MR and CT Arthrography of the Knee
Department of Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology (Impact Factor: 1.09). 02/2012; 16(1):57-68. DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1304301
MR and CT arthrography are important imaging modalities for the assessment of the knee in certain situations. Indications for MR arthrography of the knee include assessment of the postoperative meniscus, the presence of chondral and osteochondral lesions, and the presence of intra-articular bodies. The major indication for CT arthrography is evaluating suspected internal derangement in patients who are unable to undergo MRI. In addition to reviewing the established clinical indications for MR and CT arthrography of the knee, the commonly used techniques, normal variants that can simulate disease, and the most commonly found pathologies that can be diagnosed with these modalities are discussed. Potential indications that are not currently well established in the literature including the evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament injury and autologous chondrocyte implants are examined. Where appropriate, the literature on controversial topics or diagnoses is reviewed. The use of conventional imaging versus CT and MR arthrography is also compared.
Article: SPECT/CT arthrography of the knee
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and delayed quantitative computed tomography (CT) arthrography (dQCTA) to each other, and their association to arthroscopy. Additionally, the relationship between dGEMRIC with intravenous (dGEMRIC(IV)) and intra-articular contrast agent administration (dGEMRIC(IA)) was determined. Design: Eleven patients with knee pain were scanned at 3 T MRI and 64-slice CT before arthroscopy. dQCTA was performed at 5 and 45 min after intra-articular injection of ioxaglate. Both dGEMRIC(IV) and dGEMRIC(IA) were performed at 90 min after gadopentetate injection. dGEMRIC indices and change in relaxation rates (ΔR(1)) were separately calculated for dGEMRIC(IV) and dGEMRIC(IA). dGEMRIC and dQCTA parameters were calculated for predetermined sites at the knee joint that were International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) graded in arthroscopy. Results: dQCTA normalized with the contrast agent concentration in synovial fluid (SF) and dGEMRIC(IV) correlated significantly, whereas dGEMRIC(IA) correlated with the normalized dQCTA only when dGEMRIC(IA) was also normalized with the contrast agent concentration in SF. Correlation was strongest between normalized dQCTA at 45 min and ΔR(1,IV) (r(s) = 0.72 [95% CI 0.56-0.83], n = 49, P < 0.01) and ΔR(1,IA) normalized with ΔR(1) in SF (r(s) = 0.70 [0.53-0.82], n = 52, P < 0.01). Neither dGEMRIC nor dQCTA correlated with arthroscopic grading. dGEMRIC(IV) and non-normalized dGEMRIC(IA) were not related while ΔR(1,IV) correlated with normalized ΔR(1,IA) (r(s) = 0.52 [0.28-0.70], n = 50, P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that dQCTA is in best agreement with dGEMRIC(IV) at 45 min after CT contrast agent injection. dQCTA and dGEMRIC were not related to arthroscopy, probably because the remaining cartilage is analysed in dGEMRIC and dQCTA, whereas in arthroscopy the absence of cartilage defines the grading. The findings indicate the importance to take into account the contrast agent concentration in SF in dQCTA and dGEMRIC(IA).
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ABSTRACT: Como parte de la subespecialidad de la Radiología Músculo esquelética, se ha desarrollado en la última década el “intervencionismo” (procedimientos intervencionales del sistema músculo esquelético guiados por imágenes) tanto diagnósticos como terapéuticos.
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