Virgin olive oil and nuts as key foods of the Mediterranean diet effects on inflammatory biomakers related to atherosclerosis. Pharmacol Res

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.
Pharmacological Research (Impact Factor: 4.41). 03/2012; 65(6):577-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2012.03.006
Source: PubMed


Previous epidemiological and feeding studies have observed that adherence to Mediterranean diet (Med-Diet) is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Since atherosclerosis is nowadays considered a low-grade inflammatory disease, recent studies have explored the anti-inflammatory effects of a Med-Diet intervention on serum and cellular biomarkers related to atherosclerosis. In two sub-studies of the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial, we analyzed the effects at 3 months of two Med-Diet interventions supplemented with either virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts compared with a control low-fat diet (LFD). Both Med-Diets showed an anti-inflammatory effect reducing serum C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL6) and endothelial and monocytary adhesion molecules and chemokines (P<0.05; all), whereas these parameters increased after the LFD intervention (P<0.05; all). In another substudy, we evaluated the long-term (1 year) effects of these interventions on vascular risk factors in 516 high-risk subjects, as well as the effect of different Med-Diet components in the reduction of these biomarkers. At 1 year, the Med-Diet groups had significant decreases in the plasma concentrations of IL6, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 60 and TNFR80 (P<0.05), while intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), TNFR60 and TNFR80 concentrations increased in the LFD group (P<0.002). In addition, those allocated in the highest tertile of VOO and vegetables consumption had a significant diminution of plasma TNFR60 concentration compared with those in tertile 1 (P<0.02). In conclusion, Med-Diet exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on cardiovascular system since it down-regulates cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers related to atherogenesis in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

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Available from: Cristina Andres-Lacueva
    • "In another trial including 516 subjects with high-vascular risk, it has been reported that the long-term (1 year) consumption of Med-diet components reduced the main cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers such as IL-6, tumour necrosis factor receptors (TNFR)60 and TNFR80 and ICAM-1 (Urpi-Sarda et al., 2012). Collectively, these findings suggest that oleuropein is capable of reducing the NF-kβ activation and its translocation to the nucleus where, ordinarily, it activates the expression of genes encoding inflammatory mediators (Killeen et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: An emerging body of evidence indicates that oleuropein, a biophenol usually found in olive leaves, extra-virgin olive oil and in some species of the Oleaceae family has potent biological and pharmacological properties. Its main pharmacological activities such as anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, gastroprotective, hepato-protective, anti-diabetes, anti-obesity and radioprotective, among others, are in large part attributed to its putative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This mini-review collects and discusses the scattered data available in the literature concerning oleuropein and/or oleuropein-rich extracts and highlights its chemistry, biosynthesis, biological activities and its possible mechanisms of action.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Functional Foods
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    • "Thus, many of the effects of oleic acid may serve to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, the fatty acid may have anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects [8-10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Many health effects of oils rich in oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n9) seem to be opposite those of arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n6), i.e. concerning cardiovascular risk. In recent studies in humans and in the rat we observed that percentages of OA and AA were inversely related, raising the question of whether the inverse association is a general one, and how it might be explained. In the present work we examine whether percentages of OA and AA are inversely associated in breast muscle lipids of chickens, and whether alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) may be related to the OA/AA ratio. Methods The study group consisted of 163 chickens. Breast muscle was collected, and the concentration of fatty acids in muscle lipids was determined using gas chromatography. We studied association between fatty acids using bivariate correlations (Pearson) and linear regression. Synthesis of OA from stearic acid (Stear) was estimated using the OA/Stear ratio, and formation of AA from linoleic acid (LA) was estimated by the AA/LA ratio. Results We found a strong inverse relationship (r = -0.942, p < 0.001; n = 163) between % OA and % AA in breast muscle lipids of the chickens. There was an inverse association (r = -0.887, p < 0.001) between the OA/Stearic acid ratio, estimating Delta9 desaturase, and the AA/LA ratio, estimating desaturases/elongase activities. Furthermore, there was a strong negative association between % AA and the OA/Stearic acid ratio (r = -0.925, p < 0.001), and % OA correlated negatively (r = -0.914, p < 0.001) with the AA/LA ratio. ALA was positively associated (r = 0.956, p < 0.001) with the OA/AA ratio, and this association prevailed when controlling for the other fatty acids. ALA was positively associated (r = 0.857, p < 0.001) with the OA/Stear ratio, but was negatively related (r = -0.827, p < 0.001) to the AA/LA ratio. Conclusions The relative abundances of OA and AA that are inversely related in muscle lipids of chickens may be explained by a feedback regulation between the synthesis of OA and AA, and related to ALA, which seems to stimulate formation of OA, and inhibit synthesis of AA, but further studies are required to clarify whether this hypothesis is valid.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Lipids in Health and Disease
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    • "The precise mechanisms involved in the cardioprotection afforded by EVOO and nuts remain to be fully elucidated. Increased consumption of these foods is associated with decreased circulating inflammatory biomarkers related to atherogenesis [6]; therefore it is plausible that they might reduce CVD by delaying the development of atherosclerosis, the harbinger of most cardiovascular events. Atherosclerosis is triggered by the entry of LDL particles into the arterial intima and their oxidative modification, whereby inducing a self-perpetuating inflammatory response that eventually leads to the formation of atheroma plaques, the hallmark of the disease [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The PREDIMED trial showed that Mediterranean diets supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced incident cardiovascular events compared to a control diet. Consumption of both supplemental foods has been associated with reduced LDL-cholesterol, but it is unknown whether they can shift lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern. We investigated changes in adiposity and lipoprotein subfractions after consumption of the PREDIMED diets. In a PREDIMED sub-cohort (n = 169), lipoprotein subclasses (particle concentrations and size) were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and after intervention for 1 year. Participants allocated to the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts showed significant reductions from baseline of waist circumference (mean [95% CI]; -5 cm [-7; -3]) and concentrations of medium-small (-27 nmol/l [-46; -8]) and very small LDL (-111 nmol/l [-180; -42]); decreased LDL particle number (a nuclear magnetic resonance-specific measurement) (-98 nmol/l [-184; -11]); and an increase of large LDL concentrations (54 nmol/l [18; 90]), with a net increase (0.2 nmol/l [0.1; 0.4]) of LDL size. The Mediterranean diets with olive oil and nuts increased large HDL concentrations (0.6 μM [0.0; 1.1] and 1.0 μM [0.4; 1.5], respectively). Compared to the other two intervention groups, participants in the nut-enriched diet showed significantly reduced waist circumference (p ≤ 0.006, both) and increased LDL size (p < 0.05, both). Lipoprotein subfractions are shifted to a less atherogenic pattern by consumption of Mediterranean diets enriched with nuts. The results contribute mechanistic evidence for the reduction of cardiovascular events observed in the PREDIMED trial.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Atherosclerosis
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