Estimating Rates of Carriage Acquisition and Clearance and Competitive Ability for Pneumococcal Serotypes in Kenya With a Markov Transition Model

Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (Impact Factor: 6.2). 03/2012; 23(4):510-9. DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31824f2f32
Source: PubMed


There are more than 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, with varying biologic and epidemiologic properties. Animal studies suggest that carriage induces an acquired immune response that reduces duration of colonization in a nonserotype-specific fashion.
We studied pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage longitudinally in Kenyan children 3-59 months of age, following up positive swabs at days 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 and then monthly thereafter until 2 swabs were negative for the original serotype. As previously reported, 1868/2840 (66%) of children swabbed at baseline were positive. We estimated acquisition, clearance, and competition parameters for 27 serotypes using a Markov transition model.
Point estimates of type-specific acquisition rates ranged from 0.00025/d (type 1) to 0.0031/d (type 19F). Point estimates of time to clearance (inverse of type-specific immune clearance rate) ranged from 28 days (type 20) to 124 days (type 6A). For the serotype most resistant to competition (type 19F), acquisition of other serotypes was 52% less likely (95% confidence interval = 37%-63%) than in an uncolonized host. Fitness components (carriage duration, acquisition rate, lack of susceptibility to competition) were positively correlated with each other and with baseline prevalence, and were associated with biologic properties previously shown to associate with serotype. Duration of carriage declined with age for most serotypes.
Common S. pneumoniae serotypes appear superior in many dimensions of fitness. Differences in rate of immune clearance are attenuated as children age and become capable of more rapid clearance of the longest-lived serotypes. These findings provide information for comparison after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

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Available from: J Anthony Gerard Scott, Jun 28, 2015
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    • "Serotype non-specific immunity in the simulation model acts to reduce the window of opportunity for other serotypes to colonize the host and hence reduces acquisition rates. This mechanism is supported by various studies [23,27,40]. Non-specific immunity and hence competition between the serotypes could also act through increased clearance rates. "
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    ABSTRACT: More than 90 capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae coexist despite competing for nasopharyngeal carriage and a gradient in fitness. The underlying mechanisms for this are poorly understood and make assessment of the likely population impact of vaccination challenging. We use an individual-based simulation model to generalize widely used deterministic models for pneumococcal competition and show that in these models short-term serotype-specific and serotype non-specific immunity could constitute the mechanism governing between-host competition and coexistence. We find that non-specific immunity induces between-host competition and that serotype-specific immunity limits a type's competitive advantage and allows stable coexistence of multiple serotypes. Serotypes carried at low prevalence show high variance in carriage levels, which would result in apparent outbreaks if they were highly pathogenic. Vaccination against few serotypes can lead to elimination of the vaccine types and induces replacement by others. However, in simulations where the elimination of the targeted types is achieved only by a combination of vaccine effects and the competitive pressure of the non-vaccine types, a universal vaccine with similar-type-specific effectiveness can fail to eliminate pneumococcal carriage and offers limited herd immunity. Hence, if vaccine effects are insufficient to control the majority of serotypes at the same time, then exploiting the competitive pressure by selective vaccination can help control the most pathogenic serotypes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
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    • "Serotype specificities in transmission and competition parameters are subject to ongoing research and debate [7,9,11,12]. Cauchemez et al. [11] concluded that there were no significant differences in rates of acquisition and clearance between vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes within school classes in France. "
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "Based on published estimates, R0 for EV71 are assumed to be 4.0 with the range from 1.4 to 6.5 for both VT and NVT [18], [19]. As for pneumococcus, R0 is estimated from longitudinal observation of incidence and remission [13] and are assumed to be 1.3 (range 0.9–1.4) and 1.2 (1.0–1.6) for VT and NVT, respectively. Regarding the vaccination coverage, c, we assume c = 0.5 for EV71 and c = 0.2 for pneumococcus, because theoretically, VT would be eliminated with higher coverage before observing the endemic steady state. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many novel vaccines can cover only a fraction of all antigenic types of a pathogen. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the presence of interactions between vaccine strains and others is complicated by the interacting transmission dynamics among all strains. The present study investigated how the VE estimates measured in the field, based on estimated odds ratio or relative risks, are scaled by vaccination coverage and the transmission dynamics in the presence of cross-protective immunity between two strains, i.e. vaccine and non-vaccine strains. Two different types of epidemiological models, i.e. with and without re-infection by the same antigenic type, were investigated. We computed the relative risk of infection and the odds ratio of vaccination, the latter of which has been measured by indirect cohort method as applied to vaccine effectiveness study of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The VE based on the relative risk was less sensitive to epidemiological dynamics such as cross-protective immunity and vaccination coverage than the VE calculated from the odds ratio, and this was especially the case for the model without re-infection. Vaccine-induced (cross-protective) immunity against a non-vaccine strain appeared to yield the highest impact on the VE estimate calculated from the odds ratio of vaccination. It is essential to understand the transmission dynamics of non-vaccine strains so that epidemiological methods can appropriately measure both the direct and indirect population impact of vaccination. For pathogens with interacting antigenic types, the most valid estimates of VE, that are unlikely to be biased by the transmission dynamics, may be obtained from longitudinal prospective studies that permit estimation of the VE based on the relative risk of infection among vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · PLoS ONE
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