Association between MTHFR polymorphisms and orofacial clefts risk: A meta-analysis
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology (Impact Factor: 2.09). 04/2012; 94(4):237-44. DOI: 10.1002/bdra.23005
BACKGROUND The roles of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in orofacial clefts (OFCs) risk have been substantially explored, but the results remain conflicting. To address this gap, we conducted a meta-analysis involving all eligible studies. METHODS: Electronic literature searches of the PubMed, EmBase, and Medline databases were performed up to October 31, 2011. Fixed-effects or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) for two genetic comparisons (heterozygous mutation vs. wild type, homozygous mutation vs. wild type). RESULTS A total of 18 studies were ultimately identified. The pooled results revealed no statistical association between infant and maternal C677T and A1298C variants and risk of cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P) or cleft palate only (CPO), except for the maternal 677TT genotype for CL/P, the OR was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.63) as compared to the normal 677CC genotype. In the subgroup analyses on CL/P data based on ethnicity and source of control subjects, almost all of the results were replicated as nonsignificant associations in both examined polymorphisms, whereas the pooled risk estimate calculated for maternal 677TT genotype in the white population remained statistically significant, with an OR of 1.36 (95% CI, 1.05-1.76). CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis suggests that maternal MTHFR 677TT genotype might increase the risk of having a CL/P offspring in the white population. However, these findings remain to be confirmed by additional investigations.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the association and parental transmission of RUNX2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NS-CL±P). Design: Four RUNX2 SNPs in 142 Korean NS-CL±P families (nine cleft lip, 26 cleft lip and alveolus, and 107 cleft lip and palate; 76 trios and 66 dyads) were genotyped. The minor allele frequency, heterozygosity, and chi-square test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at each SNP were computed between parents. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium was computed as D' and r(2) for all SNPs. Both allelic and genotypic transmission disequilibrium tests (TDTs) were performed for individual SNPs using a family-based association test program. Sliding windows of haplotypes consisting of two to four SNPs were tested using a haplotype-based association test program. Genotypic odds ratios (GORs) were calculated from conditional logistic regression models. Parent-of-origin effects were assessed using transmission asymmetry test and parent-of-origin likelihood ratio test. Results: The family-based TDT showed significant evidence of linkage and association at rs1934328 (P = .001). In the haplotype analysis, two, three, and four haplotypes containing rs1934328 revealed significant associations (P = .0017, P = .0022, and P = .0020, respectively). The genotypes A/T and T/T at rs1934328 were significantly associated with NS-CL±P compared with the genotype A/A (GOR = 2.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-5.45, P =0.0019 in the dominant model; GOR = 5.38, 95% CI = 1.34-21.68, P = .0046 in the additive model). However, no parent-of origin effect was observed. Conclusion: These findings suggest possible involvement of RUNX2-rs194328 in the etiology of NS-CL±P in Korean cleft-parent trios without excess parental transmission.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Polymorphisms within the MTHFR (rs2274976) and MTHFD1 (rs2236225) genes were previously associated with maternal susceptibility for having an offspring with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) in the Brazilian population. However, as the genotypes of the patients with NSCL/P were not evaluated, it is not clear whether the effects are associated with maternal or offspring genotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of rs2274976 and rs2236225 in the pathogenesis of NSCL/P. Methods: By using the TaqMan 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay, the present study genotyped the rs2274976 and rs2236225 polymorphisms in 147 case-parent trios, 181 isolated samples of NSCL/P and 478 healthy controls of the Brazilian population. Transmission disequilibrium test and structured case-control analysis based on the individual ancestry proportions were performed. Results: The transmission disequilibrium test showed a significant overtransmission of the rs2274976 A allele (p = 0.004), but no preferential parent-of-origin transmission was detected. The structured case-control analysis supported those findings, revealing that the minor A allele of rs2274976 was significantly more frequent in NSCL/P group compared with control group (p = 0.001), yielding an odds ratio of 3.46 (95% confidence interval, 2.05-5.85). No association of rs2236225 polymorphism with NSCL/P was observed in both transmission disequilibrium test and case-control analysis. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that the presence of the rs2274976 A allele is a risk marker for the development of NSCL/P in the Brazilian population.
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ABSTRACT: Several studies have reported the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) in Asian populations. However, findings have been conflicting. In order to investigate the association, a meta-analysis was performed. We searched Pubmed, MedLine and EmBase database to selected eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model to assess the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and NSCL/P in both Asian children and mothers. Finally, nine case-control studies were included. Overall, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NSCL/P showed pooled ORs (95%CI) of 1.41(1.23-1.61) in Asian children, and 1.70(1.19-2.42) in Asian mothers. Subgroup analyses by geographical locations further identified the association in Eastern Asian children, Western/Central Asian children and mothers, but not in Eastern Asian mothers. However, no significant relationship between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and NSCL/P was found in this meta-analysis. The MTHFR 677T allele was associated with an increased risk of NSCL/P in Asian populations.
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