Article

Comparison Between Nintendo Wii Fit Aerobics and Traditional Aerobic Exercise in Sedentary Young Adults

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Abstract

Exergaming is becoming a popular recreational activity for young adults. The purpose was to compare the physiologic and psychological responses of college students playing Nintendo Wii Fit, an active video game console, vs. an equal duration of moderate-intensity brisk walking. Twenty-one healthy sedentary college-age students (mean age 23.2 ± 1.8 years) participated in a randomized, double cross-over study, which compared physiologic and psychological responses to 30 minutes of brisk walking exercise on a treadmill vs. 30 minutes playing Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" program. Physiologic parameters measured included heart rate, rate pressure product, respiratory rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Participants' positive well-being, psychological distress, and level of fatigue associated with each exercise modality were quantified using the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale. The mean maximum heart rate (HRmax) achieved when exercising with Wii Fit (142.4 ± 20.5 b·min(-1)) was significantly greater (p = 0.001) compared with exercising on the treadmill (123.2 ± 13.7 b·min(-1)). Rate pressure product was also significantly greater (p = 0.001) during exercise on the Wii Fit. Participants' rating of perceived exertion when playing Wii Fit (12.7 ± 3.0) was significantly greater (p = 0.014) when compared with brisk walking on the treadmill (10.1 ± 3.3). However, psychologically when playing Wii Fit, participants' positive well-being decreased significantly (p = 0.018) from preexercise to postexercise when compared with exercising on the treadmill. College students have the potential to surpass exercise intensities achieved when performing a conventional standard for moderate-intensity exercise when playing Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" with a self-selected intensity. We concluded that Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" may act as an alternative to traditional moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in fulfilling the American College of Sports Medicine requirements for physical activity.

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... El tiempo de la actividad fue entre 15 minutos (Pasco, 2017;Yang, 2014) y 1 hora, (O'Donovan, 2012;Willens, 2009), los demás estudios oscilaron entre 20-50 minutos sesión. El tiempo de descanso osciló entre 2 y 10 minutos por intervención (Cakir,2019;Douris, 2012;Garn, 2012;Marks, 2015;O'Donovan, 2012;Scheer, 2014;Willens, 2009& Yang, 2014. Las intervenciones realizadas consistían principalmente en actividades organizadas en sesiones o uso de diferentes juegos comparados principalmente con otros videojuegos (Marks, 2015;Naugle, 2018;O'Donovan, 2012& Scheer,2014 , con otras actividades que no involucraban el uso de la tecnología (Brito,2015;Brito, 2018;Cakir,2019;Douris, 2012;Jhonston,2012;Pasco,2017& Willens, 2009) o con los mismos videojuegos (Garn,2012& Yan,2014. ...
... El tiempo de descanso osciló entre 2 y 10 minutos por intervención (Cakir,2019;Douris, 2012;Garn, 2012;Marks, 2015;O'Donovan, 2012;Scheer, 2014;Willens, 2009& Yang, 2014. Las intervenciones realizadas consistían principalmente en actividades organizadas en sesiones o uso de diferentes juegos comparados principalmente con otros videojuegos (Marks, 2015;Naugle, 2018;O'Donovan, 2012& Scheer,2014 , con otras actividades que no involucraban el uso de la tecnología (Brito,2015;Brito, 2018;Cakir,2019;Douris, 2012;Jhonston,2012;Pasco,2017& Willens, 2009) o con los mismos videojuegos (Garn,2012& Yan,2014. Aunque son presentadas como intervenciones organizadas, ninguna logra configurarse como un método de entrenamiento pues la mayoría incluye solo una medición impidiendo evaluar el efecto del uso permanente. ...
... Marks,2015& Scheer,2014), cambios en la frecuencia cardiaca (Brito, 2018(P=0.018), Cakir, 2019Douris, 2012& O'Donovan, 2012, cambios en la capacidad aeróbica (Brito, 2015 (P=0.02)), cambios en el nivel de actividad física (Garn, 2012;Jhonston, 2012;Naugle, 2018(P<0.001) ...
Article
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Efecto del uso de los videojuegos en el nivel de actividad fisica
... O processo de seleção dos artigos está detalhado no diagrama de fluxo (Figura 1). Nesse contexto, quatro estudos compararam EXG de ciclismo com bicicleta estacionária convencional 5,11,15,19 , quatro compararam EXG de corrida com correr em esteira ou pista 14,17,20,21 . Ainda, um comparou EXG de boxe com treinar boxe em saco de pancadas 18 e um confrontou sessão de fisioterapia com EXG com sessão de fisioterapia convencional 16 . ...
... Ao serem submetidos à escala de qualidade metodológica PEDro, quatro estudos obtiveram pontuação 7/11 5,14,17,18 e seis estudos obtiveram pontuação seis 11,15,16,19,20,21 . Vale destacar ainda, que a natureza da intervenção dos estudos desta revisão não permitia que os itens cinco, seis e sete da escala PEDro fossem atendidos. ...
... Nos jogos que envolveram corrida Douris et al. 14 20 foram os únicos a analisá-los. ...
Article
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Introdução Vídeo games ativos, conhecidos como exergames (EXG), são aqueles nos quais os jogadores intera-gem com o jogo a partir de movimentos corporais amplos 1. Por estimularem movimentações corporais semelhantes às de atividades físicas convencionais, os EXG vêm sendo utilizados como alternativa para aumentar a prática de atividades físicas em crianças, Resumo O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar revisão sistemá-tica com metanálise dos estudos sobre efeitos fisiológicos da prática de exergames, a fim de compará-las quando realizadas de maneira convencional. As buscas foram realizadas nas bases eletrônicas: PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar e a revis-ta Games For Health Journal, utilizando os seguintes descrito-res ou termos: "health video game" OR "active video game" AND "energy expenditure"; exergam* AND "physical activity"; exergam* AND comparison; exergam* compared to real; exergam* AND "real game"; exergam* AND "real sports". Para serem incluídos, além de serem originais, os artigos também deveriam comparar a realização das atividades convencionais igualmente efetivadas com exergame (EXG). Foram encontrados 2.928 estudos que abordaram a temática. Após avaliação por títulos, 13 artigos foram excluídos por serem duplicatas. No total foram lidos 20 resumos, no entanto, selecionamos apenas sete para entrar na revisão. Além disso, três estudos localizados nas listas de refe-rências foram incluídos. Os estudos que passaram pelos filtros de análise acabaram submetidos à escala PEDro, para mensu-ração de qualidade metodológica. A metanálise apontou não haver diferença significativa, entre atividades com EXG e ati-vidades convencionais, para frequência cardíaca (p = 0,248), percepção subjetiva de esforço (p = 0,295), gasto energético (p = 0,664) e consumo de oxigênio (p = 0,455). Desta maneira, conclui-se que não há diferença para as variáveis apresentadas em ambas as atividades propostas. Palavras-chave Metanálise; Atividade motora; Jogos de vídeo; Metabolismo energético; Consumo de oxigênio. Abstract The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and me-tanalysis on the physiological effects of exergames practice compared to the same activities performed in a conventional manner. Therefore, a search was made in the To be included in the review, studies should be original articles and rely on activities performed with active videogames, namely exergames (EXG), which should be compared with the same conventional activities. An amount of 2928 studies were found. After title evaluation, 13 studies were excluded for duplication, lasting 20 titles. After abstract's evaluation, 7 titles were selected for entering this study. Besides, 3 other studies were found in reference lists and were included.Studies passed by search filters were submitted to PEDro scale for methodological quality evaluation. Metanalysis showed no significant differences for heart rate (p=0.248), rating of perceived exertion (p=0.295), energy expenditure (p=0.664) and oxygen uptake (p=0.455) between EXG and conventional activities. In conclusion, there are no differences between activities with EXG and the same activities realized in a conventional manner on heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption.
... 21,27,28 During the interventions, an increase in heart rate in comparison to the basal value is a physiological and expected response, induced by a higher metabolic demand than at baseline. 29 In the results, it is possible to observe greater heart rate in the final moments of VRBT, but no statistical difference suggests greater effort intensity with the new approach. Higher maximum heart rate values using VRBT with a Nintendo Wii compared to aerobic exercise have already described in people without cardiovascular disease. ...
... Higher maximum heart rate values using VRBT with a Nintendo Wii compared to aerobic exercise have already described in people without cardiovascular disease. 29 Greater effort intensity induced by VRBT was also observed through RPE. In both interventions, the RPE increased in comparison to baseline; however, for VRBT, there were statistically significant greater values at the 5th, 10th, 25th, and 30th minutes in comparison to CR. ...
... These results were similar to those of people without a cardiac history, since Douris et al 29 found greater values of RPE during VRBT in comparison to classic aerobic exercise for people without cardiovascular problems. The authors attributed this response to greater effort intensity produced by VRBT. ...
Article
Objective: to analyze the acute hemodynamic effects of adding VRBT using exergames for cardiac patients undergoing CR. Design: crossover trial. Setting: outpatient rehabilitation center. Participants: patients (n=27, 63.4±12.7y, 29.0±4.0kg/m2) with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors. Interventions: patients performed one VRBT session and one CR session on two nonconsecutive days. Each session comprised an initial rest, warm-up, conditioning, and recovery. During warm-up, in the VRBT session, games were performed with sensors to reproduce the movements of avatars and in the CR session patients were required to reproduce the movements of the physiotherapists. In the conditioning phase for VRBT, games were also played with motion sensors, dumbbells, and shin guards and the CR session consisted of exercise performed on a treadmill. The intensity of training was prescribed by HR reserve (40-70%). Main outcome measures: The primary outcomes were heart rate (HR), blood pressure, respiratory rate (RR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and peripheral oxygen saturation, evaluated before, during, and after the VRBT or CR session on two non-consecutive days. The secondary outcome was to evaluate whether the patients achieved the prescribed HRR and the percentage of time they maintained this level during the VRBT session. Results: VRBT produces a physiological similar pattern of acute hemodynamic effects to CR. However, there was greater magnitude of HR, RR, and RPE (p<0.01) during the execution of VRBT and until 5 minutes of recovery, observed at the moments of rest, and the 1st, 3rd, and 5th minutes of recovery. Conclusion: Although the VRBT session produces similar physiological acute hemodynamic effects to CR, greater magnitudes of HR, RR, and RPE were observed during its execution and up to five minutes after the session.
... In addition, the amount and quality of PA achieved through playing PG at a self-selected pace appear to be similar or better than the levels of activity that could be achieved by young adults playing console-based exergames. [4][5][6][7] Our heart rate responses for all conditions (average heart rate = 141 beats/minute) were greater than a previous study in students aged 18-35 years who self-selected the intensity with which they played one of four console-based exergames and had an average heart rate of 125 beats/minute. 4 The mean maximum heart rate of traditional walk (145 beats/minute) and continuous PG (146 beats/minute) in our study was both >30 minutes of Nintendo Wii Fit ''Free Run'' (142 beats/minute), and our intermittent PG maximum heart rate (130 beats/minute) was >30 minutes of treadmill walking (123 beats/minute) found in a previous study. ...
... 4 The mean maximum heart rate of traditional walk (145 beats/minute) and continuous PG (146 beats/minute) in our study was both >30 minutes of Nintendo Wii Fit ''Free Run'' (142 beats/minute), and our intermittent PG maximum heart rate (130 beats/minute) was >30 minutes of treadmill walking (123 beats/minute) found in a previous study. 5 McDonough found 20 minutes of treadmill walking resulted in almost double the MVPA than 20 minutes of playing Xbox 360 Kinect Just Dance or Reflex Ridge exergames in 60 college students (92.5% vs. 57.5% vs. 50%, respectively). 7 We found continous and intermittent PG produced 96% and 84% MVPA, respectively. ...
Article
Objective: Two self-selected playing styles of Pokémon Go (PG) have been observed: intermittent and continuous. However, it is unknown how playing style impacts volume and pattern of physical activity (PA) compared with a traditional walking bout. Materials and Methods: Twenty experienced PG players followed a 1.77 km walking loop during two randomly ordered, 30-minute walking conditions: PG and traditional walking. Objective measurement tools (pedometer, accelerometer, heart rate monitor, GPS watch) were used to measure steps, caloric expenditure, intensity, heart rate, and distance traveled, and direct observation was used to determine number of stops and playing style. Results: Most PG players used the intermittent playing style (60%). Traditional walking resulted in significantly greater PA than PG. There was a significant interaction between the PG playing style (continuous, intermittent) and condition (PG, traditional walking). There was no difference in PA variables between continuous and intermittent PG during traditional walking; however, total steps (3394.3 ± 255.8 vs. 2779.1 ± 317.5), aerobic steps (3314.3 ± 318.9 vs. 2387.5 ± 771.8), caloric expenditure (146.00 [130.0-201.3] vs. 110.0 [89.3-132.3 Kcals]), distance (2.4 [2.3-2.6] vs. 2.0 [1.8-2.1 km]), and moderate minutes (29.7 [27.5-29.8] vs. 25.8 [23.1-27.1]) were significantly greater, while sedentary minutes (0.2 [0-1.0] vs. 2.7 [1.7-4.3]) and number of stops (0 [0-0.8] vs. 4.5 [2.3-7.0]) were less, for continuous compared with intermittent PG. There was a main effect of condition on PA for intermittent PG players, but not continuous PG players. Conclusion: Continuous PG produced similar PA to traditional walking, while intermittent PG reduced PA, nevertheless PG may be a strategy for increasing PA participation.
... 21,33 When participating in continuous exergaming such as walking or running using the Wii Fit board, there is the potential to achieve a moderate intensity. 19 Exercising at a self-selected intensity, young physically active participants achieved a greater intensity when using the Wii Fit free run vs. a moderate intensity brisk walk of 3.5 mph with HR (142 ± 21 bpm vs. 123 ± 14 bpm) responses throughout the 30 minute session. 19 Similar to walking in place, Duncan and Dick 20 found the Gamercize Power Stepper, a traditional video game that requires the user to maintain a stepping cadence to continue play, to be appropriate moderate intensity physical activity and used to replace sedentary games. ...
... 19 Exercising at a self-selected intensity, young physically active participants achieved a greater intensity when using the Wii Fit free run vs. a moderate intensity brisk walk of 3.5 mph with HR (142 ± 21 bpm vs. 123 ± 14 bpm) responses throughout the 30 minute session. 19 Similar to walking in place, Duncan and Dick 20 found the Gamercize Power Stepper, a traditional video game that requires the user to maintain a stepping cadence to continue play, to be appropriate moderate intensity physical activity and used to replace sedentary games. The Wii Fit and Gamercize Power Stepper have shown these consoles can elicit moderate intensity when exercising and increases HR and EE effectively, and possibly substituted for moderate intensity exercise for ≥ 10 minutes for one to achieve physical activity recommendations. ...
Article
Objective: This review evaluates current literature on intensity selection, perceptual responses, activity enjoyment and adherence rates of exergaming. Methods: The literature search identified manuscripts that investigated exercise intensity, perceptual responses, or exercise adherence of exergaming in young adults. Results: Based on results of 29 studies, the current review suggest some exergaming activities have the potential to elicit moderate to vigorous exercise intensity and could potentially be substituted for traditional exercise. Additionally, exergame activities may aid in the start of exercise adherence by lowering the individual's perceived exertion when playing exergames. Exergaming not only has the potential to enhance enjoyment through an exercise objective but also through the distracting nature of video games. Conclusions: Exergaming shows potential to be substituted for traditional exercise and could offer a new, varied form of exercise for sedentary individuals. Future research should examine the influence of exergaming experience on intensity selection and adherence rates.
... Além da capacidade de incrementar o gasto energético diário mudando assim o esforço que seria basal em práticas sedentárias como VGI 8,20 . Por exemplo, nos estudos selecionados para a presente revisão, Perrier-Melo et al. 19 e Douris et al. 23 , pesquisas realizadas nos anos de 2012 e 2013 apontam que tais benefícios cardiovasculares podem ocorrer devido à intensidade dos jogos de corrida e esportivos (boxe, vôlei, dança e tênis) proporcionarem aumentos na FC semelhantes à intensidade moderada durante a sessão, o que não ocorre nas sessões de VGI, sendo apenas "picos de euforia" em determinado momento do jogo inativo. ...
... Um estudo conduzido por Reis et al. 28 em 2014 que teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas hemodinâmicas em sessões de pilates (PL), exercício aeróbico (EA) e exercício resistido (ER) em adultos jovens, foi verificado que na sessão de PL a FC elevou-se a valores próximos a 107 ± 13 bpm; no ER com valores de 123 ± 7 bpm e no EA, a FC alcançou valores médios de 150 ± 10 bpm. No presente estudo, como foi verificado durante a sessão de VGA, a FC pode atingir valores entre 105 e 122 bpm 21,23 . Assim, nesta variável a prática de videogame ativo parece proporcionar níveis de FC próximos a sessão de pilates e sessão aeróbica. ...
Article
Full-text available
O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar na literatura os efeitos proporcionados pelos videogames (ativos e inativos) nos aspectos cardiovasculares (pressão arterial, frequência cardíaca e duplo produto). A revisão sistemática foi realizada com estudos que analisaram as respostas cardiovasculares durante e após a prática de videogames ativos e inativos. Buscas realizadas por dois pesquisadores de forma independente nas bases de dados eletrônicas Pubmed, Scielo, Bireme (Medline). Diante disso, 375 estudos foram analisados, após os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, 15 artigos restaram, e 13 foram selecionados. Verificou-se que os videogames ativos proporcionaram maiores aumentos de FC e PA durante as sessões comparados com videogame inativo. Após as sessões com videogames ativos tais variáveis apresentaram redução comparado ao repouso de forma aguda e crônica. Ambos os videogames promovem alterações cardiovasculares agudas. Contudo, apenas os ativos alcançam intensidades moderadas a vigorosas provocando benefício cardiovascular hipotensor pós sessão. Sugere-se a troca do tempo de tela em jogos inativos por videogames ativos.
... Escore -Frequência (%) Elsangedy et al. 9 9 (50) Krinski et al. 15 9 (50) Glen et al. 10 11 (61,1) Sherman et al. 16 10 (55,6) Lattari et al. 17 11 (61,1) Peterman et al. 18 11 (61,1) Zdziarski et al. 19 10 (55,6) Smith et al. 20 12 (66,7) Almeida et al. 21 9 (50) Orepic et al. 22 10 (55,6) Douris et al. 23 10 (55,6) DaSilva et al. 24 10 (55,6) Simpson; Munro; Steele 25 9 (50) DaSilva et al. 6 9 (50) Buzzachera et al. 26 9 (50) DaSilva et al. 27 10 (55,6) Elsangedy et al. 28 9 (50) Hansen; Smith 11 11 (61,1) Rendi et al. 29 9 (50) DaSilva et al. 3 As respostas fisiológicas e perceptuais obtidas no estudo de Elsangedy et al. 28 . ...
... idade, uma vez que uma meta-análise realizada por Ekkekakis 33 argumenta que adultos jovens tendem a selecionar intensidades de exercício que estão abaixo da faixa recomendada pelo ACSM 4 , a menos que sejam instruídos para tal.Assim, partindo do ponto de vista prático, seria crucial a presença de um profissional para orientar esses indivíduos.Orepic et al.22 determinaram as respostas fisiológicas obtidas durante a patinação em ritmo autosselecionado em jovens saudáveis e praticantes da modalidade e observaram que o exercício foi capaz de induzir respostas fisiológicasExercício aeróbico e intensidade autosselecionada por mulheres: uma revisão sistemática para promover melhorias na aptidão física, indicando que a modalidade induziu maior FC e PSE do que a esteira rolante, sendo categorizada como vigorosa, de acordo com o ACSM 4 . Essa intensidade alta pode estar relacionada com o fato de as mulheres avaliadas já serem praticantes da modalidade e terem um melhor condicionamento, o que pode ter ocasionado uma autosseleção de maiores intensidades. ...
Article
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Objetivo: Identificar o perfil das praticantes de exercícios aeróbicos sob intensidade autosselecionada. Métodos: Analisou-se os dados a partir das bases de dados PubMed e BVS, com artigos originais, realizados em mulheres acima de 18 anos de idade, publicados nos últimos 10 anos, com análise de exercício aeróbico de forma autosselecionada através da mensuração da frequência cardíaca (FC) e percepção subjetiva do esforço (PSE), sendo incluídos 20 artigos. Resultados: Foi encontrado em 15 estudos que a intensidade autosselecionada estaria dentro das recomendações para melhorar a saúde, além de obter resposta afetiva positiva e maior prazer quando comparado à intensidade imposta. Pessoas com sobrepeso e obesidade demonstraram um menor gasto energético quando comparado com pessoas eutróficas, além de caminharem em velocidade inferior. A idade parece não influenciar nas respostas afetivas, apenas nas respostas fisiológicas. Foi encontrado também maior sensação de prazer ao realizar atividade física (AF) ao ar livre quando comparado com ambiente interno. Conclusão: Quando a intensidade do exercício é autosselecionada, há maiores sensações de prazer e atendem às recomendações do American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), além de promover melhorias na aptidão física.
... Building on the success of exergames making people more active (Peng et al., 2011;Douris et al., 2012;Laufer et al., 2014), VR is an important platform for exergaming because of its ability to provide immersive and engaging experiences. VR is a term used for computer systems which utilise various displays and interfaces that aim to provide the user with the feeling of immersion (Pan et al., 2006). ...
... While the production of the Nintendo Wii was discontinued after newer console generations were released, it is a popular example of an exergaming system. Research on the Wii's effectiveness at providing exercise found that people can gain significant amounts of exercise from playing games on the Wii, making it an alternative to traditional forms of exercise (Barkely and Penko, 2009;Peng et al., 2011;Douris et al., 2012;Daley, 2009;Park et al., 2014). Furthermore, work by Barkely and Penko (2009) studied 12 healthy adults who each completed three 10 minute exercise conditions with a five-minute rest period between each. ...
Thesis
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This thesis was inspired by the possibility that virtual reality (VR) games, which are designed primarily to be fun, could also provide exercise. It aimed to gain insights about this by exploring whether people can gain beneficial levels of exercise while playing VR games and how they might use VR games for exercise over several weeks. Furthermore, this work also focuses on how the level of physical activity that can be captured during gameplay and how a long-term user model can be created for individual players, as a foundation for supporting the user in gaining personal informatics insights about their exertion as well as being used for personalisation and external recommendation for VR games. The key contributions of this research are: • The first study of a diverse set of commercial VR games to gain insights about the level of actual and perceived exertion players have. • The first long-term study of VR games in a sedentary workplace to gain insights about the ways people utilise it and the levels of exertion they gain. • Based on reflections on the above studies, this thesis presents a framework and guidelines for designing physical activity VR games. • The systematic creation of a user model for representing a person’s long-term fitness and their VR gameplay, exertion and preferences. • A study of the ways that people can scrutinise their long-term personal informatics user model of exertion from VR game play and incidental walking. These contributions provide a foundation for future researchers and industry practitioners to design VR games that provide beneficial levels of exertion and allow people to gain insights into the relative contribution of the exercise from gameplay.
... Building on the success of exergames making people more active (Peng et al., 2011;Douris et al., 2012;Laufer et al., 2014), VR is an important platform for exergaming because of its ability to provide immersive and engaging experiences. VR is a term used for computer systems which utilise various displays and interfaces that aim to provide the user with the feeling of immersion (Pan et al., 2006). ...
... While the production of the Nintendo Wii was discontinued after newer console generations were released, it is a popular example of an exergaming system. Research on the Wii's effectiveness at providing exercise found that people can gain significant amounts of exercise from playing games on the Wii, making it an alternative to traditional forms of exercise (Barkely and Penko, 2009;Peng et al., 2011;Douris et al., 2012;Daley, 2009;Park et al., 2014). Furthermore, work by Barkely and Penko (2009) studied 12 healthy adults who each completed three 10 minute exercise conditions with a five-minute rest period between each. ...
Conference Paper
This thesis was inspired by the possibility that virtual reality (VR) games, which are designed primarily to be fun, could also provide exercise. It aimed to gain insights about this by exploring whether people can gain beneficial levels of exercise while playing VR games and how they might use VR games for exercise over several weeks. Furthermore, this work also focuses on how the level of physical activity that can be captured during gameplay and how a long-term user model can be created for individual players, as a foundation for supporting the user in gaining personal informatics insights about their exertion as well as being used for personalisation and external recommendation for VR games. The key contributions of this research are: • The first study of a diverse set of commercial VR games to gain insights about the level of actual and perceived exertion players have. • The first long-term study of VR games in a sedentary workplace to gain insights about the ways people utilise it and the levels of exertion they gain. • Based on reflections on the above studies, this thesis presents a framework and guidelines for designing physical activity VR games. • The systematic creation of a user model for representing a person’s long-term fitness and their VR gameplay, exertion and preferences. • A study of the ways that people can scrutinise their long-term personal informatics user model of exertion from VR game play and incidental walking. These contributions provide a foundation for future researchers and industry practitioners to design VR games that provide beneficial levels of exertion and allow people to gain insights into the relative contribution of the exercise from gameplay.
... From light physical activity to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, AVG elicit a wide range of intensities (Graves et al., 2010;O'Donovan, Roche & Hussey, 2014;Deutsch et al., 2011;Douris et al., 2012;Garn et al., 2012;Lyons et al., 2012;O'Donovan & Hussey, 2012;Tripette et al., 2014aTripette et al., , 2014bXian et al., 2014;Worley, Rogers & Kraemer, 2011;Guderian et al., 2010;Mullins et al., 2012;Peng, Lin & Crouse, 2011). However, it is difficult to state whether playing Wii Fit on a regular basis would allow one to meet the American College of Sports Medicine's recommendations for physical activity or could induce beneficial effects on health. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Wii Fit was originally designed as a health and fitness interactive training experience for the general public. There are, however, many examples of Wii Fit being utilized in clinical settings. This article aims to identify the contribution of Wii Fit in the field of health promotion and rehabilitation by: (1) identifying the health-related domains for which the Wii Fit series has been tested, (2) clarifying the effect of Wii Fit in those identified health-related domains and (3) quantifying this effect. Method A systematic literature review was undertaken. The MEDLINE database and Games for Health Journal published content were explored using the search term “Wii-Fit.” Occurrences resulting from manual searches on Google and material suggested by experts in the field were also considered. Included articles were required to have measurements from Wii Fit activities for at least one relevant health indicator. The effect of Wii Fit interventions was assessed using meta-analyses for the following outcomes: activity-specific balance confidence score, Berg balance score (BBC) and time-up-and-go test (TUG). Findings A total of 115 articles highlighted that the Wii Fit has been tested in numerous healthy and pathological populations. Out of these, only a few intervention studies have focused on the prevention of chronic diseases. A large proportion of the studies focus on balance training ( N = 55). This systematic review highlights several potential benefits of Wii Fit interventions and these positive observations are supported by meta-analyses data ( N = 25). For example, the BBC and the TUG respond to a similar extend to Wii Fit interventions compared with traditional training. Conclusion Wii Fit has the potential to be used as a rehabilitation tool in different clinical situations. However, the current literature includes relatively few randomized controlled trials in each population. Further research is therefore required.
... Exergames are fun and can be a convenient way to gain exercise. Popular examples are based on the Nintendo Wii [2], Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) [11] and Microso Kinect [8] these have been demonstrated to deliver adequate amounts of exertion to meet recommended levels of activity. Despite this, they are not fullyimmersive and are limited in terms of the types of exercises that can be performed as the player needs to follow the directions on the screen. ...
Conference Paper
Exercise is essential for health and well-being. However, it can be difficult for people to meet the recommended amount of daily exercise simply due to the lack of motivation. It has recently become apparent that virtual reality games, even though they were not explicitly designed for exercise, have the potential to provide enough exercise to achieve recommended levels of activity for a day, while keeping people motivated. However, as these games have not generally not been designed for exercise, there is a risk that people may either under- or over-exert themselves. Therefore, in this paper we present and discuss our design for a virtual reality exergame that utilizes a user model and dynamic difficulty adjustment to deliver personalized activity levels and experiences.
... Previous studies show that AVGs generate low physiological demand, between 20% and 44% of the maxi-mum heart rate (MHr) [3][4][5][6]. only some types of games at greater difficulty levels can produce increased levels of physical activity and significant changes in physiological variables such as heart rate (Hr), energy expenditure, and oxygen uptake. ...
Article
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Purpose. To determine whether an active video game session promoted post-exercise hypotension, similar to walking. Methods. Fifteen hypertensive subjects (49.0 ± 1.6 years) of both genders performed five randomized sessions, lasting 60 minutes: 1) active video game; 2) sedentary video game; 3) walking on a treadmill with moderate intensity; 4) walking on a treadmill with similar intensity to the active video game; and 5) control without exercise. Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation measurements were taken at rest and every 10 minutes post exercise for 60 minutes. Results. The active video game promoted a reduction in systolic blood pressure (-14.4 ± 3.0 mmHg, p < 0.0001) similar to walking on a treadmill with moderate intensity (-16.9 ± 3.3 mmHg, p < 0.0001), whereas the control group without exercise did not demonstrate a blood pressure reduction. The sedentary video game also demonstrated a reduction in systolic blood pressure (-10.0 ± 3.1 mmHg, p = 0.0039), statistically similar to the active video game and walking on a treadmill with similar intensity to the active video game (8.7 ± 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.0034). Regarding the diastolic component, the active video game (-7.6 ± 1.5 mmHg, p < 0.0001), walking on a treadmill with moderate intensity (-8.3 ± 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.0042), and the sedentary video game (-7.5 ± 2.7 mmHg, p = 0.0098) produced similar reductions in diastolic blood pressure. The active video game was a procedure that promoted a sympathetic-vagal balance reduction from pre-exercise to 60 minutes post exercise (4.2 ± 0.8 to 2.3 ± 0.5, p = 0.0486). Conclusions. Active video game play promoted a similar reduction in blood pressure compared to traditional walking exercise with the advantage of promoting reduction in the sympathetic inflow to the heart.
... Not surprisingly, both groups demonstrated general improvements for physical outcomes; however, participants at the end of the study reported greater enjoyment using the Wii compared to treatment as usual. Similarly, Douris et al. 25 conducted a randomized double-crossover study that compared the psychological and physiological benefits of brisk walking to the Wii Fit Aerobics "Free Run" game. Participants in the control group completed 30 minutes of brisk walking and the experimental group completed 30 minutes of the Wii Fit "Free Run" game. ...
Article
The purpose of this article is to explore two specific video game modalities–casual video games and exergames–that recreational therapists (RTs) can use for therapeutic intervention. The article will address the effects of such video game modalities on mental and physical health. Requirements and how to use the video game modalities in the recreational therapy setting are shared. Implications and future research ideas for RTs are discussed.
... Douris et al. 16 . No entanto, observaram que a resposta foi maior para a segunda situação de análise e justificam a ocorrência de tal resposta devido ao maior recrutamento muscular ao executar o salto vertical. ...
Article
Este estudo analisou o comportamento das variáveis hemodinâmicas, sensação subjetiva de esforço e gasto calórico durante uma sessão de exercícios físicos com o uso do Nintendo Wii Fit® de adultos jovens. Participaram sessenta voluntários (35 homens; 25 mulheres) com idade de 22,8±3,4 anos (homens) e 21,5±2,6 anos (mulheres). A sessão de exercícios teve duração de 45 minutos e foi composta por nove jogos, através do Nintendo Wii Fit®. As variáveis hemodinâmicas e massa corporal foram coletadas em períodos de repouso, recuperação e ao término de cada jogo. Na análise estatística foram empregados: o teste de Shapiro-Wilk; Análise Descritiva e a Análise de Variância One Way (ANOVA); e o Post Hoc de Tukey, adotando como nível de significância estatística de p<0,05. Os resultados mostraram que a sessão de exercício produziu alterações cardiovasculares agudas e gasto calórico. Os dados obtidos neste estudo sugerem que uma sessão de 45 minutos de exercícios físicos promovidas pelo Wii Fit® pode ser utilizada como um modo eficaz de atividade física para melhorar a saúde.
... Althoff et al. studied location-aware multiplayer games that combine gameplay with the physical world and reported increased physical activity levels among players [54]. Douris et al. compared physiologic and psychological responses to 30-min of treadmill walking with Nintendo Wii Fit Free Run and described the latter as a potent alternative to traditional moderate-intensity exercise [55]. Staiano and Calvert outlined the literature on exergames used in physical education courses in schools and provided several physical, social, and academic benefits as related outcomes [23]. ...
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In this work, we compare the exergaming experience of young and old individuals under four difficulty adjustment methods. Physical inactivity is a leading cause of numerous health conditions including heart diseases, diabetes, cancer, and reduced life expectancy. Committing to regular physical exercise is a simple non-pharmaceutical preventive measure for maintaining good health and sustaining quality of life. Incorporating exercise into games, studies frequently used exergames as an intervention tool over the last decades to improve physical functions and to increase adherence to exercise. While task difficulty optimization is crucial to exergame design, researchers consistently overlooked age as an element which can significantly influence the nature of end results. We use the Flow State Scale to analyze the mental state of young and old individuals to compare constant difficulty with ramping, performance-based, and biofeedback-based difficulty adjustments. Our results indicate that old individuals are less likely to experience flow compared to young under the same difficulty adjustment methods. Further investigation revealed that old individuals are likely to experience flow under ramping and biofeedback-based difficulty adjustments whereas performance-based adjustments were only feasible for young.
... Exergames have been explored in a wide range of conditions (Hsu et al. 2011;Nilsagard et al. 2013;Campos et al. 2015;Jaarsma et al. 2015) and across several age groups (Franco et al. 2012;Chiu et al. 2014;Hammond et al. 2014;Jelsma et al. 2014;Park et al. 2014;Jung et al. 2015). Exergames consist of video games that demand physical activity, such as Wii Fit and Wii Sports, allowing participants to achieve the recommended aerobic exercise intensity and energy expenditure (Lanningham-Foster et al. 2009;Douris et al. 2012;LeGear et al. 2016). Furthermore, interventions using exergames may be better than traditional programs regarding motivation and compliance. ...
Article
Background: People with Down syndrome (DS) usually display reduced physical fitness (aerobic capacity, muscle strength and abnormal body composition), motor proficiency impairments (balance and postural control) and physical functional limitations. Exergames can be an appealing alternative to enhance exercise engagement and compliance, whilst improving physical fitness and motor function. This study aims to analyse the effects of a Wii-based exercise program on physical fitness, functional mobility and motor proficiency of adults with DS. Methods: Twenty-seven adults with DS were randomly allocated to an experimental group (Wii; n = 14) or control group (n = 13). Participants in the experimental group completed a 2-month Wii-based exercise program, with three 1-h sessions per week that included training games for aerobic endurance, balance and isometric strength. Participants completed assessments regarding anthropometric measures, physical fitness, functional mobility and motor proficiency. Results: Mixed ANOVA analysis showed a significant group by time interaction for aerobic endurance, explosive leg power and flexibility. Independent samples t-test for change scores indicated significant between-group differences favouring the experimental group regarding speed of limb movement, trunk strength and functional mobility, as well as a trend towards significance on body weight. Mann-Whitney's U test for change scores demonstrated between-group differences favouring the experimental group for visceral fat as well as running speed and agility. Large within-group effect sizes were observed for explosive leg power (d = 1.691), body weight (d = 1.281), functional mobility (d = 1.218), aerobic endurance (d = 1.020), speed of limb movement (d = 0.867) and flexibility (d = 0.818) in the experimental group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Wii-based exercise can be an effective tool to improve physical fitness, functional mobility and motor proficiency of adults with DS, including crucial measures such as aerobic capacity and lower limb strength. Exergames using Wii Fit or other equipment can be appealing alternatives for adults with DS to engage in regular physical activity, preventing sedentary behaviour and decreasing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases.
... The multiple-session condition was applied to simulate longterm use of exergaming to evaluate whether the physiological and psychological effects could be held over time. Consistent with Douris et al. (2012), we first hypothesized that the increased HR and RPE would be observed as a result of being physically active during exergaming. In addition, consistent with Jozkowski and Cermak (2019), the increased enjoyment scores would be shown among participants with ID due to exergaming participation. ...
Article
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Various health problems of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are associated with their physical inactivity. The present study aimed at the understanding of physiological and psychological responses toward exergaming in seven young adults with mild to moderate ID after a single-session and a multiple-session condition, respectively. Their heart rate (HR), the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES) were measured on control and exergaming sessions. The significant increased HR, which may represent the increased physical activity levels that led to energy expenditure, was observed after a single-session and a multiple-session condition. In addition, the significant increase in RPE and PACES were evident after a single-session condition but a multiple-session condition. The feeling of physical fatigue seems to be distracted by external motivators (e.g. music). However, the positive affectivity to exercise was not noted when exercise was scheduled as their daily routines. This phenomenon might explain the high prevalence of physical inactivity among this population.
... Psychological well-being was measured with the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale (SEES). This scale has been used in previous exercise studies [32] and video games studies [33]. This is a 12-item questionnaire that is scored on a 7-point Likert-scale. ...
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Background The purpose of this study was to compare entertainment-themed active video game (AVG) and fitness-themed AVG play with traditional exercise to examine the interaction between physiological and psychological responses. Methods Participants (N = 23) were randomly assigned to 30-min of (i) self-selected intensity exercise (SS-EX), (ii) moderate intensity exercise (MOD-EX), (iii) entertainment-themed video game (ET-VG) and (iv) fitness-themed video game (FT-VG). Physiological and psychological outcomes were recorded before, during and after each trial. Results All trials met the ACSM criteria for moderate or vigorous physical activity. The %V˙O2R (68.3±13.9%) and rate of energy expenditure (10.3±3.1kcal/min) was significantly higher in the SS-EX trial with lowest values reported for ET-VG (p<0.05). No differences were found in % heart rate reserve between SS-EX and FT-VG (66.9±12.5% and 67.1±6% respectively). The AVG’s were significantly more enjoyable than the exercise trials (p<0.05) and the ET-VG resulted in the highest core flow and psychological well-being (p<0.05). Conclusion AVG’s can elicit physiological responses that meet recommended exercise intensities but are more enjoyable than conventional exercise in young inactive adults. While further work is required, this study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between physiological outcomes and psychological states to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time.
... In addition, although Keogh, Power, Wooller, Lucas, and Whatman (2014) determined that playing an exergame did not significantly improve one particular health measure (i.e., balance), psychological quality-of-life scores improved. Conversely, findings from a study by Douris, McDonald, Vespi, Kelley, and Herman (2012) suggest that using an active video game can actually decrease psychological well-being compared with brisk walking on a standard treadmill. The reason for this contrary result is unclear; however, it could be due to the participants' significantly higher maximum heart rates and therefore greater perceived physiological demands of the exergame. ...
Article
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Video games are a source of entertainment for a wide population and have varied effects on well-being. The purpose of this article is to comprehensively examine game-play research to identify the factors that contribute to these disparate well-being outcomes and to highlight the potential positive effects. On the basis of existing literature, we argue that the effects of gaming on well-being are moderated by other variables, such as motivations for gaming and video-game characteristics. Specifically, the inclusion of social activity can benefit prosocial behaviors and affect the relationship between violent video games and aggression that some studies have demonstrated. Moreover, the research on the relationship between violent video games and aggression depends greatly on individual and sociocontextual variables outside of game play. The inclusion of physical activity in games can provide an improvement in physical health with high levels of enjoyment, potentially increasing adherence rates. Overall, following our review, we determined that the effects of gaming on well-being are moderated by and depend on the motivation for gaming, outside variables, the presence of violence, social interaction, and physical activity. Thus, we argue that there is potential for an “optimal gaming profile” that can be used in the future for both academic- and industry-related research.
... However, there are many interpretations for the advantages of exergames based on currently available research results. According to some studies, exergames can induce CV responses which are similar or superior to traditional, mid-high intensity physical activities, which are within the recommended ranges of the ACSM for CRF training.18,19 In contrast, according to some studies, game systems cannot provide energy expenditures similar to those obtained from mid-high intensity physical activity and fitness advantages. ...
Article
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Objective: Recently, exergames have been used an exercise modality as aerobic fitness activities. However, evidence of its effectiveness on cardiovascular (CV)-related risk factors remain unclear. Hypothesis: We evaluate the effects of exergaming on CV-related risk factors compared with traditional aerobic exercise in high CV risk patients. Methods: Sixty-five postmenopausal women with high CV risk were randomized among exergame (n = 22), treadmill (n = 22), and control (n = 21) groups. The exergame group was engaged in the running-based exergame using Exer Heart and the treadmill group walked or jogged on a treadmill. Cardiorespiratory fitness, flow-mediated dilation, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), epicardial fat thickness, metabolic parameters, and anthropometric parameters were measured in patients before and 12 weeks after the training. Results: Exergaming significantly improved VO2 peak (P < .001; different from control, P < .05), flow-mediated dilation (P < .001; different from control, P < .05), EPCs (CD34/CD117+ , P < .01). Treadmill exercise was effective at improving VO2 peak (P < .01; different from control, P < .05), flow-mediated dilation (P < .05), EPCs (CD34/CD117+ , P < .01; different from control P < .05). Epicardial fat thickness decreased after both exercise programs (exergame, P < .01; treadmill, P < .01; no different from control). Conclusion: Exergaming showed similar effects to traditional aerobic exercise in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and endothelial function in postmenopausal women with high CV risk. These findings suggest that the exergames may serve as an alternative to conventional aerobic exercises for prevention and treatment in high CV risk patients.
... Some alternative exercise has been reported, especially in individuals who have difficult sports and exercise habits. Some of these studies have suggested active video game exercise (exergame) approaches 47,48 . Active video game or video-based exercise (Exergame) are video games that encourage the physical movement of players, involving the transfer of body movements to game commands 49 . ...
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Due to the development of the video game industry in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of video game player and the gaming time. The gaming time increase carries a risk for a behavior disorder defined as a gaming disorder. At the same time, one of the major negative effects of playing video games is increasing sedentary lifestyle. Increasing sedentary lifestyle leads to a decrease in physical activity, consequently both physical and mental health can be affected. Knowing the effects of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with gaming disorder is important in preventing irreversible health problems and protecting public health. The role of physical activity is important in preventing a sedentary lifestyle in gaming disorder. It is important to know and address the importance of physical activity in these individuals, whose physical activity is difficult to encourage. Therefore, in this review, the possible effects of sedentary lifestyle and physical activity in gaming disorder are summarized in the light of the literature.
... In the literature, most of the existing exergames have used non-immersive VR technologies, and they have proven to be useful for promoting people's physical activity and fitness. For instance, Douris et al. [5] suggest that Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" game is promising to be used as an alternative to conventional moderate-intensity aerobic exercise to fulfill the American young adults' needs for physical activity. Similarly, Jacek et al. [6] recommend that Microsoft's Xbox 360 Kinect-based games, integrated with an element of physical activity, can be used to increase the weekly dose of physical activity for users that can lead to gaining health benefits. ...
Conference Paper
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Exergaming has shown promising results for promoting user's wellbeing in terms of physical and cognitive benefits. Although non-immersive virtual reality-based games have proven to be useful for user's physical wellbeing, there is limited study in immersive virtual reality (iVR) for exergaming particularly in user's engagement and enjoyment. Furthermore, there is limited study in comparing user's engagement and enjoyment between iVR exercises and conventional exercises without using digital games. Hence, in this exploratory study, user's engagement and enjoyment in doing iVR exercises were explored through a survey study. The preliminary findings from a two-week survey study show that users were more engaged in iVR than conventional exercises, and a similar pattern can be found in user's enjoyment. The findings suggest that iVR exercises are potentially useful and enjoyable for users to engage in physical exercises, while they may be an alternative to conventional exercises. These preliminary findings have created opportunities for future research in iVR-based exercises for users.
... 42 Exercising with the Nintendo Wii Fit was associated with improvements in respiratory rate and mean maximum heart rate in sedentary young adults. 43 Warburton et al 44 reported greater improvements in health-related physical fitness in persons who played active video games combined with traditional aerobic training in comparison with traditional aerobic training alone. 44 The potential limitations of the present study are the inclusion of only female participants and their limited age range; accordingly, our results may not be generalizable to males or other age groups. ...
Article
Context: Thoracic hyperkyphosis, one of the most common spinal deformities, may lead to undesirable pulmonary outcomes. Objective: To study, the efficacy of virtual reality exercise training on thoracic hyperkyphosis and respiratory parameters in young women. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory setting. Participants and intervention: Participants were randomly assigned to one of two 4-week exercise training groups: regular training (RT), which involved stretch and strength training, or virtual reality with RT (VRRT), which involved dance training with the Xbox 360 Kinect® game in addition to the exercises, which the RT group received. Main outcome measures: The authors measured kyphosis angle with a Flexicurve ruler and recorded respiratory parameters (forced vital capacity [FVC] and forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) with a spirometer in each participant at baseline and postintervention. Separate 2 × 2 repeated-measure analysis of variances were used to analyze differences between means for kyphosis angle, FEV1, and FVC. Based on the significant interactions between time and group, the paired t test was used to compare the results at baseline and postintervention, and the independent sample t test was used to compare the differences in changes between groups. Level of significance was considered at P < .05 except for paired t test that was adjusted to P < .025 for each variable in 2 groups. Results: The results showed statistically significant interactions between time and group for kyphosis angle, FEV1, and FVC. Postintervention thoracic kyphosis angle decreased and FVC increased significantly in both groups and FEV1 improved significantly in virtual reality with RT group. The improvements in thoracic kyphosis, FVC, and FEV1 in the virtual reality with RT group were significantly greater (P < .001) than in the RT group. Conclusion: Dance training with the Xbox 360 Kinect game was an effective therapy in improving thoracic kyphosis angle, FVC, and FEV1 in young women with thoracic hyperkyphosis.
... Exergames have used a diverse range of devices to capture the player's movement [54,13], such as depth sensing cameras, dance mats, and hand-held controllers. There have been many consumer gaming systems, such as the Nintendo Wii [51,22] the XBox 360 and XBox One [10,33,16,68]. There have also been many creative research systems, such as a table tennis game [42], a hanging bar [43] and even methods to display a person's heart rate on their bicycle helmet [67] to inspire other cyclists. ...
Conference Paper
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Many people, especially those in sedentary occupations, fail to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity. Vir-tual reality (VR) games have the potential to overcome this because they are fun and also can be physically demanding. This paper explores whether a VR game studio can help work-ers in sedentary jobs to get valuable levels of exercise. We studied how 11 participants used our VR game studio in a sedentary workplace over 8-weeks and their perceptions of the experience. We analysed the physical exertion in the VR game studio, comparing this to their step counts from a smart-watch. All participants achieved valuable levels of physical activity and mood benefits. Importantly, for 6 participants, only with the VR game studio did they meet recommended activity levels. Our key contributions are insights about the use of a workplace VR game studio and its health benefits.
... Second, few quantitative studies have investigated the effect of exergame-based physical therapy on bodily functions and health conditions. Although some inter-exergame studies have been conducted, they have only been able to conclude that EE varies greatly between exergame activities [33][34][35][36]. Other groups of researchers have studied the relationship between limb movements and EE; however, their results were qualitative, being obtained from general observations. ...
Article
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Abstract World's ageing population, prevalence of chronic diseases, and shortage of healthcare resources have increased interest in home‐based physical therapy and rehabilitation. However, the standard equipment is often too bulky and unsuited for home use. This paper presents the design, development, and evaluation of a set of wearable orthoses for home‐based physical therapy. Originatively utilising miniature electromagnetic brakes, the system can deliver a low to moderate range of resistive torques suitable for isotonic, isometric, and open‐chain resistance exercises. In human tests with the orthoses, low‐level muscle activation and low‐ to moderate‐level energy expenditure were achieved. This suggests the system's potential for use in a wide range of applications, including postoperative treatments for muscle injury and the early stages of rehabilitation, and tele‐rehabilitation. The orthoses were integrated with a video game console to form a new research platform that can be used to study the effects of force haptics on muscle activation and energy expenditure in exergames. The data obtained aid the future development of exergame prescription standards.
... However, there are authors who state that practicing physical exercise through the use of electronic applications or games only produces psychological benefits and does not improve adherence [55]. Likewise, other authors say that they do not observe this type of benefits, and affirm that adherence is greater when performed outdoors [56]. In turn, some authors claim that these methods are beneficial for exercising continuously from home. ...
Article
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Finding methods to improve people's diabetes control and management is important to prevent its complications and maintain the quality of life. The aim of this review was to assess the effect of games on the blood glucose level (glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)). A systematic review and meta-analysis were made. Pubmed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases were consulted in July of 2020. Ten studies were selected as a final sample, most of them being clinical trials using games to improve diabetes control. Half of the studies had samples between 8 and 14.9 years old and the other half between 57 and 65 years old. The studies informed about using applications/games for mobile phones, game consoles, and board games for diabetes education and management. The meta-analysis was performed with 4 studies showing a mean difference of 0.12 (CI 95% 0.57, 0.33) of HbA1c in favor of the intervention group with p > 0.05. Games are positive for diabetes health education and promoting healthier lifestyle, but their impact on HbA1c is low.
... Essa variabilidade pode estar relacionada com as características da amostra estudada, como idade, nível de condicionamento físico e composição corporal 16. Alguns estudos relacionados à avaliação da autosseleção de intensidade de exercícios aeróbicos já foram relatados em diversos grupos, faixas etárias e tipos de exercício, como: comparação da autosseleção de intensidade de esforço entre homens adultos eutrófi cos e com sobrepeso 8 ; comparação da intensidade autosselecionada em diferentes jogos de exergaming 17,18 ; determinação da infl uência do ambiente interno e externo (laboratório e ao ar livre) nas respostas fi siológicas diante da intensidade autosselecionada 19 ; determinação das respostas fi siológicas em adultos mais velhos durante uma sessão de exercício com intensidade autosselecionada 20 ; e comparação da infl uência de uma sessão de caminhada em ritmo autosselecionado em ambiente interno e externo sobre as respostas fi siológicas em mulheres obesas 7 . ...
Article
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Introdução: É corriqueira a prática de atividade física de forma autosselecionada por mulheres. O American College of Sports Medicine indica que o gasto energético de 1.000 quilocalorias por semana de atividade física moderada reduz o risco de doenças cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Estabelecer os padrões de atividade física autosselecionados por mulheres durante a caminhada, corrida e trote e verifi car se atendem às diretrizes do American College of Sports Medicine para sua prática. Materiais e Métodos: Participaram do estudo 80 mulheres, que foram divididas em quatro grupos etários (G1 = 20-29 anos; G2 = 30-39 anos; G3 = 40-49 anos; G4 = 50-59 anos). Na primeira etapa foram realizados os procedimentos antropométricos. A segunda etapa consistiu em avaliar uma sessão de exercício (caminhada e/ou corrida) ao ar livre, sob intensidade autosselecionada através de um monitor cardíaco e índice de percepção de esforço. Resultados: Ao analisar o escore do índice de percepção de esforço, foi encontrado que 43,8% da amostra (n = 80, sendo G1: n = 30; G2: n = 30; G3: n = 10; G4: n = 10) esteve dentro da intensidade “vigorosa” e 26,3% “moderada”, ambas estando em conformidade com as recomendações do ACSM. Em relação ao percentual da FC (%FC) média, todos os grupos estiveram de acordo com as diretrizes. Quanto ao tempo total da sessão e frequência semanal, todos os grupos atingiram as recomendações mínimas.Conclusão: A maioria das pessoas autosselecionou intensidades dentro do recomendado pelo American College of Sports Medicine quando se analisou a %FC média, o índice de percepção de esforço, o tempo de treino e a frequência semanal.
... No entanto, poucos estudos têm investigado as alterações das variáveis hemodinâmicas, utilizado os VGAs, principalmente em universitários. No estudo de Douris et al. (2012), que compararam as respostas fisiológicas e psicológicas em estudantes universitários em três modalidades (jogos Nintendo Wii Fit, VGA e caminhada rápida) observaram diferenças entre elas, porém a PA não foi verificada. ...
Article
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RESUMO Este estudo analisou a intensidade dos jogos Kinect Sports® em universitários através das variáveis hemodinâmicas e da percepção subjetiva de esforço. Tratou-se de um estudo experimental, com 34 jovens estudantes (21.5±1.9anos) que foram submetidos a três sessões consecutivas de jogos, divididas em jogos de boxe, boliche, beisebol e tênis; vôlei de areia, golfe, atletismo e esqui; tênis de mesa, futebol, dardos e futebol americano. A frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial (PA) e percepção subjetiva de esforço (PSE) foram registradas a cada dois minutos de cada jogo. One-way ANOVA for repeated measurements was used to verify differences in HR, BP and PSE at each time of the game and the effect size (p
... In another study involving sedentary adolescents in New York, a comparison was made between a group that was exposed to a 30-minute active video game and another group that was given a 30 minute treadmill walk. It was observed that the video game group had a significant increase in their heart rate and pulse in comparison to the treadmill group, showing that active video games can be an alternative to aerobic exercises when it comes to physical activity (31). Barbeau et al (32) demonstrated that a total of 80-minute activity program that consisted of 35 minutes aerobics, 20 minutes stretching, and 25 minutes skills development and which was offered every day during the school year, had significant effects on BMI and led to a decrease in body fat. ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of active video games and music-accompanied aerobic and callisthenic exercises on body mass index (BMI), body fat ratio, physical performance tests, psychosocial status, and self-respect in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods: Fifty (21 males and 29 females) slightly overweight and obese participants with no chronic disorder and of an average age of 12.16±0.99 years were included in the study. The percentile values for BMI, triceps skinfold thickness, waist circumference measurements, and physical performance tests were evaluated. The effects of obesity on psychological wellness were evaluated using the depression scale for children (DSC) and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale for self-esteem. Following these evaluations, the participants were subjected to an exercise program in five groups of 10 people, 3 days a week for a duration of 8 weeks. Each exercise session lasted 45 minutes. Participants were re-evaluated at the end of the exercise program. The data collected both before and after the exercise program were analyzed using the SPSS 18.0 program. Results: According to BMI reference values, 28% of the 50 participants (n=14; 6 males and 8 females) were assessed to be overweight and 72% to be obese (n=36; 15 males and 21 females). Following the exercise program, 14% of the participants (n=7; 3 males and 4 females) were assessed as normal, 46% (n=23; 14 males and 9 female) as slightly overweight, and 40% (n=20; 4 male and 16 female) as obese. It was determined that the decrease in BMI values (p<0.05) was higher in male participants than in female participants and that the frequency of obesity was higher in the females. A statistically significant decrease in BMI values was found after the exercise program (p<0.01). Following the exercise program, statistically significant differences have also been observed in the self-esteem (p<0.01), psychological wellness (p=0.025), triceps skinfold thickness, as well as in waist circumference and BMI values of the participants compared to the pre-exercise phase (p<0.01). Conclusion: An exercise program applied with active video games was found to have positive effects on the obese state as well as on the psychosocial status and self-esteem of obese individuals, indicating that exercise and physical activity have an important role in improvement of the obese state in childhood as well as having positive contributions to self-esteem and psychological wellness state.
... While some researchers suggest that exergames are perceived as more enjoyable compared to traditional aerobic exercise modalities, 29 others report decreases in positive wellbeing. 49 Individual factors may contribute to differential effects on energy expenditure and psychosocial variables, such as sex and gameplay preference (i.e., competitive vs. solitary gaming). ...
Article
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Objective: This study investigated the effect of acute exergaming on the physiological and psychosocial responses of young adults and the modulatory effect of a single- or dual-player game play situation. Materials and methods: Thirty-six participants (19 male; 21.7 ± 3.8 years; 23.65 ± 3.17 kg/m(2)) each completed two 30-minute exergame sessions in a randomized order (single and dual player) while wearing an Actiheart(®) to estimate energy expenditure. Positive and negative affect, subjective vitality, and indices of intrinsic motivation were assessed directly after each gaming bout. Results: There was no significant difference in energy expenditure or psychosocial outcomes between conditions. Although males expended more energy than females in both single- (z = -2.124, P = 0.033) and dual-player situations (z = -2.679, P = 0.007), females reported significantly greater vitality (z = -2.219, P = 0.026) and effort/importance than males (z = -2.001, P = 0.045). Conversely, males reported a greater negative affect (z = -2.872, P = 0.004) and pressure/tension (z = -3.295, P = 0.001). A linear mixed effects model revealed that energy expenditure during exergaming was a significant predictor of interest and enjoyment (P = 0.001) and effort and importance (P = 0.001). This relationship between energy expenditure and psychosocial variables was not modulated by sex or order of gameplay (single or dual player first). Conclusion: The present results suggest that females have a more positive psychosocial response to exergaming relative to males, highlighting exergames such as Wii™ boxing as a potential avenue for future interventions seeking to address the low physical activity levels that characterize the young adult population.
... A recent meta-analysis (Gao et al., 2015) found similar results reporting higher HR during the exergame playing compared to stationary biking. The same results were reported comparing 30 min of brisk walking on a treadmill with a Nintendo Wii Fit intervention (Douris et al., 2012). In a review article Biddiss and Irwin (2010) reported the possibility to perform low-to moderateintensity exercise training (50-70% HRmax), while playing specific exergames. ...
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... [37][38][39] It has been suggested in similar studies that AVGs, performed in an acute manner, have the potential to favor an energy expenditure similar to traditional forms of exercise, 10 and may even comply with the requirements of the American College of Sports Medicine for physical activity. 15 Thus, it can be seen that exergames can be a dynamic physical exercise, close to the energy expenditure of the various sports modalities or even higher because it presents significant involvement of the arms in the dance routines, or even requires a greater concentration in performing the exercises. 34 As limitations of this study, the following were considered: (1) the need for direct instruments such as ventilometry in the perspective of identifying the phases of intensity of VO2 in the sessions; (2) an assessment of the level of satisfaction of those evaluated, to verify the degree of motivation; and (3) the use of other consoles considering other virtual reality experiences with dance. ...
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... Development of future interventions aiming to increase PA among emerging adults should prioritize home workouts while considering these participant-identified barriers. One mode of at-home exercise that warrants further research is exergaming, which is comparable in intensity to other forms of PA [33][34][35], and is found to be enjoyable by participants [36]. These features of exergaming could increase adherence; exergaming also requires little space, equipment requirements are minimal and certain forms can be free, thereby circumventing many identified barriers to PA. ...
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... Virtual reality video games, such as Nintendo Wii Fit and Wii Sports, demand varying degrees of physical activity. Participation in VR games allows individuals to interact with displayed images, moving and manipulating virtual objects, and performing actions that immerse them in a simulated environment (Douris et al. 2012). Nintendo Wii is played with a wireless controller, fitted with acceleration sensors. ...
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... 직관적으로 실시간 피드백이 가능한 운동게임(Exergame) 이나 재활운동 소프트웨어들이 발표되고 있고 (Lange et al., 2011;Douris et al., 2012), 이를 고령자에게도 적용하는 사례들 (Clark et al., 2009;Agmon et al. 2011;Garcia et al., 2012) (Kim et al., 2014). ...
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Objectives: This study aims to develop a form of tele-exercise that would enable real-time interactions between exercise instructors and community-dwelling elderly people and to investigate its effects on improvement of sarcopenia-related factors of body composition and functional fitness among the elderly. Design: Randomized, controlled trial, with a 12-week intervention period. Setting: Community-dwelling senior citizens in Gangseo-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
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Numerous parties have used traditional exercises as interventions to improve individuals' physical activity levels. These were found to be effective in reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as hypertension, heart diseases, and diabetes. Recent studies have shown that exergames are alternative approaches of physical activity intervention. This paper presents the preliminary design of an exergaming system with force haptic feedback. The system will be used to investigate the relationship between body movements, energy expenditure, and muscle activities during upper-extremity-focused and lower-extremity-focused exergames. The results generated from experiments performed with the system will serve as useful references for developing standards and guidelines for selecting the appropriate types of exergames for specific intended outcomes.
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O estudo objetivou verificar e comparar a frequência cardíaca (FC) e a percepção subjetiva de esforço (PSE) durante o gameplay entre o Tênis de Mesa (TM) e o game do table tennis nos consoles Kinect Xbox (TTK) e no Nintendo Wii (TTW). Participaram do estudo 12 homens com 21,8 ± 3,1 (anos), 81 ± 11,24 (kg) e 176 ± 7 (cm). Os games geraram valores similares de FC média em TTW (83,67 ± 16,7 bpm) e TTK (89,67 ± 16,32 bpm), mas durante o TM foi observada demanda cardiovascular superior (103,50 ± 23,9 bpm). A PSE média encontrada no TTW (1,5 ± 0,67 ua) foi estatisticamente menor que no TM (2,67 ± 0,78 ua), mas não diferiu do TTK (2 ± 1,04 us). Os resultados sugerem que o Tênis de Mesa virtual, em ambos consoles, não é eficiente para aumentar a demanda cardiovascular.
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Background: Exertion games are video games that require exercise. They are widely presented as health interventions, to encourage sedentary populations to take exercise at levels recommended by health professionals. Objectives: We consider whether games encourage acute exercise at levels sufficient to engender exercise-related health benefits, and in what conditions that occurs. Methods: We performed a scoping review of empirical research that examines whether exertion game play engenders exercise, searching Google Scholar, Scopus and PubMed. Results: From 3171 search records, we found 243 studies of acute short-term exercise in games. While some observed moderate levels of exertion, players of many games fail to meet recommended levels. Few games encouraged vigorous levels seen in sports. Variation in results for games across different studies suggests that exertion motivation is highly dependent on non-game contextual factors. There is evidence games make exercise more enjoyable or reduce perceived exertion, but many studies suffer the methodological problem of comparison with boring control conditions. Conclusions: Exergames have only been found comparable to exercise such as walking, jogging and dancing under very specific circumstances. To improve evidence for games as exercise interventions, we must improve study designs and focus on understanding better the circumstances likely to bring about genuine exergame exercise.
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Background: Anxiety disorders affect many people around the world and women are more affected than men. Physical exercise might be an important nonpharmacological tool to ameliorate these disorders. The aim of this study was to compare state anxiety level and enjoyment between a dance exergame session and a traditional aerobic exercise. Methods: Twenty healthy young women completed 3 visits, on separate days. At the first visit, participants performed a graded exercise testing and familiarization procedures. In other two visits, participants completed two exercise sessions (dance exergame and traditional aerobic exercise), with similar intensities and duration. Each session lasted approximately 45 minutes. State anxiety level was evaluated before, immediately post- and 10 minutes post sessions. Enjoyment was evaluated immediately post sessions. Results: There was a significant interaction between session and time (p<0.001), a main effect of time (p=0.007) but no significant main effect of session (p=0.057) on state anxiety level. State anxiety level immediately post (p<0.001) and 10 minutes post-session (p<0.001) were significantly lower than pre-dance exergame session. There were no significant changes between pre-, immediately post and 10 minutes post-traditional aerobic exercise session (p>0.05). State anxiety level at immediately post dance exergame session was significantly lower than immediately post traditional aerobic exercise session (p=0.026). Dance exergame session was significantly more enjoyable than traditional aerobic exercise session (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Dance exergames might be used as a tool to reduce anxiety level in young women.
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Nan Zeng, Zan Gao College of Education and Human Development, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Although exergaming has been used as a physical activity modality among various populations, the evidence regarding its effectiveness on health-related outcomes in overweight/obese individuals remains unclear. The current study systematically reviewed literature and summarized findings of exergame-based interventions in overweight/obese populations with the goal of clarifying the current perspectives on exergaming and obesity. The initial search yielded 202 articles from six databases; 12 studies were included after evaluating for inclusion criteria and removing duplicates. Among these studies, seven were randomized controlled trials, two were control trials, and three were comparison studies. Overall, exergaming has the potential to attenuate weight gain and shows promise when used for physical activity and physical fitness promotion. Further, exergame play is positively associated with psychological well-being, but its effects on physiological outcomes are inconclusive. Finally, effects of exergaming on energy intake are not clear. Existing evidence supports that exergaming may elicit some health benefits in people who are overweight or/and obese. The limited number of available randomized controlled trials, however, restrict the ability to draw a conclusion that exergaming can trigger a change in all health-related outcomes. More research is warranted to make definitive conclusions regarding the effects of exergaming on health-related outcomes in such populations. Keywords: active video game, weight loss, children and adolescents, systematic review
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One of the assumptions underlying recent physical activity recommendations is that lower doses of activity (i.e. intensity and duration) are more enjoyable for the average person, thus leading to higher involvement and adherence rates. However, the veracity of this hypothesis can be questioned, since little is actually known regarding the association between activity doses and affective responses. The few preliminary attempts at the conceptual delineation of the dose-response relationship, all centred around an ‘inverted-U’notion, are reviewed and criticised as lacking empirical foundation. Available meta-analyses, as well as the empirical literature on the role of exercise intensity and duration, are examined. Increased intensity appears to be associated with reduced positivity of affect during and immediately following an exercise bout. Intensity effects appear to be attenuated during recovery. Fitness and training status appear to become significant mediators of the exercise-affect relationship only at high intensities. With intensity being kept constant, different exercise bout durations have not been shown to have a differential impact on pre- to post-exercise affective changes. Recommendations for future research include: (i) a shift from categorical to dimensional conceptualisations and operationalisations of affect; (ii) the examination of psychological theories on the association between activation and affect (e.g. extraversion-introversion, sensation seeking, type A behaviour pattern and related self-evaluative tendencies, reversal theory, optimal stimulation theory, multidimensional activation theory and self-efficacy); (iii) the systematic and theory-based examination of in-task and post-exercise affective responses; (iv) the incorporation of the parameter of fitness and/or activity status in research designs; and (v) the re-evaluation of methods for selecting exercise intensity levels.
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Active video games (exergames) increase energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) compared with sedentary video gaming. The physiological cost and enjoyment of exergaming in adolescents, and young and older adults has not been documented, nor compared with aerobic exercise. This study compared the physiological cost and enjoyment of exergaming on Wii Fit with aerobic exercise in 3 populations. Cardiorespiratory and enjoyment measurements were compared in 14 adolescents, 15 young adults, and 13 older adults during handheld inactive video gaming, Wii Fit activities (yoga, muscle conditioning, balance, aerobics), and brisk treadmill walking and jogging. For all groups EE and heart rate (HR) of Wii Fit activities were greater than handheld gaming (P < .001) but lower than treadmill exercise (P <or= .001). Wii aerobics elicited moderate intensity activity in adolescents, young adults, and older adults with respective mean (SD) metabolic equivalents of 3.2 (0.7), 3.6 (0.8), and 3.2 (0.8). HR during Wii aerobics fell below the recommended intensity for maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. Group enjoyment rating was greater for Wii balance and aerobics compared with treadmill walking and jogging (P <or= .05). Wii Fit appears an enjoyable exergame for adolescents and adults, stimulating light-to-moderate intensity activity through the modification of typically sedentary leisure behavior.
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Video games have become increasingly popular among young adults. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if interactive video/arcade games, requiring physical activity to play, increase the energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) of young adults enough to elicit a training response. Thirteen male and female participants 26.6 ± 5.7 years of age were in the study. Participants were familiarized with equipment and allowed to practice with three games: (1) moving and striking lighted pads, (2) riding a bike to increase the pace of a race car, and (3) boxing against a video simulated opponent. A portable metabolic cart and HR monitor were attached to participants to measure baseline and exercise values. Participants could play any of the three games for 30 minutes while metabolic and HR data were collected. Exercise data were compared to baseline measures, and the 3 games were compared for EE. Paired sample t-tests showed baseline and exercise values differed for HR (t(12) = -18.91, p < 0.01), and EE (t(12) = -15.62, p < 0.01). The boxing game provided the highest VO2 (17.47 ± 4.79 ml·kg(·-1)min(-1)). Participants achieved 60% or better of their HR reserve (162.82 ± 10.78 beats·min(-1),) well within the ACSM guidelines for a training HR. Caloric expenditure during the 30-minute exercise session (226. 07 ± 48.68) is also within the ACSM recommendations for daily physical activity. Thus, interactive video/arcade games that require physical activity to play can be utilized as part of an overall aerobic exercise program.
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To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) and Nintendo's Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking. Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls (ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming. Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play (lowest step rate) than during walking (highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity. Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure.
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This study examined the psychological responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise in sedentary older and younger adults. Eighteen young (mean age 24 years) and 15 older adults (mean age 64 years) completed a 20-min bout of stationary cycling at 65% of VO2peak. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and immediately after exercise. Participants'exercise self-efficacy beliefs were assessed before and immediately after exercise. Both groups reported reduced pleasant feeling states and self-efficacy and increased physical exhaustion in response to acute exercise. Older adults also demonstrated a significant decrease in revitalization during and after cycling. Correlation analyses revealed that self-efficacy was related to feelings of fatigue during exercise and postexercise feelings of energy and fatigue. Both groups reported negative shifts in affect and self-efficacy during and 5 min after cycling.Acute affective and self-efficacy responses might influence one's motivation to adopt and maintain regular physical activity. The relationship between these acute responses and physical activity behavior across the life span warrants future inquiry.
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To compare the energy expenditure of adolescents when playing sedentary and new generation active computer games. Cross sectional comparison of four computer games. Research laboratories. Six boys and five girls aged 13-15 years. Procedure Participants were fitted with a monitoring device validated to predict energy expenditure. They played four computer games for 15 minutes each. One of the games was sedentary (XBOX 360) and the other three were active (Wii Sports). Predicted energy expenditure, compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean (standard deviation) predicted energy expenditure when playing Wii Sports bowling (190.6 (22.2) kJ/kg/min), tennis (202.5 (31.5) kJ/kg/min), and boxing (198.1 (33.9) kJ/kg/min) was significantly greater than when playing sedentary games (125.5 (13.7) kJ/kg/min) (P<0.001). Predicted energy expenditure was at least 65.1 (95% confidence interval 47.3 to 82.9) kJ/kg/min greater when playing active rather than sedentary games. Playing new generation active computer games uses significantly more energy than playing sedentary computer games but not as much energy as playing the sport itself. The energy used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children.
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This paper documents the development and validation of the three-factor Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES), a measure of global psychological responses to the stimulus properties of exercise. Two of these factors correspond to the positive and negative poles associated with psychological health, Positive Weil-Being and Psychological Distress, whereas the third factor represents subjective indicants of Fatigue. The three-factor structure originally established by exploratory factor analysis using young adults was also supported in middle-aged exercising adults using confirmatory factor analytic techniques. Moreover, convergent and discriminant validity for the SEES subscales was demonstrated by examining relations with measures of affect regularly employed in exercise domain. The SEES may represent a useful starting point for more thoroughly examining exercise and subjective responses at the global level, and these dimensions of the scale may represent possible antecedents of specific affective responsivity.
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Active video game systems controlled through arm gestures and motions (Nintendo Wii Sports) and video games controlled through force plate (Wii Fit Plus) are becoming increasingly popular. This study was performed to determine the energy expenditure (EE) during Wii Fit Plus and Wii Sports game activities. Twelve adult men and women performed all the activities of Wii Sports (five activities: golf, bowling, tennis, baseball, and boxing) and Wii Fit Plus (63 activities classified as yoga, resistance, balance, and aerobic exercises). Each activity was continued for at least 8 min to obtain a steady-state EE. Because EE was assessed in an open-circuit indirect metabolic chamber consisting of an airtight room (20,000 or 15,000 L), subjects were freed of apparatus to collect expired gas while playing the games. MET value was calculated from resting EE and steady-state EE during activity. The mean MET values of all 68 activities were distributed over a wide range from 1.3 METs (Lotus Focus) to 5.6 METs (single-arm stand). The mean MET values in yoga, balance, resistance, and aerobic exercise of Wii Fit Plus and Wii Sports were 2.1, 2.0, 3.2, 3.4, and 3.0 METs, respectively. Forty-six activities (67%) were classified as light intensity (<3 METs), and 22 activities (33%) were classified as moderate intensity (3.0-6.0 METs). There were no vigorous-intensity activities (>6.0 METs). Time spent playing one-third of the activities supplied by motion- and gesture-controlled video games can count toward the daily amount of exercise required according to the guidelines provided by the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association, which focus on 30 min of moderate-intensity daily physical activity 5 d x wk(-1).
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To test the hypothesis that both children and adults would expend more calories and move more while playing activity-promoting video games compared with sedentary video games. In this single-group study, 22 healthy children (12 +/- 2 years; 11 male, 11 female) and 20 adults (34 +/- 11 years; 10 male, 10 female) were recruited. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were resting, standing, watching television seated, sitting and playing a traditional sedentary video game, and while playing an activity-promoting video game (Nintendo Wii Boxing). Physical activity was measured with accelerometers, and energy expenditure was measured with an indirect calorimeter. Energy expenditure was significantly greater than all other activities when children or adults played Nintendo Wii (mean increase over resting, 189 +/- 63 kcal/hr, P < .001, and 148 +/- 71 kcal/hr, P < .001, respectively). When examining movement with accelerometry, children moved significantly more than adults (55 +/- 5 arbitrary acceleration units and 23 +/- 2 arbitrary acceleration units, respectively, P < .001) while playing Nintendo Wii. Activity-promoting video games have the potential to increase movement and energy expenditure in children and adults.
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The original Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) offers a safe preliminary screening of candidates for exercise testing and prescription, but it screens out what seems an excessive proportion of apparently healthy older adults. To reduce unnecessary exclusions, an expert committee established by Fitness Canada has now revised the questionnaire wording. The present study compares responses to the original and the revised PAR-Q questionnaire in 399 men and women attending 40 accredited fitness testing centres across Canada. The number of subjects screened out by the revised test decreased significantly (p < .05), from 68 to 48 of the 399 subjects. The change reflects in part the inclusion of individuals who had made an erroneous positive response to the original question regarding high blood pressure. There is no simple gold standard to provide an objective evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of either questionnaire format, but the revised wording has apparently had the intended effect of reducing positive responses, particularly to the question regarding an elevation of blood pressure.
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We examined the physical activity and other life-style characteristics of 16,936 Harvard alumni, aged 35 to 74, for relations to rates of mortality from all causes and for influences on length of life. A total of 1413 alumni died during 12 to 16 years of follow-up (1962 to 1978). Exercise reported as walking, stair climbing, and sports play related inversely to total mortality, primarily to death due to cardiovascular or respiratory causes. Death rates declined steadily as energy expended on such activity increased from less than 500 to 3500 kcal per week, beyond which rates increased slightly. Rates were one quarter to one third lower among alumni expending 2000 or more kcal during exercise per week than among less active men. With or without consideration of hypertension, cigarette smoking, extremes or gains in body weight, or early parental death, alumni mortality rates were significantly lower among the physically active. Relative risks of death for individuals were highest among cigarette smokers and men with hypertension, and attributable risks in the community were highest among smokers and sedentary men. By the age of 80, the amount of additional life attributable to adequate exercise, as compared with sedentariness, was one to more than two years.
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This study examined the effects of aerobic fitness and exercise history on self-reported affect during and after acute aerobic exercise and quite reading. Active and sedentary participants (N = 41) reported their psychological affect during two separate conditions in a counterbalanced design: (1) exercise on a cycle ergometer at 50% predicted VO2 max, and (2) quiet reading in a reclining chair. Affect was assessed prior to, every 3 minutes during, and at 5 and 20 minutes after each 24-minute exercise and reading period. Analysis revealed that active participants were significantly more positive than the sedentary group during exercise and at 5 minutes postexercise. The groups were similar in affect at 20 minutes postexercise. No between-group differences were found during the reading condition. Exercise enhanced affect compared to reading only for the active group. In addition, the affective responses of both groups were influenced by pre-exercise affect, with the greatest increases observed for those reporting the lowest affect before activity. These results suggest that affective responses during and after aerobic exercise were influenced by exercise history and aerobic fitness, but moderated by pre-activity scores.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of exercise intensity on feeling states following two acute bouts of exercise (i.e., 50% and 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate reserve: HRR) in highly fit and unfit females. It was hypothesized that highly fit females would have increased positive well-being and/or reduced psychological distress post-exercise (high intensity) compared to unfit females while both groups would experience similar feeling states following moderate intensity exercise. Twelve highly fit and 12 unfit females completed 3 conditions: attention control and fitness test, and two acute bouts of exercise (30 minutes on a bicycle ergometer) at 50% and 80% age-predicted HRR. Pre- and post-exercise feeling states were measured via the Subjective Experiences Exercise Scale (McAuley & Courneya, 1994). Analyses indicated a time x condition x fitness interaction F(2,21)=6.07, p<.01 (eta2 =.37) for psychological distress. Follow-up univariate analyses revealed no change in the 50% or control conditions, however, psychological distress significantly increased for the unfit participants F(1,11)=4.68,p<.05 (eta2 =.29) while there was no change for the highly fit participants F(1,11)=2.14,p>.05 (eta2 =.16) in the 80% intensity condition. No fitness differences emerged with respect to positive well-being or fatigue. Therefore, the present study's results substantiate the need to consider fitness level in dose-response studies, particularly ones which examine negative feeling states.
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In 1995 the American College of Sports Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published national guidelines on Physical Activity and Public Health. The Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the American Heart Association endorsed and supported these recommendations. The purpose of the present report is to update and clarify the 1995 recommendations on the types and amounts of physical activity needed by healthy adults to improve and maintain health. Development of this document was by an expert panel of scientists, including physicians, epidemiologists, exercise scientists, and public health specialists. This panel reviewed advances in pertinent physiologic, epidemiologic, and clinical scientific data, including primary research articles and reviews published since the original recommendation was issued in 1995. Issues considered by the panel included new scientific evidence relating physical activity to health, physical activity recommendations by various organizations in the interim, and communications issues. Key points related to updating the physical activity recommendation were outlined and writing groups were formed. A draft manuscript was prepared and circulated for review to the expert panel as well as to outside experts. Comments were integrated into the final recommendation. PRIMARY RECOMMENDATION: To promote and maintain health, all healthy adults aged 18 to 65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic (endurance) physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week. [I (A)] Combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity can be performed to meet this recommendation. [IIa (B)] For example, a person can meet the recommendation by walking briskly for 30 min twice during the week and then jogging for 20 min on two other days. Moderate-intensity aerobic activity, which is generally equivalent to a brisk walk and noticeably accelerates the heart rate, can be accumulated toward the 30-min minimum by performing bouts each lasting 10 or more minutes. [I (B)] Vigorous-intensity activity is exemplified by jogging, and causes rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate. In addition, every adult should perform activities that maintain or increase muscular strength and endurance a minimum of two days each week. [IIa (A)] Because of the dose-response relation between physical activity and health, persons who wish to further improve their personal fitness, reduce their risk for chronic diseases and disabilities or prevent unhealthy weight gain may benefit by exceeding the minimum recommended amounts of physical activity. [I (A)].