Estrogen Regulates JNK1 Genomic Localization to Control Gene Expression and Cell Growth in Breast Cancer Cells
Cecil H. and Ida Green Center for Reproductive Biology Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-8511, USA.Molecular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.02). 03/2012; 26(5):736-47. DOI: 10.1210/me.2011-1158
Steroid hormone and MAPK signaling pathways functionally intersect, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are unclear. Here, we demonstrate a functional convergence of the estrogen and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) signaling pathways at the genomic level in breast cancer cells. We find that JNK1 binds to many promoters across the genome. Although most of the JNK1-binding sites are constitutive, a subset is estrogen regulated (either induced on inhibited). At the estrogen-induced sites, estrogen receptor (ER)α is required for the binding of JNK1 by promoting its recruitment to estrogen response elements or other classes of DNA elements through a tethering mechanism, which in some cases involves activating protein-1. At estrogen-regulated promoters, JNK1 functions as a transcriptional coregulator of ERα in a manner that is dependent on its kinase activity. The convergence of ERα and JNK1 at target gene promoters regulates estrogen-dependent gene expression outcomes, as well as downstream estrogen-dependent cell growth responses. Analysis of existing gene expression profiles from breast cancer biopsies suggests a role for functional interplay between ERα and JNK1 in the progression and clinical outcome of breast cancers.
Article: Chromatin-tethered MAPKs[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of protein kinases that are essential nodes in many cellular regulatory circuits including those that take place on DNA. Most members of the four MAPK subgroups that exist in canonical three kinase cascades-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), ERK5, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1-3), and p38 (α, β, γ, and δ) families-have been shown to perform regulatory functions on chromatin. This review offers a brief update on the variety of processes that involve MAPKs and available mechanisms garnered in the last two years.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ERα17p is a peptide corresponding to the sequence P295LMIKRSKKNSLALSLT311 of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and initially found to interfere with ERα-related calmodulin binding. ERα17p was subsequently found to elicit estrogenic responses in E2-deprived ERα-positive breast cancer cells, increasing proliferation and ERE-dependent gene transcription. Surprisingly, in E2-supplemented media, ERα17p-induced apoptosis and modified the actin network, influencing cell motility. Here, we report that ERα17p internalizes in breast cancer cells (T47D, MDA-MB-231, SKBR3) and induces a massive early (3 h) transcriptional activity. Remarkably, about 75% of significantly modified transcripts were also modified by E2, confirming the pro-estrogenic profile of ERα17p. The different ER spectra of the used cell lines allowed us to identify a specific ERα17p signature related to ERα as well as its variant ERα36. With respect to ERα, the peptide activates nuclear (cell cycle, cell proliferation, nucleic acid and protein synthesis) and extranuclear signaling pathways. In contrast, through ERα36, it mainly triggers inhibitory actions on inflammation. This is the first work reporting a detailed ERα36-specific transcriptional signature. In addition, we report that ERα17p-induced transcripts related to apoptosis and actin modifying effects of the peptide are independent from its estrogen receptor(s)-related actions. We discuss our findings in view of the potential use of ERα17p as a selective peptidomimetic estrogen receptor modulator (PERM).
Article: Network motifs in JNK signaling[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple growth factors and extracellular signals can lead to activation of the c-Jun amino N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway. Activation of JNK can in turn lead to a multitude of downstream changes in phosphorylation and transcriptional activation within the cell. Mapping the upstream and downstream connectivity within the JNK network reveals an enrichment of bi-fan and feed-forward network motifs formed immediately upstream and downstream of JNK. In addition, negative feedback loops also exist through transcriptional activation of phosphatases that target the JNK pathway. The combinations of these motifs allow flexibility and tunability in signal integration and processing within the JNK network and may confer the wide range of biological responses that can be regulated by JNK activation. In this review, we highlight the pathways and motifs leading to JNK activation and its downstream signaling as well as the complexity in isoforms within this network.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.