Extraction, Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from Plants’ Extracts

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Malaysia.
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines (Impact Factor: 0.56). 01/2011; 8(1):1-10. DOI: 10.4314/ajtcam.v8i1.60483
Source: PubMed


Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.

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Available from: Yeng Chen, Jun 11, 2014
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    • "Plant products continue to be exploited for treating various ailments in developing and developed countries (Smith-Hall et al., 2012; Sasidharan et al., 2011). More than 80% of rural populations in the developing world depend on herbal products as their main source of primary health care (World Health Organization (WHO), 1978). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Plants are important sources of medicines. Herbal medicines in Lesotho are exposed to excessive exploitation and habitat destruction. Comprehensive information to promote proper use and conservation of these herbal medicines is lacking. This study described the uses of medicinal plants in Lesotho with comparative reference between practice and the literature, highlighting important ethno-medicinal information and conservation status of the plants. Additionally, the study established a repository and monograph for the herbal medicines in Lesotho. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plant samples and information on their uses were obtained from herbalists in four districts of Lesotho between January and May 2014 through questionnaire-based interviews. Samples consisted of roots, bark, stems or leaves and/or combinations. Voucher samples were processed into powders, labelled, and stored in a repository. Information on the uses, plant parts used, geographical distribution, known phytochemical components and conservation status of each plant was recorded in a Microsoft Access database. Results: Seventy-eight local herbalists were interviewed and men (about 84%) dominated the practice of traditional medicine. Fifty-four herbal medicine samples were collected and stored in a recently established Lesotho Herbal Medicines Repository (LHMR). The herbal medicines were from 54 medicinal plant species and 46 genera belonging to 29 plant families. Asteraceae (about 20%) was the most common plant family. Overall, 46% (n=54) of the prescriptions by local herbalists were similar to prescriptions in the literature at least in part. However, traditional medicinal uses for 9% of the plant samples could not be confirmed from the literature. Local herbalists use different parts of medicinal plants with roots being the most frequently (57%) used part. Twenty percent of the plants were threatened with extinction while the conservation status of 7% of the plants was undocumented. Conclusion: Training of local herbalists on sustainable harvesting and safe use of medicinal plants is recommended. The repository and monograph is a useful reference and source of herbal medicine samples for researchers, which need to be expanded to include more medicinal plants in Lesotho. Local herbalists in Lesotho have valuable indigenous information on medicinal plants that needs to be documented. Key words: conservation status, herbal medicine, Lesotho, monograph, repository, sustainable use
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
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    • "Herbs are also included in the bitter extracts preparation. Their original pharmaceutical use stimulated also the making of bitter extracts to be used to prepare liquors and elixirs with beneficial effects on human [3] [4] [5] The complexity of the vegetal matrix to extract, often made from a mixture of different parts from several plants causes difficulty to reproduce the same extract due to the natural variability of the constituents of each plant from one year to another. "
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    DESCRIPTION: Bitter liquors and elixirs are usually produced following traditional recipes, in most cases considered secret, that adopts different extraction processes and/or way of preparation. The ethanol as elective extraction solvent allows to obtain in the liquid phase most of the active compounds from different parts of the plants e.g. roots, bark, flowers, etc and the maceration is commonly used as extraction process. In this paper the traditional maceration procedure was compared to an innovative technology of rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE), using the Naviglio Extractor. to obtain alcoholic extract of herbal mixtures.Three different mixtures of various parts of plants were extracted with both methods and results compared. The dry residue was considered as the main parameters to assess the quantity of the active compounds present in the extracts. The obtained data suggested that an high dry residue amount in the extract was correlated to an high concentration of active ingredients. Organoleptic tests performed on bitter liquors obtained from different extracts has been used to determine the optimum extraction time for the two different methods used. The results of this test showed that the bitters produced with RLSDE were more appreciated than bitter prepared by maceration.
    Full-text · Research · Sep 2015
    • "Medicinal plants provide a wide range of active agents for a variety of pathologies [1] [2]. As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), 60% to 80% of the population call for natural medicine in the case of its primary healthcare needs [3].The isoflavone genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) is the aglycone of the heteroside genistin. It can be found mainly in plants of the Fabaceae family being best represented in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seeds [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years polyurethane microstructures (PM) have gained increasing attention in the pharmaceutical field due to the importance of their practical application. Since finding that such a formulation with genistein could improve its applications, we have conducted a preliminary study regarding the in vitro antiproliferative (MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and T47D) and antimicrobial (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis (D), Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, and Candida albicans) activity in order to test whether polyurethane micro structuresre present a good option for further modulation of genistein's bioavailability. It was concluded that the polyurethane micro structures are a bad in vitro partner for the isoflavone genistein.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Natural product communications
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