Drinking water is a significant predictor of Blastocystis infection among rural Malaysian primary schoolchildren

Article (PDF Available)inParasitology 139(8):1014-20 · March 2012with66 Reads
DOI: 10.1017/S0031182012000340 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Blastocystis infection has a worldwide distribution especially among the disadvantaged population and immunocompromised subjects. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the association of Blastocystis infection with the socio-economic characteristics among 300 primary schoolchildren, living in rural communities in Lipis and Raub districts of Pahang state, Malaysia. Stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of Blastocystis using direct smear microscopy after in vitro cultivation in Jones' medium. The overall prevalence of Blastocystis infection was found to be as high as 25·7%. The prevalence was significantly higher among children with gastrointestinal symptoms as compared to asymptomatic children (x2 =4·246; P=0·039). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that absence of a piped water supply (OR=3·13; 95% CI=1·78, 5·46; P<0·001) and low levels of mothers’ education (OR=3·41; 95% CI=1·62, 7·18; P<0·01) were the significant predictors of Blastocystis infection. In conclusion, Blastocystis is prevalent among rural children and the important factors that determine the infection were the sources of drinking water and mothers' educational level. Interventions with provision of clean water supply and health education especially to mothers are required.

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    • "[41] and Blastocystis sp. [32, 34] infections among individuals who used unsafe sources for drinking water. Orang Asli prefer to live close to water streams and use water from these streams for most of their daily activities, including swimming, cooking, drinking, bathing and washing. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still major health problems in many developing countries including Malaysia, particularly in the poor and socioeconomically deprived rural and remote communities in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs and to identify the key factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism as well as to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on IPIs among rural Orang Asli and Malay communities in Terengganu, Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 340 participants (165 Orang Asli and 175 Malay) aged ≤ 15 years from the Hulu Terengganu and Kemaman districts of Terengganu. Faecal samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, in vitro cultivation in Jones' medium, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information of the participants and their KAP for IPIs were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results: Overall, 149 (90.3 %) Orang Asli and 43 (24.6 %) Malay children were infected by at least one parasite species. The overall prevalences of intestinal polyparasitism among the Orang Asli and Malay were 68.5 % (113/165) and 14.3 % (25/175), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, the presence of domestic animals, not wearing shoes when outside, not washing vegetables before consumption, not washing hands after playing with soil, indiscriminate defecation and the low level of mother's education were the key risk factors for intestinal polyparasitism among the Orang Asli, while working mothers and the presence of domestic animals were the risk factors among the Malay children. Almost all the Malays were well aware about the IPIs while Orang Asli respondents had a poor level of related awareness. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that IPIs are highly prevalent in rural Terengganu, Malaysia. Community awareness about IPIs was found to be imperative in protecting Malay children from these infections. An integrated control programme for the prevention and control of IPIs is highly recommended for these communities, with a special emphasis on the Orang Asli population.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "[41] and Blastocystis sp. [32, 34] infections among individuals who used unsafe sources for drinking water. Orang Asli prefer to live close to water streams and use water from these streams for most of their daily activities, including swimming, cooking, drinking, bathing and washing. "
    File · Data · Nov 2016 · Parasites & Vectors
    • "[41] and Blastocystis sp. [32, 34] infections among individuals who used unsafe sources for drinking water. Orang Asli prefer to live close to water streams and use water from these streams for most of their daily activities, including swimming, cooking, drinking, bathing and washing. "
    File · Data · Nov 2016 · Parasites & Vectors
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