Measuring nonpolar organic contaminant partitioning in three Norwegian sediments using polyethylene passive samplers
Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo Centre for Interdisciplinary Environmental and Social Research, Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway. Science of The Total Environment
(Impact Factor: 4.1).
03/2012; 423:125-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.027
Freely dissolved pore water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB and HCB), octachlorostyrene (OCS), p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were measured in bottom sediments from three sites in Norway. Sediments were from Aker Brygge, site of a former shipyard in the inner part of Oslofjord, Frierfjord in the Grenlandsfjord area, impacted during the 50 year-long activity of a magnesium smelter plant, and from Kristiansand harbour, site with high industrial activity. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) membrane samplers were exposed to these sediments in laboratory incubation under constant and low-level agitation for periods of 1, 2, 6, 13, 23 and 50 days. Freely dissolved pore water concentrations were estimated from contaminant masses accumulated and sampling rates obtained from the measurement of kinetics of dissipation of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Marked differences in freely dissolved PAH concentrations and resulting organic carbon-normalised sediment-pore water partition coefficients, logK(TOC), between these three sediments could be observed despite the generally similar total sediment concentrations. In contrast with the PAH data, partitioning of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds (OCs) was relatively similar in all three sediments. For sediments from Frierfjord and Kristiansand, logK(TOC) values were lower for PCBs/OCs than for PAHs, indicating higher availability. Similar partitioning of PAHs and PCBs/OCs was found for sediments from Aker Brygge. No simple logK(oc)-logK(ow) relationships could model these data successfully. These results support the notion that the assessment of the risk posed by these compounds present in sediments in most cases requires actual measurement of contaminant availability.
Available from: Daria Pasalic
- "Air streaming can extend PAHs to large distances and subsequently return them to the soil through precipitation. In the soil, we find them bound to bigger particles, from where some evaporate in the air, while others penetrate into deeper layers contaminating underground water (5). The general population is exposed to PAHs from the environment through small-sized respirable particles, water and food, as well as from the occupational environment (6). "
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ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most prevalent environmental pollutants and result from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (coal and gasoline, fossil fuel combustion, byproducts of industrial processing, natural emission, cigarette smoking, etc.). The first phase of xenobiotic biotransformation in the PAH metabolism includes activities of cytochrome P450 from the CYP1 family and microsomal epoxide hydrolase. The products of this biotransformation are reactive oxygen species that are transformed in the second phase through the formation of conjugates with glutathione, glucuronate or sulphates. PAH exposure may lead to PAH-DNA adduct formation or induce an inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. Several genetic polymorphisms of genes encoded for enzymes involved in PAH biotransformation have been proven to lead to the development of diseases. Enzyme CYP P450 1A1, which is encoded by the CYP1A1 gene, is vital in the monooxygenation of lipofilic substrates, while GSTM1 and GSTT1 are the most abundant isophorms that conjugate and neutralize oxygen products. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 gene as well as the deletion polymorphisms of GSTT1 and GSTM1 may alter the final specific cellular inflammatory respond. Occupational exposure or conditions from the living environment can contribute to the production of PAH metabolites with adverse effects on human health. The aim of this study was to obtain data on biotransformation and atherosclerosis, as well as data on the gene polymorphisms involved in biotransformation, in order to better study gene expression and further elucidate the interaction between genes and the environment.
- "Most of the contaminants (92% and 96% of PAHs and PCBs, respectively) had reached the equilibrium state after 46 days. Similar uptake curves have been previously reported by various authors (Booij et al., 2003; Allan et al., 2012; Smedes et al., 2013). After 46 days, the highest accumulated amounts of PAHs were found in LDPE membranes exposed to Lens sediment, whereas the lowest were for the Evry sediment. "
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ABSTRACT: Dredged contaminated sediments are considered as waste. Traditional solutions to the management of these sediments are dumping at sea, disposal to landfills or use as public work materials (back-filling, noise protection slope, landscape mound). To assess its potential impacts on human health and the environment, dredged material must be characterized, particularly with respect to the emission of persistent organic pollutants in percolating water. Some questions arise concerning the effect of disposal duration on the fate and bioavailability of persistent organic contaminants. Our study aims to determine the availability of persistent organic contaminants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs and 40 polychlorinated biphenyls -PCBs) in 3 fresh or matured (1.5 year) dredged sediments. Sediments were characterized in terms of texture, organic carbon content, black carbon content and oil content. The free dissolved concentration of contaminants in pore water was determined by passive samplers with low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The ratio of the total concentration (determined by classical solvent extraction) with the free dissolved concentration gives the sediment-water partition coefficient (Kd) of these contaminants in fresh or matured sediment. Apparently, higher partition coefficients are observed for matured sediments. A similar conclusion emergr from complementary tests (Tenax desorption and standard percolation test) carried on fresh and matured sediments. Oxydation phenomenon of minerals, inclusion into nanopores, enhancement of weathering degree of oil and ageing phenomenon (incorporation into organic carbon matrix) could explain the higher partition coefficient for matured sediments. The suitability of LDPE passive samplers to assess the difference in sorption capacity of fresh and matured sediment will be presented.
Available from: Pierre Hennebert
- "The exchange rate constants for the added PRCs are in agreement with the values of the exchange rate constants observed for the native contaminants . Similar results were obtained by Booij et al. (2003) and Allan et al. (2012) with LDPE strips exposed to harbors contaminated sediment. The slight difference observed for sorption equilibrium between both contaminant families could be explained, for identical logK ow , by higher exchange rate constant values for PCBs (Figure 2). "
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