Organic/Metallic Nanohybrids Based on Amphiphilic Dumbbell-Shaped Dendrimers

ArticleinACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 4(4):1897-908 · March 2012with10 Reads
DOI: 10.1021/am300499k · Source: PubMed
In this study, we synthesized a series of amphiphilic dumbbell-shaped dendrimers through the addition reactions of a hydrophilic poly(oxyalkylene) with hydrophobic dendrons based on 4-isocyanate-4'-(3,3-dimethyl-2,4-dioxo-azetidine)diphenylmethane with different numbers of branching generations. The addition reaction of azetidine-2,4-diones of dendrons to amines of poly(oxyalkylene) was proceeded by stirring the reactants in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) under nitrogen at 60 °C. In aqueous media, the dumbbell-shaped dendrimers self-assembled into micelles with their hydrophobic dendrons in the core and their hydrophilic poly(oxyalkylene) segments forming loops in the corona shell. Employing the unique self-assembled micelle structures as templates for subsequent chemical reduction of the Ag(+) ions, we generated new types of organic/metallic [silver nanoparticle (AgNP)] nanohybrid clusters. The long poly(oxyalkylene) loops that extended into the aqueous phase complexed with the Ag(+) ions, providing the suspension with steric stabilization to prevent the AgNPs from collision and flocculation. After reduction, the AgNPs were present in a homogeneous distribution in the round dendrimer micelle-stabilized nanoclusters. The diameter of each AgNP was less than 10 nm; the diameter of each round nanocluster was in the range of 50-200 nm. The encapsulation efficiency of the AgNPs in micelles was about 54-69% for the dumbbell-shaped dendrimer based organic/AgNP nanohybrid.
    • "In this study, we first adopted the dendritic type molecules with urea/malonamide linkages for OTFT gate insulators. These monodisperse dendrons are hydrogen bond-rich and capable of forming stable self-assembled structures [21]. Because of strong intermolecular interactions, this kind of dendrons were successfully utilized in the areas of nonlinear optics "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of urea/malonamide dendritic molecules were prepared as gate insulators for organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). This series of molecules with different degrees of branching possess peripheral stearyl groups are dendrons generation 0.5 (G0.5), generation 1 (G1), generation 1.5 (G1.5), generation 2 (G2) and generation 2.5 (G2.5). In addition, two types of tetracarboxylic diimide derivatives, i.e. perylene diimide (PDI) and naphthalene diimide (NDI) with two different chain lengths of fluorinated alkyl end groups were prepared as semiconductors for OTFTs such as NDI-C4F7, NDI-C7F9, PDI-C4F7 and PDI-C7F9. The n-channel types of OTFTs were fabricated by spin-coating the gate insulators on Si/SiO2 substrates, and then depositing the semiconducting layers in vacuum without heating the substrate. Silver was used as contact electrodes for source and drain. The performance of OTFTs with dendrons as gate insulators were better than that of OTFTs modified by octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODTS). Moreover, the threshold voltages (Vths) of OTFTs shifted from positive voltage to negative voltage as the device was incorporated with higher generation of dendrons. This is because of different dielectric constants or surface energies between the interface of gate insulator and semiconducting layer. Among all samples in this study, the n-channel OTFT comprising PDI-C4F7 and G1.5 exhibited the best performance. In addition, an enhanced electron mobility and Ion/Ioff ratio measured under ambient condition were 4.71 × 10− 4 cm2V− 1s− 1 and 7.7 x 103, respectively. Apart from that, the influence of semiconducting molecular packing order on dendron gate insulator layers was investigated by grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, pentacene-based p-channel OTFTs with G1.5 gate insulator also exhibited the highest performance. These OTFTs achieved 0.1 cm2V− 1s− 1 and 6.3x104 for mobility (μ) and Ion/Ioff ratio, respectively.
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we synthesized a dual-functional building intermediate, 4-(3,3-diethyl-2,4-dioxoazetidin-1-yl)benzoyl chloride (DEDA-BC), from readily available starting materials, including 4-isocyanatobenzoyl chloride and p-tolyl isocyanate. In its iterative syntheses of hard segments, we first treated the highly reactive acid chloride of DEDA-BC with the monoamine (aniline) or the diamine (4,4′-methylenedianiline, 4,4′-MDA) to form first-generation azetidien-2,4-dione intermediates. We then reacted these derivatives with 4-aminobenzylamine at the more-selective azetidine-2,4-dione group of DEDA-BC to form the first-generation of benzyl amine extenders. Using this alternating method, we obtained high yields of supramolecular extenders of various chain lengths (n = 1–3) in a systematic manner, without the need for tedious purification steps, under catalyst-free conditions. The mono- and diamine extenders with numbers of repeating units ranging from one to three were synthesized precisely through this new iterative synthetic approach. The molar mass increases between each generation were 365 g mol–1 for the monoamine series and 730 g mol–1 for the diamine series. The three generations of supramolecular extenders possessed the distinctive characteristics of multiple hydrogen bonding moieties and narrow molecular weight distributions. Their gelation phenomena in THF revealed that these amine extenders underwent supramolecular assembly, through intermolecular hydrogen bonding, to form organogels. We used these well-defined extenders with various chain lengths in the preparation of polyurethane (PU) elastomers. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed well-defined microdomains in the morphologies of the PU elastomers presenting multiply hydrogen-bonded terminal groups. The tensile and thermal properties of the prepared PUs were dependent on the effects of the content of hard segments, the chain length, and the strength of hydrogen bonding.
    Article · Jul 2012
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