Osteogenesis Imperfecta

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Source: PubMed
In book: GeneReviews™, Publisher: University of Washington, Seattle, Editors: Roberta A Pagon, Thomas D Bird, Cynthia R Dolan, Karen Stephens, Margaret P Adam
Abstract
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of disorders characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal stature, and normal lifespan. Fractures can occur in any bone, but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by grey or brown teeth that may appear translucent and wear down and break easily. Before the molecular basis of OI was understood, OI was classified into four types on the basis of mode of inheritance, clinical presentation, and radiographic findings. With detailed radiographic and bone morphologic studies and molecular genetic analyses, the classification has expanded to seven types and it is likely that more will emerge. This classification into types of OI is helpful in providing information about prognosis and management, but it should be remembered that many of the types of OI represent an artificial construct on a broad clinical entity. The clinical diagnosis of OI is based on family history, a history of fractures, characteristic physical findings including scleral hue, and radiographic findings. Radiographic findings include fractures of varying ages and stages of healing, wormian bones, "codfish" vertebrae, and osteopenia. Analysis of bone biopsies is an adjunct to the diagnosis of OI type V and OI type VI. Biochemical testing (i.e., analysis of the structure and quantity of type I collagen synthesized in vitro by cultured dermal fibroblasts) detects abnormalities in 98% of individuals with OI type II, about 90% with OI type I, about 84% with OI type IV, and about 84% with OI type III. About 90% of individuals with OI types I, II, III, and IV (but none with OI types V, VI and VII) have an identifiable mutation in either COL1A1 or COL1A2. Such testing is clinically available. Osteogenesis imperfecta types I-V are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. OI type VII is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and the mode of inheritance of OI type VI is not yet certain. For types I-IV, the proportion of cases caused by a de novo mutation in either COL1A1 or COL1A2 varies by the severity of disease. Approximately 60% of individuals with mild OI have de novo mutations; virtually 100% of individuals with lethal (type II) OI or with severe (type III) OI have a de novo mutation. Each child of an individual with a dominantly inherited form of OI has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation and of developing some manifestations of OI. Prenatal testing in at-risk pregnancies can be performed by analysis of collagen synthesized by fetal cells obtained by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at about ten to 12 weeks' gestation if an abnormality of collagen has been identified in cultured cells from the proband. Biochemical analysis of collagen from amniocytes is not useful because amniocytes do not produce type I collagen. Prenatal testing in high-risk pregnancies can be performed by molecular genetic testing of COL1A1 and COL1A2 if the mutation has been identified in an affected relative. Prenatal ultrasound examination performed in a center with experience in diagnosing OI, and done at the appropriate gestational age, can be valuable in the prenatal diagnosis of the lethal form and most severe forms of OI prior to 20 weeks' gestation; fetuses affected with milder forms may be detected later in pregnancy when fractures or deformities occur.
    • "It was proposed that in the pathogenesis of OI type 1, the hearing impairment, easy bruising and possibly the marked joint hypermobility would be best explained by secondary dysregulation of connective tissue composition. There is further evidence that the high prevalence of premature termination/nonsense/splicing mutations which cause the OI type 1 phenotype are associated with alterations in matrix composition [Byers and Cole, 2002]. Dentinogenesis imperfecta. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the genetic heterogeneity in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), proposed in 1979 by Sillence et al., has been confirmed with molecular genetic studies. At present, 17 genetic causes of OI and closely related disorders have been identified and it is expected that more will follow. Unlike most reviews that have been published in the last decade on the genetic causes and biochemical processes leading to OI, this review focuses on the clinical classification of OI and elaborates on the newly proposed OI classification from 2010, which returned to a descriptive and numerical grouping of five OI syndromic groups. The new OI nomenclature and the pre-and postnatal severity assessment introduced in this review, emphasize the importance of phenotyping in order to diagnose, classify, and assess severity of OI. This will provide patients and their families with insight into the probable course of the disorder and it will allow physicians to evaluate the effect of therapy. A careful clinical description in combination with knowledge of the specific molecular genetic cause is the starting point for development and assessment of therapy in patients with heritable disorders including OI. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution–NonCommercial–NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
    • "OI also presents with features like skin and joint laxity but may not be pathognomic [2]. The basic pathophysiology for OI is the mutation in the gene coding for type I collagen [3]. The most widely accepted classification was proposed by Sillence et al. in 1979 [4]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disorder characterized by increased tendency for bone fractures due to high fragility. The clinical and radiological features of OI manifest in different age groups, although the disease is congenital in nature. Besides bone fragility, features like laxity of the ligaments, blue sclera, growth retardation, and scoliosis are also observed. In severe cases, respiratory distress and death have been reported. The most important oral finding in OI is the presence of yellowish-brown-coloured brittle teeth characteristic of dentinogenesis imperfecta. Genetic factors play a very important role in the pathogenesis of OI either as a dominant or recessive factor. When a child has OI, there is a 25% chance of the sibling to have the same disorder. We report two cases of OI in siblings born to parents with a history of consanguineous marriage. The clinical and radiological features of the two cases are described in detail.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011
    • "The COLIA 1 polymorphism has been associated with reduced BMD in postmenopausal osteoporosis, and predisposes women to osteoporotic fractures (Uitterlinden et al, 2001). The genes encoding collagen types Ia1 and Ia2 (COLIA 1 and COLIA 2 respectively) are also important candidates for the genetic regulation of BMD, as mutations that affect the coding regimens of these genes are implicated in the pathogenesis of osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoarthritis (Byers & Steiner, 1992; Uitterlinden et al, 2000). The study of the COLIA 1 polymorphism may help to identify those thalassaemia patients who are at a higher risk to develop osteoporosis and pathologic fractures (Perrotta et al, 2000 1 ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis represents an important cause of morbidity in adult patients with thalassaemia major (TM). The pathogenesis of osteoporosis in TM is multifactorial, and includes bone marrow expansion, endocrine dysfunction and iron overload. Additional genetic factors, such as the COLIA 1 gene polymorphism, seem to play an important role in the development of low bone mass in these patients. However, the mechanisms through which these factors lead to bone loss have not been completely clarified. The diminished osteoblast function is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in osteoclast activity. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway has been recently recognized as the final, dominant mediator of osteoclast proliferation and activation. There is increased evidence that this pathway interferes in the pathogenesis of thalassaemia-induced osteoporosis. Currently, bisphosphonates that are potent inhibitors of osteoclast function have been used in TM patients with encouraging results. This review attempts to summarize all the novel data for the biology of bone damage in TM. It also describes the results of all major studies that have investigated the effects of different treatment modalities for TM-induced osteoporosis, their mode of action, and the future implications of their use.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2004
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