Blimp1 Activation by AP-1 in Human Lung Cancer Cells Promotes a Migratory Phenotype and Is Inhibited by the Lysyl Oxidase Propeptide

Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 03/2012; 7(3):e33287. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033287
Source: PubMed


B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) is a master regulator of B cell differentiation, and controls migration of primordial germ cells. Recently we observed aberrant Blimp1 expression in breast cancer cells resulting from an NF-κB RelB to Ras signaling pathway. In order to address the question of whether the unexpected expression of Blimp1 is seen in other epithelial-derived tumors, we selected lung cancers as they are frequently driven by Ras signaling. Blimp1 was detected in all five lung cancer cell lines examined and shown to promote lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Interrogation of microarray datasets demonstrated elevated BLIMP1 RNA expression in lung adenocarcinoma, pancreatic ductal carcinomas, head and neck tumors as well as in glioblastomas. Involvement of Ras and its downstream kinase c-Raf was confirmed using mutant and siRNA strategies. We next addressed the issue of mechanism of Blimp1 activation in lung cancer. Using knockdown and ectopic expression, the role of the Activator Protein (AP)-1 family of transcription factors was demonstrated. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed binding to identified AP-1 elements in the BLIMP1 promoter of ectopically expressed c-Jun and of endogenous AP-1 subunits following serum stimulation. The propeptide domain of lysyl oxidase (LOX-PP) was identified as a tumor suppressor, with ability to reduce Ras signaling in lung cancer cells. LOX-PP reduced expression of Blimp1 by binding to c-Raf and inhibiting activation of AP-1, thereby attenuating the migratory phenotype of lung cancer cells. Thus, Blimp1 is a mediator of Ras/Raf/AP-1 signaling that promotes cell migration, and is repressed by LOX-PP in lung cancer.

Download full-text


Available from: Ziyang Yu
  • Source
    • "Human breast, prostate and oral cancer cell lines and phenotypically normal osteoblasts are among the cell lines in which rLOX-PP has been shown to be biologically active (Bais et al., 2015b; Palamakumbura et al., 2009; Sanchez-Morgan et al., 2011; Sato et al., 2013; Vora et al., 2010b; Yu et al., 2012; Zhao et al., 2009). We, therefore evaluated uptake of rLOX-PP into cells representing this variety of cells. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The lysyl oxidase propeptide (LOX-PP) is derived from pro-lysyl oxidase (Pro-LOX) by extracellular biosynthetic proteolysis. LOX-PP inhibits breast and prostate cancer xenograft tumor growth and has tumor suppressor activity. Although, several intracellular targets and molecular mechanisms of action of LOX-PP have been identified, LOX-PP uptake pathways have not been reported. Here we demonstrate that the major uptake pathway for recombinant LOX-PP (rLOX-PP) is PI3K-dependent macropinocytosis in PWR-1E, PC3, SCC9, MDA-MB-231 cell lines. A secondary pathway appears to be dynamin- and caveola dependent. The ionic properties of highly basic rLOX-PP provide buffering capacity at both high and low pHs. We suggest that the buffering capacity of rLOX-PP, which serves to limit endosomal acidification, sustains PI3K-dependent macropinocytosis in endosomes which in turn is likely to facilitate LOX-PP endosomal escape into the cytoplasm and its observed interactions with cytoplasmic targets and nuclear uptake. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Molecular Oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Megakaryocytes (MKs), the platelet precursors, undergo an endomitotic cell cycle that leads to polyploidy. Lysyl oxidase propeptide (LOX-PP) is generated from lysyl oxidase (LOX) pro-enzyme after proteolytical cleavage. We recently reported that LOX, a known matrix cross-linking enzyme, contributes to MK lineage expansion. In addition, LOX expression levels are ploidy-dependent, with polyploidy MKs having minimal levels. This led us to test the effects of LOX-PP on the number and ploidy of primary MKs. LOX-PP significantly decreases mouse bone marrow MK ploidy coupled with a reduction in MK size. MK number is unchanged upon LOX-PP treatment. Analysis of LOX-PP- or vehicle-treated MKs by western blotting revealed a reduction in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and in the levels of its downstream targets, cyclin D3 and cyclin E, which are known to play a central role in MK endomitosis. Pull-down assays and immunochemistry staining indicated that LOX-PP interacts with α-tubulin and the mictotubules, which can contribute to decreased MK ploidy. Thus, our findings defined a role for LOX-PP in reducing MK ploidy. This suggests that high-level expression of LOX in aberrantly proliferating MKs could play a part in inhibiting their polyploidization via LOX-PP.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our previous study has demonstrated that tissue factor-factor VIIa (TF/FVIIa) complex promotes the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cell line SW620 through the activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). In the current study, the underlying molecular mechanisms of TF/FVIIa/PAR2 signaling in SW620 cells were further explored, with the focus on the role of activator protein-1 (AP-1) subunit c-Jun. The results revealed that PAR2-AP and FVIIa could upregulate c-Jun expression and c-Jun phosphorylation in SW620 cells in a time-dependent manner. The effect of FVIIa was significantly blocked by anti-TF and anti-PAR2 antibodies. Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) inhibitor safingol and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor U0126 abrogated the activation of c-Jun. In contrast, Ca(2+) chelators EGTA and thapsigargin, and p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 had no effect. Suppression of c-Jun/AP-1 activation using a natural inhibitor curcumin decreased the expression of caspase-3, MMP-9, and TF, as well as the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells induced by PAR2-AP or FVIIa. Collectively, our findings suggest that c-Jun/AP-1 activation is required for TF/FVIIa/PAR2-induced SW620 cell proliferation and migration. PKCα and ERK1/2 are located upstream of c-Jun/AP-1 in this signaling pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of this pathway might be a novel strategy for colon cancer therapy.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Tumor Biology
Show more