Herbal Remedies And Their Adverse Effects In Tem Tribe Traditional Medicine In Togo

Centre de Formation et de Recherche sur les Plantes Médicinales (CERFOPLAM), Université de Lomé, Lomé, Togo.
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines (Impact Factor: 0.56). 01/2011; 8(1):45-60. DOI: 10.4314/ajtcam.v8i1.60522
Source: PubMed


In Africa, up to 80% of the population relies on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care. In Togo, western Africa, Tem tribe is a population with old knowledge of medicinal plants, however, still very little is known about their medical practices. The present study was conducted to access for the apprehension of adverse effects of traditional remedies by Tem traditional healers (TH). Enquiry was performed by interviews with healers from August to October 2007 in Tchaoudjo prefecture (Togo). The study allowed us to interview 54 TH including 41(75.93%) males and 13(24.07%) females, who cited 102 recipes assumed to have adverse effects. The recipes were used alone to cure several diseases including haemorrhoids (22.55%), female sexual disorders and infertility (21.57%), gastrointestinal disorders (18.63%), and malaria (6.86%). A total of 34 plants belonging to 21 families were cited to be components of the recipes. Euphorbiaceae and Mimosaceae families were the most represented, however, Nauclea latifolia, Khaya senegalensis, Pseudocedrela kotschyi and Xeroderris stuhlmannii were the main components of recipes linked to adverse effects. A total of 20 adverse effects were linked to the administration of theses drugs, and among them; diarrhoea, abdominal pains, polyuria, general weakness and vomiting were the most frequently encountered. These findings were in accordance with several reports of the literature concerning medicinal plants, although they were based on empirical observations. Laboratory screenings are needed to access for the effectiveness as well as the possible toxic effects of the recipes.

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    • "Today, the Togolese use this rich vegetation for a variety of different purposes, ranging from foodstuff for humans and animal feed, to fertilization in agriculture, ethnic rituals, raw materials for paints, and also as materials in traditional medicine. In fact, Tchacondo et al. (2011) report that 80% of the population rely on medicines from plants for their primary healthcare needs. This is hardly surprising given the high cost of orthodox medicines (Cameron et al., 2009), coupled with the fact that almost two-thirds of the population live in rural areas, and the country consists of 42 different ethnic groups, each with its very own traditions and rituals (Kuevi, 1981; Goeh-Akue and Gayibor, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Many African countries suffer from endemic diseases which are often caused by infections and which seriously affect the social and economic development of these nations. While access to proper medication is still limited, many of these countries are, at the same time, rich in medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: A review of relevant scientific (and grey) literature was carried out and information obtained from local authorities in medicinal plants. A synthesis of the data obtained was thereafter performed and recommendations for the future proposed. Results: Plants such as Cissus aralioides, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piliostigma thonningii, Nauclea latifolia, Ocimum gratissimum and Newbouldia laevis are widely reported to be used in the treatment of endemic diseases in Togo and her neighbouring countries. These plants often contain highly potent chemical compounds, such as quinones, xanthones, tannins and terpenes and therefore may provide an alternative avenue to short-term treatment. A combination of further analysis of plant materials and their active ingredients on the one hand, and modern technology to turn such natural products into commercial equivalents on the other, is required in order to identify the targets and modes of action of these natural materials, unlock access to them, and ultimately produce valuable medicines and phytoprotectants based on locally grown plant materials. Conclusion: The production of plant-derived products, as advocated in this paper, is in line with the WHO’s traditional medicine strategy 2014-2023, and will eventually yield a sustainable health-and-wealth generating cycle that will benefit countries in the region, economically and ecologically. Key words: Togo, redox active secondary metabolites, phytochemicals, antimalarial activity, antidiarrheal activity, tropical diseases
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
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    • "The majority of the Togolese people living in the rural areas traditionally use plants for food and medicine. As in the other African countries, in recent years, the plants used traditionally for therapeutic purposes have attracted the attention of researchers (Karou et al., 2003, 2005, 2006; Koudouvo et al., 2011; Tchacondo et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Les plantes constituent une grande source de principes actifs qui peuvent être utilisés pour traiter de nombreuses maladies, dont le diabète. L'objectif de cette étude était de recenser les plantes utilisées en médecine traditionnelle pour traiter le diabète dans la région Maritime du Togo. Méthodes De janvier 2013 à juin 2014, une enquête ethnobotanique a été réalisée auprès de 164 guérisseurs traditionnels dans la région Maritime par des interviews directes à l'aide d'un questionnaire semi structuré. Résultats Les données recueillies ont permis d'identifier 112 espèces végétales appartenant à 51 familles. Les familles les plus représentées ont été les Caesalpiniaceae / Fabaceae avec 9 espèces, suivie des Euphorbiaceae et des Compositae avec 8 espèces chacune. Les espèces les plus citées ont été Allium sativum, Alium cepa, Guilandina bonduc, Moringa oleifera et de Picralima nitida qui ont eu une valeur usuelle de 0,05. En termes de recettes, 132 recettes sont préparées à partir des 112 espèces de plantes. Les recettes à plantes uniques ont été au nombre de 78, tandis que 54 recettes sont obtenues par des associations de plantes. Les parties de plantes les plus utilisées ont été les feuilles suivies par les racines. La principale méthode de préparation reste la décoction. Conclusion La région maritime du Togo dispose d'une biodiversité floristique importante en matière de plantes antidiabétiques. Ces résultats constituent une bonne base de données pour le criblage biologique dans la recherche de molécules antidiabétiques à base des plantes.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Pan African Medical Journal
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    • "Nauclea latifolia belongs to Rubiaceae family and is a small tree found in tropical areas in Africa. It is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria, epilepsy, anxiety, pain, fever [5,6]. Moreover, root stem of this plant is traditionally and empirically used by diabetic patients in Benin to manage their glycemia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Populations in Africa mostly rely on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care, but so far scientific studies supporting the use of plants in traditional medicine remain poor. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Picralima nitida (seeds), Nauclea latifolia (root and stem) and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (leaves) commonly used, in diabetic pregnancy. Methods Pregnant wistar rats, rendered diabetic by multiple low injections of streptozotocin, were treated with selected plant extracts based on their antioxidant activities. Vitamin C concentrations, fatty acid compositions and phytochemical analysis of plants extracts were determined. Effect of selected plant extracts on human T cell proliferation was also analysed. Results All analysed plant extracts exhibited substantial antioxidant activities probably related to their content in polyphenols. Picralima nitida exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. Ethanolic and butanolic extracts of Picralima nitida, butanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia and ethanolic extract of Oxytenanthera abyssinica significantly decreased hyperglycemia in the diabetic pregnant rats. Butanolic extract of Picralima, also appeared to be the most potent immunosuppressor although all of the analysed extracts exerted an immunosuppressive effect on T cell proliferation probably due to their linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) and/or alkaloids content. Nevertheless, all analysed plants seemed to be good source of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion By having antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic and immunosuppressive activities, these plants could be good candidates in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic pregnancy.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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