanera, 2019). Discussion and conclusions: Twitter is consolidated as a powerful relationship management tool in the institutional field (Marcos-García, 2021; Castillo-Esparcia et al., 2020a) aimed at building trust in public opinion (Greenhill, 2020; Hucker, 2020), but it is observed: a) a significant mismatch between the themes of the messages issued and the interests of the population in this period of transition and, b) consolidates the theses that highlight an institutional underutilization of its interactive potential (Rivas-de-Roca et al., 2021).
... En este sentido, desde una perspectiva relacional (Ledingham, 2001(Ledingham, y 2003, las relaciones públicas implican procesos estratégicos, deliberadamente planificados, orientados a gestionar las relaciones de las organizaciones con sus públicos de interés. Con esta finalidad, utilizan, de forma complementaria y auxiliar, herramientas de comunicación que se conocen generalmente como técnicas de relaciones públicas (Otero y Pulido, 2018). ...
Article
El contexto académico actual evidencia un importante déficit de textos científicos relativos al estudio del ceremonial y el protocolo en revistas académicas indexadas de alto impacto. La perspectiva relacional de la organización de actos permite abordar estas disciplinas desde la solidez metodológica que permiten las ciencias sociales. Así, el objetivo principal de este trabajo es realizar una aproximación a la cuestión epistemológica, enmarcada en las Ciencias Sociales, que permita el desarrollo de diseños metodológicos excelentes, de corte cualitativo, para el estudio científico del ceremonial y el protocolo.
... Others propose integration of social theories to understand public relations as a social phenomenon within particular contexts (Ihlen et al., 2009). A number of scholars also address public relations and its role in community building and development (Hallahan, 2004, Ledingham, 2001, Ledingham & Bruning, 2001, Starck, Kruckeberg, Heath, & Vasquez, 2001. Some specifically emphasize the role of public relations as a community building function (Kruckeberg & Stark 1998, Valentini, Kruckeberg & Stark, 2012, using the concept of social capital to help solve societal and community problems (Sommerfelt 2013;Sommerfeldt & Taylor, 2011;Yang & Taylor, 2013), and building linkages between development communication and public relations through collaborative communication approaches (Joshi, 2022). ...
Article
This article proposes combining public relations and development communication insights so that organizations, particularly in the public sector, can engage and empower rural communities to adopt and exploit infrastructure developments for mutual benefit. Applying appreciative inquiry to explore the communication process involved in the development of micro-hydro power plants in Kulon Progo Regency, Indonesia, this article offers a view from those who are regarded as the target of communication, as the opposed to those take an organizational standpoint. The study proposes a new development project communication model which seeks to initiate, secure and sustain positive community outcomes and meet the project initiators’ requirements. This is achieved through collaboration and the gradual relinquishment of power and decision-making from the latter to the former. The model emphasizes the importance of the processes of communication as well as outcomes, and considers rural communities as having agency, rather than as objects of or for development. By embracing community assets such as local knowledge and contextual wisdom and the characteristics of collective communities in non-Western countries such as togetherness, reciprocity, a strong sense of shared destiny, locality, and fraternity, the model offers a community centric approach which encourages progressive community empowerment and ownership. The evidence points to the impacts for both communities and governments being more beneficial and sustainable than current communication practices.
... İlişki perspektifi halkla ilişkiler fonksiyonlarının çeşitli bağlamlarda da açıklanmasına yardımcı olur. Kamusal işler (Ledingham, 2001), toplumsal ilişkiler (Ledingham ve Brunig, 2001), sorun yönetimi ile kriz yönetimi (Coombs, 2000;Bridges ve Nelson, 2000'den akt., Ledingham, 2003, ve medya ile ilişkilerin (Ledigham ve Brunig, 1998). Dahası, ilişki yönetimi kavramı, sistem teorisi ve Grunig'in iki yönlü simetrik modeli gibi temel teorik kavramlarla tutarlıdır ve aynı zamanda ilgili orta düzey teorileri de barındırır (Ledingham, 2003, 181). ...
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A study on the public relations deparments of universities in Turkey within the framework of the theory of excellence in public relations The basic subject of this dissertation is to determine whether state and foundation universities in Turkey comply with the criteria of excellence and to confirm their application differences in the context of Grunig’s “The Excellence Theory in Public Relations”. The research question of this study is: “Is there a difference between state and foundation universities in Turkey in the application of excellence criteria in public relations to increase the success of perfecting universities?” While the universe of the study consists all the universities in Turkey, the sample consists the most successfull 20 state and 15 foundation universities included in the 2009 URAP report of METU. The field of the application of the research is limited to the heads of Unit of Press Public Relations of the universities mentioned in sample, its method is a pattern of simultaneous qualitative and quantitive mixed methods design in which survey study and semi-structured interview are used together. As the result of the analysis of qualitative and quantitive research data, this study found that there is no difference in the application of excellence public relations criteria in state and foundation universities in Turkey, universities use excellence public relations elements, and there is no difference in the rate of compliance with the excellence criteria between state and foundation universities. According to the research data that does not fit the criteria of excellence, this study demonstrated that state and foundation universities in Turkey make public relations works focused on promotion, female managers and employees of public relations units are not exposed to gender discrimination, the unit of public relations is competent and efficient as much as the value given by executives, the head of public relations has a vision of managing and structuring according to his/her field of expertise, and foundation universities have a view of “educational marketing” in public relations. Key Words: Universities, The Excellence Theory of Grunig, public relations, theories of public relations, mixed method.
... While it is vital for public agencies to deploy effective reactive strategies during a pandemic, one cannot overlook the importance of relationship building during the regular time. In fact, most forms of relationship building are incremental and they require sustained efforts such as open communication and on-the-ground community outreach (Ledingham, 2001). Public relations literature has identified effective relationship cultivation strategies for organizations. ...
Article
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Viewing government-public relationships as important antecedents of individuals’ health protection behaviors, this study uses a relationship management approach to examine COVID-19 vaccine promotion among local government agencies. The study hypothesizes that the quality of local government-public relationships is positively associated with pro-vaccine outcomes, including more frequent risk information seeking, pro-vaccine attitudes, and greater vaccination intention. In addition, an important pathway through which the government-public relationship promotes vaccination acceptance is by enhancing the public’s risk perceptions. Using a representative community sample, findings support the positive roles of certain but not all relationship quality variables in predicting vaccine acceptance. Meanwhile, risk perceptions consistently predict risk information seeking, pro-vaccine attitudes, and vaccination intention.
... Şentürk (2005, s.99) STK'ların ortaya çıkma sebebini, toplumsal bir konu ya da sorun etrafında bireylerin oluşturdukları bir örgüt aracılığıyla kamuoyunu harekete geçirme olarak açıklamaktadır. Halkla ilişkiler, kamuoyu desteği sağlamak ve artırmak konusunda baskı unsuru oluşturarak önemli katkıda bulunabilir (Ledingham, 2001). Ancak kadın ve diğer toplumsal hareketlerde halkla ilişkiler biraz ihmal edilmiş bir konudur. ...
... An assumption of the theory is that it observes the interpersonal relationships through the prism of the organisation-customers relations. The authors are aware of the methodological problem here, especially when it comes to the identification and measurement of other kinds of relationships such as between the government and its publics, when the values of democracy and citizenship are involved (Ledingham, 2001). ...
Article
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In this paper I analyse a series of Australian MMR (measles-mumpsrubella) vaccination campaigns and policies from the last decade. Using the Bruno Latour’s Actor Network Theory (ATN), I locate human and non-human mediators – including the virus and vaccine – in the complex pro-vaccination alliance led by government campaigners. I identify the vaccine hesitant parents – a large group that ‘sits on the fence’ between the ‘vaccine confident’ and ‘vaccine refusing’ parents – as the main target of pro-vaccination campaigns. PR literature on pro-vaccination campaigns has applied ATN to the independence of the media as network agents. This paper contributes with the problematisation of several more actors such as the health workers, medical experts and the vaccine hesitant parents themselves. Even when they are keen members of a pro-vaccination network, they cannot be taken for granted. This is where understanding of stigma, silence and voice helps. To align their group interests and discourses, government should know how to communicate strategically – including how to communicate indirectly, avoiding stigma and keeping certain internal affinities and communicative distances intact. In conclusion, I make suggestions about strategic communication in pro-vaccination campaigns. Communication of statistical risks and side effects should be central. It is a winning strategy because it establishes a more credible balance between individual rights and collective obligations in achieving herd immunity. And mandating vaccination cannot replace communication. Research shows that legislating compulsory vaccination may have short-term and relatively small effects. They are almost negligible in the long run. Mandate may trigger compliance, but it also causes anger and mistrust. Mandating vaccine has negative side effects. It punishes with economic and cultural sanctions the socially disadvantaged, who are not active refusers. It also has the opposite effect on vaccine hesitant parents. It does not weaken but rather strengthens their resistance to the vaccine and pushes them to the lager of antivaxxers.
... Here digital public relation was measured into three dimensions' Personal relationship, Community relationship, Professional relationship. For estimation of these dimensions nine items were drawn from Ledingham (2001) public relation scale. Each dimension was measured by three items to see the use of digital public relation in agricultural tourism to communicate with people. ...
Article
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The tourism sector has considerably increased in Nan province in last few years, and has made major contribution to the Nan province due it natural beauty and beautiful landscape. Agricultural tourism has emerged as new tourism attraction in this region. Thai government has initiated many agricultural tourism projects for increasing revenue of Thai people in rural and agricultural areas and give tourists insight and experience of rural life. This paper is designed to examine the agricultural tourism development in Chaloem Phra kiat District. This paper tests the relationship between digital public relation, sense of community and agricultural tourism development in case of Chaloem Phrakiat District. The data was collected from 351 respondents which was analyzed on structural equation modeling on SPSS to check hypothetical relationship among proposed research frame. The findings advocated that personal relationship, community relationship, professional relationship and agricultural tourism development are significantly correlated. Sense of community also intervenes the connection between these variables. The paper advances literature on Digital public relations and agricultural tourism in Thailand. This paper will benefit public relation experts and government of community building in Chaloem Phra kiat District.
... If the costs of interaction are expected to exceed the potential benefits and rewards, or if the expected rewards are higher in some other (competing) relationship, actors can refrain from forming a relationship in the first place. Within the domain of public relations, the social exchange theory has been applied to argue for a relational theory for public relations (Ledingham 2001), with some reference to the importance of expectations in relationships. ...
... The public relations scholarship emphasizes the key role of relationship management (e.g., see Bortree, 2007;Hon & Grunig, 1999;Ki & Hon, 2009;Ki, 2013;Ledingham, 2001;Men, Ji, & Chen, 2017). The understanding of relationship management not only guides theoretical inquiry and professional practice, but also provides a method for evaluation (Bruning & Ledingham, 1999). ...
... The public relations scholarship emphasizes the key role of relationship management (e.g., see Bortree, 2007;Hon & Grunig, 1999;Ki & Hon, 2009;Ki, 2013;Ledingham, 2001;Men, Ji, & Chen, 2017). The understanding of relationship management not only guides theoretical inquiry and professional practice, but also provides a method for evaluation (Bruning & Ledingham, 1999). ...
... The public relations scholarship emphasizes the key role of relationship management (e.g., see Bortree, 2007;Hon & Grunig, 1999;Ki & Hon, 2009;Ki, 2013;Ledingham, 2001;Men, Ji, & Chen, 2017). The understanding of relationship management not only guides theoretical inquiry and professional practice, but also provides a method for evaluation (Bruning & Ledingham, 1999). ...
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The purpose of this study is to examine the associations among relationship cultivation strategies, relational outcomes, and reputation in the context of higher education institutions in conflict zones. A survey of 450 students from two private universities in Yemen was conducted to test a proposed study model. The study uses structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze relationships among model constructs. The findings confirm the strong mediating role of relationship outcomes in predicting organizational reputation, but also reveal that relationship cultivation strategies can have direct effects on reputation. The study further discusses situational factors that may have influenced students' perceptions of organizational reputation, ranging from the ongoing military conflict and the deterioration of the economy to changes in tuition fees.
... Halkla ilişkiler, bir örgüt ve onun kamusu arasında karşılıklı iletişim, anlama, kabul ve işbirliğini kurma ve sürdürmeye yardımcı olan kendine özgü yönetim fonksiyonudur; sorun veya meselelerin yönetimini içerir; yönetimin bilgilenmesine ve kamuoyuna cevap vermesine yardım eder; kamu yararına hizmet etmesi için yönetimin sorumluluğunu tanımlar ve vurgular; eğilimleri önceden kestirmede bir erken uyarı sistemi gibi çalışarak yönetimin yeni gelişmeleri öğrenmesi ve etkili bir biçimde değişimi sağlamasına yardım eder ve başlıca araçlar olarak güvenilir ve etik iletişim tekniklerini ve araştırmayı kullanır. Son dönemde halkla ilişkiler ilişki yönetimi şeklinde de ele alınmaktadır (Boie, 2012;Bruning, 2002;Ledingham, 2001;Savaş ve Sürücü, 2016). İlişki yönetimi perspektifi, halkla ilişkilerin örgüt ve kamularının çıkarlarını örgüt-kamu ilişkisinin yönetimi aracılığıyla dengeleyeceğini kabul eder (Ledingham, 2003: 181). ...
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z: Halkla ilişkiler, modern devletin kamu yönetiminin önemli bir yönetim fonksiyonudur. 1980 sonrasında modern devlet ve kamu yönetimi yeni kamu işletmeciliği ve yönetişim yaklaşımlarının etkisinde yeniden şekillenmiştir. Bu yaklaşımlar devlet-vatandaş ilişkisi-ni yeni bir perspektifte kurgulamış ve halkla ilişkilerin varsayımlarını değiştirmiştir. Bu bağlamda modern devlette halkla ilişkiler, kendisini müşteri odaklı hizmet, katılımcılık, hesap verebilirlik ve saydamlık, küresel ilişkiler, dijitalleşme ve kriz yönetimi üzerinden yeniden konumlandırmıştır ve yeniden konumlanmasına paralel olarak çevrimiçi dijital iletişim platformları, kamu diplomasisi, kamu pazarlamacılığı ve kriz yönetimi gibi farklı ve yeni uygulamaları bünyesine katarak dönüşüme ayak uydurmuştur. Abstract: Public relations is a crucial function of public administration of modern state. After 1980, modern state and its public administration have been reshaped under the thumb of new public management and governance approaches. These approaches have built the relationship of state-citizen in new perspective and changed the assumptions of public relations. In this context, public relations in modern state has repositioned itself on customer based service, participation, accountability and transparency,global relations, digitalization and crisis management, and in paralel with its repositioning, it has adopted the transformation adding different and new practices as digital communication platforms, public diplomacy, public marketing and crisis management in its structure. Keywords: New public management, governance, public relations in modern state. Giriş Dünyadaki toplumsal, ekonomik, siyasi ve teknolojik gelişmeler hayatın her ala-nını etkilediği gibi kurumları ve insanları da etkilemektedir. Bu bağlamda devlet ve toplum ilişkisi yani yöneten-yönetilen ilişkisi ve dolayısıyla bu ilişkide temel rol oynayan kamu yönetimi de dönüşmektedir.
... Another "relationships" -Community relationships -is the function of planning and participating actively with [12]and within a community for the benefit of the community and organization [5]. Tactics in this category include community events, volunteer events, and joint sponsorship opportunities with other community organizations [13]. Community relationships can also include fundraising and development activities. ...
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Public relations practice is a profitable interpretation of an organization's new and continuous relationship with stakeholders, including customers, by managing all communication relationships with the organization that creates the reputation and protects its reputation [5]. The researcher has employed mixed research methods. Mixed approaches are far more compressive than attacking a problem one point of view and allow a different type of data to be accessed from disciplinary boundaries. Employing a purposive sampling method, a total of 7 PR officers of the Tigray region education Bureau and the Public relations Manager of the respective Bureau have been selected. An interview and questionnaires have been employed to gather data. After the researcher has collected the relevant data using the mixed research methods it has been analyzed. The data which was gathered using a quantitative research method has been analyzed and interpreted in a table and report in percentage with sufficient explanation for each table result and percentages using SPSS data analyzing software. Besides, the gathered data using a qualitative research design was analyzed in the reporting method with elaboration.
... Thus, tensions between collaboration and competition (Taylor Buck and While 2017)-in other words, "competitive cooperation" (van der Pluijm and Melissen 2007, p. 13)-could appear when national and local governments do not take the same approach. Having the strategic interest of establishing and maintaining mutual relationships with their citizens (Ledingham 2001), cities can take the opportunity to criticize government actions which oppose the actions or interests of cities (Lievonen and Luoma-aho 2015). However, the role of mayors and cities for the transformation of the international system is still relatively unexamined (Acuto 2013). ...
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This chapter first conceptualizes the phenomenon of “negative emotional engagement” (understood as unfavorable behavior toward organizations; see Lievonen et al., The handbook of communication engagement. Wiley, New York, 2018) and introduces a framework for assessing it in relation to city diplomacy and city branding. Second, we demonstrate that negative emotional engagement can have measurable positive outcomes. In the empirical section, we use a mixed-methods case study approach applying content and sentiment analysis to understand how mayoral messages from the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group cross the boundary to the ‘dark side’ by publicly discussing and criticizing President Trump’s decision to leave the Paris climate change agreement. The study illustrates recent phenomena of negative emotional engagement (Lievonen et al., The handbook of communication engagement. Wiley, New York, 2018) and new diplomatic functions of cities (city diplomacy) that leverage city branding. Social media messages and press releases show how mayors, citizens and associations engage with the issue of climate change through disapproving of policies, leading them to be more active in bringing about local changes. This study shows how negative emotional engagements tend to use the rhetoric of a common enemy to motivate people to take participative actions, thus also showing the positive aspects of city diplomacy.
... Another likely yet under-examined driver of party reputation is organization-public relationship (OPR), which also serves as the primary theoretical foundation for this study. Ledingham (2001), relying on Kruckeberg and Starck's (1988) community building framework, sought to understand successful components necessary to foster beneficial relationships between an organization and its stakeholders. Among the most applicable theories in PR scholarship, OPR provides a heuristic approach for examining public relations (Ferguson, 1984(Ferguson, , 2018Sallot, Lyon, Acosta-Alzuru, & Jones, 2003). ...
Article
This study examined the ability of antecedents such as media diet and candidate traits to impact political organization public relationships (POPRs), in turn affecting views on party reputation. As expected, survey respondents reported greater levels of relationship-focused communication and higher reputation assessments of their own parties, additionally rating their party's candidate higher in authenticity and character. Connecting media diet and reputation, heavier use of partisan, traditional media (e.g., talk radio and cable news) indicated increased partisan divides, suggesting young and often inexperienced voters engage in motivated reasoning, seeking out information from sources that cater to their existing ideologies. This pattern was less pronounced for infotainment and social media sources, suggesting promising agenda-building opportunities for political PR practitioners. SEM analyses demonstrated the significant influence of candidate traits and POPR on party reputation , though manifestations of effects differed among Democrats and Republicans, the implications of which are discussed.
... Public relations has evolved in the past almost five decades from its focus on organisation public relations (typified by the models of public relations) to roles research to the relationship perspective relational perspective, setting the path to a stream of research followed by many scholars in the field (Broom et al., 1997(Broom et al., , 2000Ledingham, 1998, 1999;Hon and Grunig, 1999;Hung, 2001Hung, , 2005Grunig and Huang, 2000;Sriramesh, 1992;Sriramesh and Rivera, 2006;Ledingham, 2001Ledingham, , 2003Ledingham and Bruning, 1998;Plowman, 1998). The study of organisation-public relationships (OPR) became the focus at the dawn of the millennium (Bruning and Ledingham, 1999), providing a new framework of analysis named public relations as relationship management. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to link public relations to peacebuilding. Although scholarship has discussed public relations as relationship management, the nexus between public relations and peace building has been understudied. To address this deficiency, this research studies the negotiations between the Government of Colombia and the FARC-EP separatist group that lead to the landmark peace treaty between the two entities that had fought for over five decades with thousands of deaths. Three research questions addressed the communication factors that contributed to the two sworn enemies – FARC-EP and the Colombian Government – finally sealing a peace agreement; the specific public relations strategies and techniques that led to relationship building between the two sides leading to the landmark peace agreement; and the use of the indicators of relationship building proposed by scholarship in the negotiations between the Colombian Government and FARC-EP. Design/methodology/approach The case study method was used and a purposive sample of news reports from three national newspapers at specific key dates yielding a final sample consisted of 504 articles was analysed. A codebook with deductive and inductive categories was developed specially to study the existing communication factors ( RQ1 ), public relations strategies and techniques ( RQ2 ), as well as contributions by relationship indicators ( RQ3 ). Given the sensitivity of the issues, only secondary data could be relied upon for this study. Findings The results of RQ1 fall within the scope of Grunig’s (2001), Sriramesh’s (1992) and Hung’s (2001) notion of the personal influence model where the leveraging of individuals’ network is important to facilitate communication. Indeed, the relations already existing and established with third parties are revealed to be fundamental to the success of the negotiation process. As for RQ2 , findings demonstrate that the Colombian Government used third-party mediation, principled and distributive strategies, while FARC-EP mainly used contending strategies. But results showed that both used compromising during the whole process, and that both transitioned from one-way asymmetrical strategies, such as principled or contending towards compromising along the peace talks. Finally, findings demonstrate evidence of the four indicators of the relationship and their link with public relations techniques. The most evidenced indicators of the relationship were trust, commitment and control mutuality. Trust was the indicator of the relationship the most evidenced in the Colombian case. The dimension was built during the whole process and evolved continually. Distrust was the total between the two enemies at the beginning of the pre-negotiation. However, as parties entered into a relationship, confidence and trust increased. Research limitations/implications The inability to obtain primary data is the major limitation of this study. It was caused by the sensitivity of the topic. Practical implications This study links public relations to a very practical case that is also vastly understudied/underreported – peacemaking/peacebuilding – while also addressing communication by governments and civil society in Latin America – an area that is largely understudied. Originality/value This is the first study that links public relations with peacebuilding.
... liking, sharing, commenting, clicking on a post), and the purpose of engagement is to establish or participate in interactivity or dialogue, although ultimately, the goal is to cultivate organization-public relationships. Willis (2012), Hallahan (2000), Oliver (1980), Ledingham (2001), and Barbaro (2006) and focus on concepts like relationship management and dialogue with the specific aim of studying or improving community engagement. We inferred that publications within this community tend to emphasize engagement between organizations and community stakeholders and engagement tends to be described as dedication to open interactions, similar to dialogue. ...
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Researchers and practitioners assert that engagement is a fundamental element of public relations with some claiming the field is in an era of engagement. Yet, many have lamented that engagement is disorganized and conceptually murky. To address this, this study examines how researchers have stood on the shoulders of “giants”. Results from the bibliometric network analyses of 91 journal articles and over 3000 citations reveals the structure of the invisible college of engagement research and identifies foundational and prominent publications. A close reading and analysis documents how these publications are influencing the theoretical development of engagement research in public relations.
... Such a strategy should identify target audiences and create a plan for how communication with these audiences should work over time [84]. The strategy should recognise the interactive nature of communication and account for developing a relationship with audiences [50]. The strategy should also ensure that information formats and appropriate messaging is considered prior to an event. ...
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The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) began with the Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. Continual large and small aftershocks since that time have meant communities have cycled through repeated periods of impact, response and recovery. Scientific communication about aftershocks during such a prolonged sequence has faced distinct challenges. We conducted research to better understand aftershock information needs for agencies and the public, and how people interpreted and responded to such information. We found that a wide range of information was needed from basic facts about aftershocks through to more technical information, and in different formats (e.g. maps, tables, graphs, text, analogies). Information needs also evolved throughout the sequence, and differed depending on people's roles and experiences, and the phase of impact, response and recovery communities were in. Interpretation of aftershock information was influenced by a variety of factors including how understandable and relevant the information was, whether people had prior knowledge or experience of aftershocks, whether the information was personalised or contextualised, emotions and feelings, credibility and trust, and external influences. Given that such a diversity of evolving information is required, it is imperative that geoscientists strategize how to provide such information before a significant earthquake occurs.
... Furthermore, principal-agent theory (Lane, 2005) and social exchange theory (Vroom, 1964) suggest that actors in a relationship, be it principals or agents, administrators or citizens, expect to receive something from what they contribute to the relationship. Hence, administrators adopt a more favorable view on the citizens' needs and values, and in return receive their legitimacy (Ledingham, 2001). The greater the criticism targeted at managerial quality, the less the satisfaction with and trust in public services and the greater the need for managerial reforms. ...
... Lee Jenni, Peterson, Katz Jameson, and Cubbage (2015), for instance, showed that a good military-public relation leads to more trust, positive sentiments, and more sustainable decisions with regard to environmental issues in military contexts. Ledingham (2001) studied government-community relationships and found that effective public relations can contribute to community building, when points of common interest between the government and the public are identified. ...
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Decision-making during a crisis is affected by several sources of information and prior knowledge, such as factual (statistical) information, narratives of others, and real-time governmental messages. The present study investigated how two types of information (statistics and narratives) influence helping behavior after the occurrence of a traffic accident. We used a scripted crisis scenario in a virtual environment, where several types of behavior could be measured. The main dependent variable was whether participants would move the victim or not. By moving the victim, he would be rescued from a potentially unsafe position (the tilted truck could contain poisonous substances), but moving also entailed a risk of increased injury (according to the statistical information the most likely consequence). Our results indicate that more victims were moved in the narrative condition before an official message was received. Participants who had received statistical information or both types of information performed similar to the control condition. After the official message, informing participants to keep distance, more victims were moved in the narrative condition and in the combined narrative and statistical condition. A narrative therefore has stronger effects when (information about) the actual situation matches the narrative’s content. In contrast with our expectations, affective response did not mediate the relationship between narrative information and moving victims. An alternative explanation would be that narratives trigger a more heuristic way of information processing.
... Lee Jenni, Peterson, Katz Jameson, and Cubbage (2015), for instance, showed that a good military-public relation leads to more trust, positive sentiments, and more sustainable decisions with regard to environmental issues in military contexts. Ledingham (2001) studied government-community relationships and found that effective public relations can contribute to community building, when points of common interest between the government and the public are identified. ...
... 85). Ledingham (2001) agreed, arguing that the reconceptualization of public relations "tore the study and practice from its historic moorings in journalism" (p. 287) and challenged public relations practitioners to adopt processes from management. ...
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The relationship between an organization and its public represents a central concern for the research and practice of public relations. This paper is based on the central research question: How can digital media and technologies contribute to a company’s global relationship management? Stemming from the general question I have three more research-related questions: 1. How can social media communities contribute to corporate relationship management? 2. What are the key questions for global relationship management? 3. What are the organizational prerequisites for global relationship manage- ment? Conclusion: Digital media and technologies can contribute in a unique way to global relationship management. These peculiarities comprise the “big four”: integration, accessibility, connectivity and interactivity. Connectivity and inter- activity are the two most important for global relationship management. Social media channels have opened up new opportunities for companies to benefit from platforms in recent years, where users meet, communicate, exchange ideas and even create products. The problem for global relationship management is that these platforms are very different world-wide, their users and the culture of the com- munication within these channels are equally different. As a consequence for global relationship management, organizations have to set up a systematic and long-term process of analysis, planning, creation and control to professionally manage the organization’s communication.
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In the context of the chronological development of public relations theory, this research aimed to reveal the theoretical frameworks of the public relations theses studied in Turkey between 1980 and 2020. The study addressed changes and developments in the context of the chronological progress of the public relations theory that developed in America and Europe, and were subjects of theses studied public relations in Turkey. The population of the study, doctoral theses in the field of public relations in Turkey; the sample is the doctoral theses studied in the field of public relations in Turkey and those were acceptable in data collection time. From the 1980s until 2020, the limitation of the study constitutes the titles and summaries of the top public relations dissertation studied in Turkey. In the theoretical part of the study, the chronological development of the theory of rights relations in the process ranging from system theory to dialogic communication was discussed. In the methodology part, the frequency of the theses studying the public relations in Turkey were mentioned and interpreted based on years, subjects, the application areas in public relations, and related disciplines. Analysis revelaed that the number of doctoral theses in the field of public relations in Turkey increased quantitatively in recent years. The most studied topic was political communication (n=36) whereas the least was the protocol administration. Addition to this, no thesis had been studied on system theory, contingency theory, which is one of the first theories of public relations. With the development of the theories in America and Europe, it was determined that theses in Turkey were parallels to those in America and Europe in the chronological order in the doctoral theses, albeit with an average of 15 years delay in Turkey.
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The international health crisis caused by Covid-19, more serious than those caused by SARS, MERS, influenza A, and Ebola, poses an unprecedented challenge for all institutions around the world in combating the infodemic. The main objective of this work is to analyze institutional behavior through Twitter to determine whether it is possible to deduce an effective institutional online crisis communication model that is applicable in wider contexts. In this sense, a quantitative methodological design is established based on content analysis performed on a simple of 995 tweets from the official Twitter accounts of institutions in charge of managing the health crisis during the first state of alarm in Spain: @sanidadgob (483 tweets), @mitmagob (154 tweets), @defensagob (263 tweets), and @interiorgob (95 tweets). The results illustrate a predominance of empathetic and security-related messages (60.40%); a stable distribution of tweets per day, with 88.74% of them published between 10:00 and 20:59; a moderate use of audiovisual resources (32.26%) with a very informative approach (96.18%); a few significant differences according to the chi-squared statistic with respect to the format (χ2(12) = 606.066; p < 0.001) and approach (χ2(3) = 36.084; p < 0.001) depending on the accounts analyzed; and a substantial level of engagement with the Spanish Ministry of Health’s account (68.96%). These results demonstrate that Twitter allows the application of an online institutional communication model that is easily transferable to an international context, suggesting a public relations strategy based on information transparency and constant information flow. Resumen La crisis sanitaria internacional provocada por la Covid-19, más grave que las provocadas por el SARS, el MERS, la Gripe A y el Ébola, supone un desafío sin precedentes para las instituciones de todo el mundo. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar el comportamiento institucional a través de Twitter para determinar si es posible inferir un modelo eficaz de comunicación institucional de crisis online de aplicación en contextos más amplios. En este sentido, se establece un diseño metodológico cuantitativo, sustentado en el análisis de contenido sobre un corpus de 995 mensajes emitidos durante el primer estado de alarma por las cuentas oficiales de Twitter de las instituciones oficiales al cargo de la gestión de la crisis sanitaria de la Covid-19 en España: @sanidadgob (483 tweets), @mitmagob (154 tweets), @defensagob (263 tweets) e @interiorgob (95 tweets). Los resultados muestran un predominio de mensajes de empatía y seguridad (60,40%); una distribución estable de tweets por día, concentrándose el 88,74% de los mismos entre las 10:00 y las 20:59 horas; un uso comedido de recursos audiovisuales (32,26%) con un enfoque eminentemente informativo (96,18%); diferencias significativas según el estadístico chi-cuadrado con respecto al formato (χ2(12) = 606,066; p < 0,001) y el enfoque (χ2(3) = 36,084; p < 0,001) en función de la cuenta analizada, y una destacada tasa de engagement adscrita al Ministerio de Sanidad (68,96%). Estos resultados evidencian que Twitter permite aplicar un modelo de comunicación institucional online, de fácil transferencia al contexto internacional, que sugiere una estrategia de relaciones públicas sustentada en la transparencia informativa y el goteo informativo constante.
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Halkla ilişkiler uygulamalarının etkinliği sonuçları üzerinden değerlendirilmektedir. Bu kitabın amacı ise halkla ilişkiler uygulama- larının sonuçlarının etkinliğini arttırmaktır. Böylece, halkla ilişkilerde ilişki geliştirme stratejilerinin farklı kuruluşlarda, farklı ortamlarda ve farklı hedef kitle grupları üzerinde nasıl uygulanacağının anlatılması, hedef kitleler ile etkili ve uygun bir biçimde ilişkilerin geliştirilmesi için gerekli olan bilgi ve beceri ihtiyacının karşılanması amaçlanmıştır.
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There is still debate on whether a global public relations model may be applied in any cultural setting. This article contributes to this discussion by presenting empirical evidence about how Chilean export firms develop public relations strategies to Chinese audiences and the dual dimension – global and cultural – of their practice. Two main findings are discussed: on the one hand, Chilean companies have mostly developed a global approach to reach general audiences. On the other, the actual practice of relationship management – through their firm’s executives – is carried out by placing culture as critical for successful public relations efforts. Specifically, Chilean executives use guanxi as the main driver of their relationship management.
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This research reported and expanded on a 6-year citation study of published scholarly research in public relations that occurred between 2010 and 2015. This analysis built on the work of Pasadeos and his collaborators, who examined the literature’s most-cited works from the 2000s and 1990s, respectively, and studied the field’s research network. Moreover, this study expanded the scope of coverage by adding three international journals. Overall, this study found that public relations scholarship experienced quantitative and qualitative leaps during the last decade, and the areas of excellence theory, relationship management, and crisis communication were heavily researched across the journals examined, whereas stakeholder and corporate communication are major study areas in the international journals.
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In this study, we provide evidence of the theorized connection between community engagement and the development of social capital, and the perceived value or worth of relationships among organizations and stakeholders. Using thematic analysis to understand the policy and practice frameworks of community engagement in Australian local government organizations, our analyses reveal two different types of community engagement—relational and episodic—each of which has the potential to contribute to relational dimension of social capital. The study introduces and develops new thinking around the ideas of episodic and relational engagement within the context of community engagement, and their respective contributions to the development of relational capital. Recognizing and identifying episodic and relational community engagement as separate phenomena allows researchers and practitioners to understand the theoretical dimensions of community engagement as a framework for practice.
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Abstract Relationship Management holds that the purpose of public relations is to act as an intermediary in helping an organization achieve its goals while ensuring benefit for stakeholders as well as for the client organization. Research concerning relationship management for nearly 20 years serves as the foundation for the next step in the evolution of the public relations manager, an holistic approach to organizational initiatives. Holistic theory suggests that the parts of any whole cannot exist and cannot be understood except in their relation to the whole. Moreover, holistic thinking has advocates in the medical field, anthropology, and psychiatry and in numerous other disciplines. However, a review of the relevant literature found little more than passing reference to the need for public relations management to integrate an organization’s mission, beliefs, culture and goals in an holistic approach. Accordingly, this chapter reviews the concept of holism and its relevance to public relations management, then introduces the notion of management theory and popular managerial concepts to prospective managers, along with various types of organizations and cultural imperatives for those seeking to manage holistically.
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The emergence of social media had shaped the relationships between public relations practitioners, organizations and publics. Social media provides numerous opportunities of maintaining mutual relationships between these entities, specifically because of its speed and interactive potentials. Hence, many organizations established social media sites and public relations practitioners utilized it in their workplace. However, most of the studies that examined the influence of social media in shaping organizations-public relationships were not carried out on a theoretical continuum. Hence, little is known on the influence of social media on public relations practice from developing countries’ perspective. The motivation of this study was to propose and validate a model which explains how public relations practitioners use social media for enhancing mutual relationships with their strategic publics. The significance of conducting this study is to bring to light the influence of social media in public relations practice from a country that has different demographic, economic and political settings from countries which most of the studies of this nature were carried out before. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was utilized as the theoretical guide of this study. Thus, the actual use of social media among PR practitioners was measured by a construct named, Perceived Mutual Relationship. Perceived Mutual Relationship was also measured from three dimensions which included: trust; commitment and satisfaction. Data were collected from 513 public relations practitioners in Nigeria through a systematic random sampling. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed for analysis of the model. The study used TAM to explain reasons why practitioners utilized social media for enhancing mutual relationships with their publics. Specifically, the validated model proved that use of social media for relationship management was explained by 73%. The validated model provides public relations researchers with a theoretical framework to investigate how social media could be utilized in promoting mutual relationships between public relations practitioners, their organizations and target publics. © 2017, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Press. All rights reserved.
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Describes the ongoing state of change in the domain of public relations, with special attention to model shifts. Defines model struggles and discusses the emergence of international public relations along with other recent trends. (HB)
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Previous research quantified 5 dimensions of the organization-public relationship and determined their influence on organization-public relationships. In this study, the researchers examined the previously unexplored dimension of length of time in the relationship. Results indicate time in the relationship significantly influences perceptions of relationship dimensions and, furthermore, serves as an indicator of behavioral predispositions toward the organization. The research underscores the appropriateness of relationship management as a framework for determining the value of public relations initiatives. This study suggests that building relationships requires a long-term organizational commitment. The study also recommends that public relations practitioners initiate mutually beneficial relationships with key publics at the earliest possible time and nurture relationships with key public members on a continuing basis through programs centered around operationalized relationship dimensions. It is further suggested that mature relationships also require nurturing to sustain loyalty toward the organization.
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A fundamental assumption underlying the formation of our most important relationships is that they will persist indefinitely into the future. As an acquaintanceship turns into a friend­ ship, for example, both members of this newly formed interpersonal bond are likely to expect that their interactions will become increasingly frequent, diverse, and intimate over time. This expectation is perhaps most apparent in romantically involved couples who, through a variety of verbal and symbolic means, make explicit pledges to a long-lasting relationship. In either case, it is clear that these relationships represent something valuable to the individuals in­ volved and are pursued with great enthusiasm. Virtually all close relationships are formed within the context of mutually rewarding in­ teractions and/or strong physical attraction between partners. Friends and romantically in­ volved couples alike are drawn to one another because of similarity of attitudes, interests, and personality and, quite simply, because they enjoy one another's company. This enjoyment, cou­ pled with the novelty that characterizes new relationships, almost makes the continuation of the relationship a foregone conclusion. As relationships progress, however, their novelty fades, conflicts may arise between partners, negative life events may occur, and the satisfaction that previously characterized the relationships may diminish.
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Public relations has long struggled to develop an identity in both scholarship and practice. An increasing number of scholars are adopting the perspective that public relations should be viewed as the management of a relationship between organizations and publics. The current investigation was an attempt to design a multiple-item, multiple-dimension organization-public relationship scale. Results of this investigation show that organizations and key publics have three types of relationships: professional, personal, and community. The organization-public relationship measure developed in this investigation should provide an instrument that can be used to measure þe influence that perceptions of the organization-public relationship have on consumer attitudes, predispositions, and behavior, as well as an opportunity to track changes in organizationpublic relationship perceptions over time. Results of the investigation, conclusions, and suggested applications for future research are presented.Dr. Bruning and Dr. Ledingham are members of the Department of Communication at Capital University, Columbus, OH.
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This article explores the concept of relationships in the theory and practice of public relations. Even though the public relations function builds and maintains organizations' relationships with publics, we found few definitions of such relationships in public relations literature. We also found the same paucity of useful definitions in the literature of other fields in which the concept of relationships is central.
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This article suggests that agreement on a paradigm focus for public relations scholarship would greatly enhance the probability of productive theory development. The author argues, influenced by Thomas Kuhn, that until those who call themselves public relations scholars come to agreement on the focus of public relations research and theory development, there may be much activity we call research in public relations, but there will not be much theory development.
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This article reports on the author's survey of members of the Public Relations Society of America in which he evaluated men's and women's perceptions of professional role models. Glen M. Broom asked a systematic sample of PRSA members to respond to questions about four conceptual role models: the expert prescriber, the communication technician, the communication facilitator and the problem-solving process facilitator. The results indicate that public relations practitioners see themselves in only two roles—those of communication technician and some combination of the other three models. He found that men and women differ significantly: Men see themselves primarily in the expert prescriber role, while women reported the communication technician as their dominant role.
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Pseudo-planning and pseudo-evaluation are too often the response of practitioners to management demands for accountability, says the author of this article. Such steps are stopgaps that do little to advance public relations as an emerging profession. The difficulty lies in the differing orientations of “new wave” and “old wave” practitioners. The latter, says this writer, eschew planning and issue management for the technical realm of producing communication about an organization. He suggests that foundations that support public relations should pursue a strategic plan to stimulate the evolution of true planning and evaluation practices. David M. Dozier is an associate professor in the Department of Journalism, San Diego State University, San Diego, Calif.
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Increasingly, scholars and practitioners are defining public relations as the management of relationships between organizations and publics. Because relationships can be difficult to measure, public relations practitioners often have struggled to demonstrate the influence that public relations activities have on consumer perceptions, evaluations, and behaviors. The current investigation sought to examine key public members’ perceptions of the personal, professional, and community relationships they have with a bank and to relate those perceptions to evaluations of satisfaction. The results show that key public members’ perceptions of their personal and professional relationships significantly influence evaluations of overall satisfaction with the organization, accounting for 75% of satisfaction variation. A discussion of the implications these findings hold for the study and practice of public relations are provided, a management framework, SMART Public Relations, is suggested, and areas of examination for future research are presented.Dr. Bruning is an associate professor and Dr. Ledingham is a professor of communication at Capital University, Columbus, Ohio.
Community Relations and Loyalty: Toward a Relationship Theory of Public Relations
  • John A Ledingham
  • Stephen D Bruning
  • Cheryl Lesko
John A. Ledingham and Stephen D. Bruning, and Cheryl Lesko, " Community Relations and Loyalty: Toward a Relationship Theory of Public Relations, " in Business Research Yearbook IV, Jerry Biberman and Abbass Alkhafaji (eds)., (1997) pp. 772–776.
Using Research in Public Relations: Applications to Program Management
  • Glen M Broom
  • David M Dozier
Glen M. Broom, and David M. Dozier, Using Research in Public Relations: Applications to Program Management, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1990).
Mass communication theories and research
  • Alexis S Tan
Alexis S. Tan, Mass communication theories and research, (Columbus, OH, Grid Publishing, Inc., 1981) Mary John Smith, Contemporary communication research methods, (Belmont, CA, Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1988)
Finding Out What Trust Means in An Integrated Health Care environment
  • Susan Lucarelli-Dimmick
  • Traci E Bell
  • Samuel G Burgiss
  • Caroline Ragsdale
Susan Lucarelli-Dimmick, Traci E. Bell, Traci E, Samuel G. Burgiss, and Caroline Ragsdale, " Finding Out What Trust Means in An Integrated Health Care environment, " in John A. Ledingham and Stephen D. Bruning (eds.), 2000.
Professional mail surveys
  • Erdos
  • Paul
Erdos, Paul, Professional mail surveys. (New York, NY, McGraw-Hill, Book company, 1970).
The return to Gemeinschaft: A theory of public relations and corporate community relations as relationship-building
  • Laurie J Wilson
Laurie J. Wilson, " The return to Gemeinschaft: A theory of public relations and corporate community relations as relationship-building, " In A. F. Alkhafaji (Ed.), Business research yearbook: Global business perspectives Vol. 1, pp. 135–141.
Public Relations: Toward a Global Profession
  • Dean Kruckeberg
Dean Kruckeberg. " Public Relations: Toward a Global Profession, " in John A. Ledingham and Stephen D. Bruning (eds.), Relationship Management: A relational approach to the study and practice of public relations (Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000), p. 145.
Relationship Management: Where Do We Go From Here?” paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association
  • See John
  • A Ledingham
See John A. Ledingham, " Relationship Management: Where Do We Go From Here? " paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Acapulco, Mexico, 2000.
Building theory in Public Relations: Interorganizational Relationships,” paper presented at the annual meting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication
  • Mary A Ferguson
An Interpersonal Primer with Implications for Public Relations
  • Dean T Thomlison
Dean T. Thomlison, " An Interpersonal Primer with Implications for Public Relations, " in John A. Leding-ham and Stephen D. Bruning, (eds.), 2000.