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Underlying Causes of Paresthesia

Underlying Causes of Paresthesia
Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini1, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar1,2
and Alexander R. Vaccaro3
1Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center,
Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,
2Research Centre for Neural Repair, University of Tehran, Tehran,
3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery,
3Thomas Jefferson University and Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA,
1. Introduction
Sensations from various parts of the body are taken by the peripheral sensory nerves to the
spinal cord. From spinal cord, the signals reach the brain with the help of the trigeminal
nerve and brain stem. Hence, any problem in this pathway may result in paresthesia.
Paresthesia is an abnormal condition which causes an individual to feel a sensation of
burning, numbness, tingling, itching or prickling. It frequently happens in the extremities,
but it can occur in other parts of the body as well.
The purpose of this chapter is to review the causes of paresthesia from studies indexed in
PubMed. We describe the underlying conditions that may cause paresthesia based on two
subdivisions: Transient and Chronic Paresthesias.
2. Causes of transient paresthesia
This paresthesia subtype involves temporary numbness or tingling that disappears quickly
as can occur from sitting with your legs crossed for a long time or sleeping on your arm in a
bent position. This is a very common type of paresthesia.
Obdormition: Obdormition is a numbness caused by prolonged pressure on a nerve,
such as when a leg falls asleep if the legs are crossed for a prolonged period. It
disappears gradually as the pressure is relieved (1).
Whiplash: Paresthesias in the upper extremity may occur after whiplash injury (2), a
type of cervical soft tissue injury (3). Pujol et al showed that 13% of patients with
whiplash had associated paresthesias (4). Recovery usually arises within 6 months after
injury (5).
Hyperventilation syndrome: Paresthesia constitutes 35% of presenting complaints in
patients with hyperventilation syndrome (6) and may begin after as little as three-
minute of hyperventilation (7). After increasing the depth or frequency of respiration,
the alkaline shift produced selectively increases Na+ conductance and ectopic
discharges in normal cutaneous afferent nerves can be induced (8). Other electrolytes,
i.e. magnesium, potassium, chloride, phosphate and bicarbonate, also demonstrated
significant changes in concentration (7).
Panic attack: Paresthesiae of the mouth, hands and feet are common, transient
symptoms of the related conditions of hyperventilation syndrome and panic attacks.
Ietsugu et al demonstrated that paresthesia can be used as a reliable indicator of severe
panic attacks (9).
Transient ischemic attack (TIA): TIA may be manifested by paresthesias. Several
reasons may cause TIA such as thrombosis, embolus, intravascular debris and blood
vessels disruption. Perez et al. reported the initial manifestation of cardiac myxoma
can be paresthesias caused by TIA (10). Post-ischemic paresthesia occurs when hyper
polarization by the Na+/K+ pump is transiently halted by elevated extracellular K+.
The electrochemical gradient for K+ is reversed and inward transport of K+ triggers
regenerative depolarization (8).
Seizures: Paresthesia may happen during and after a partial seizure (11). Treatment of
seizures with vagus nerve stimulation can also trigger paresthesias and is considered an
adverse event associated with this treatment modality (12).
Dehydration: At around 5% to 6% cumulative water loss, paresthesia may occur.
Insufficient blood supply: Circulatory disorders could lead to transient or chronic
Acute arterial occlusion by an embolism or in situ thrombosis is a dramatic event which
produces severe ischemia of distal tissue. The warning signs are the 5 Ps: pallor, pain,
pulselessness, paralysis and paresthesia. In such cases, emergent restoration of blood flow
by surgery may be vital to prevent limb loss (13). Aneurysms and dilated forms of
atherosclerosis can be both the cause of in situ thrombosis as well as the source of an
embolism (14).
In Buerger's disease (thromboangiitis obliterans), an occlusive intraluminal thrombus with a
predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate causes ischemic ulcers, claudication,
paresthesia and pain at rest (15, 16).
Raynaud's syndrome describes a condition characterized by the sensation of coldness,
burning pain or numbness in the fingers or toes. This syndrome occurs when the blood
vessels in the fingers or toes spasm, restricting the flow of blood. Some causative factors can
activate Raynaud's syndrome including contact to cold and emotional stress (17, 18).
Apheresis: Because of improvements in technique and instrumentation used for
apheresis, symptoms of mild ionized hypocalcemia, such as paresthesias or
lightheadedness, are increasingly easily manageable and quickly reversible with flow-
rate adjustments. Puig et al. reported a 2.27 percent incidence of paresthesia in
therapeutic apheresis (19).
Beta-alanine ingestion: Beta-alanine supplementation is used as a nutritional strategy to
improve high-intensity anaerobic performance (20). Paresthesia may be observed if a
single dose higher than 800 mg is ingested but is transient and abates as plasma
concentration declines. This side effect can be prevented by using controlled release
capsules and smaller dosing strategies (21).
Underlying Causes of Paresthesia
3. Causes of chronic paresthesia
Chronic paresthesia or intermittent paresthesia over a long period of time is generally a sign
of neurological disease or traumatic nerve damage. Paresthesia usually arises from nerve
damage due to infection, inflammation, trauma, or other abnormal process. Paresthesia is
rarely due to life-threatening disorders, but it can occur as a result of stroke and tumors.
Whereas paresthesia is a loss of sensation, paralysis usually involves both a loss of
movement and sensation.
Nervous System Disorders
Paresthesias are common manifestations of central and peripheral pathological processes
and are due to ectopic impulse activity in cutaneous afferents or their central projections (8).
Central nervous system etiologies
In the central nervous system, the most common etiologies of paresthesia include
ischemia, compressive phenomena, infection, inflammation, and degenerative
conditions (22).
Stroke: Paresthesia and sensory deficits are considered as signs of stroke (23). In
unusual cases, mandibular or ear paresthesia may be the only presenting
symptom of a cerebrovascular accident (24). A persistent unpleasant numbness
after a cerebrovascular accident can result from central poststroke paresthesia (25).
Paresthesia may be caused by selective lacunar infarcts in the diencephalic and
mesencephalic regions or in the diaschisis in the parietal cortex. Chang and
Huang reported a patient who presented with unilateral paresthesia after acute
isolated infarct of the splenium (26). Kim reported that paresthesia or pain
occurred between 0 to 24 months after lenticulocapsular hemorrhage, more
prominently in the leg than other body parts (27). In another case report, a
thalamic lacunar infarct led to sudden isolated left-sided paresthesia involving
the face, upper and lower limbs (28). Cheiro-oral syndrome is characterized by
paresthesia and sensory impairment confined to the perioral region and
ipsilateral fingers or hand, and arises from small stroke-related lesions to
various sites between the medulla and cortex (29).
Intra-cerebral hemorrhage: Paresthesia is a symptom of acute intra-cerebral
hematoma (30). Epidural or subdural hematoma or subarachnoid hemorrhage
should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis for acute paresthesia
and extremity weakness (31-33). Kishida et al. reported that a small hematoma
localized in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus caused paresthesia limited to
the forearm and the palm (34).
Brain tumor: A sudden numbness especially when accompanied by headache,
nausea or vomiting, double vision, or weakness could suggest a possible brain
tumor or metastasis (35). Cavernous angioma which typically presents with
neurological deficits, low back pain and sciatica or as a subarachnoid
hemorrhage could be a cause of paresthesia (36). A small round tumor of the
somatosensory cortex may present with radicular hand pain and paresthesia
(37). Trigeminal sensory neuropathy presents with anesthesia and paresthesia
of the orofacial region may herald underlying malignancy (38). Syringomyelia,
which is generally related to congenital malformations and tumors, may lead
to paresthesia (39).
Head trauma: Brain injury patients report high rates of complaints generally
recognized as being associated with neuropsychological impairment such as
paresthesia (40). Trigeminal trophic syndrome is an unusual complication after
peripheral or central damage to the trigeminal nerve, characterized by
anesthesia, paresthesias, and ala nasi ulceration. It can be preceded by head
trauma, iatrogenic injury or other causes (41, 42).
Encephalitis and meningitis: Brain inflammations may lead to paresthesia (43).
Eosinophilic meningitis is typically induced by the nematode Angiostrongylus
cantonensis and presents with headache, vomiting and fever, and may also
induce paresthesia and neck stiffness (44).
Abscess: A primary brain abscess may begin with neurologic deficit such as
paresthesia (45, 46).
Lumbar spinal stenosis: 70% of patients experience paresthesia which is
exacerbated by extension, and improves with spinal flexion (47, 48).
Systemic lupus erythematosus: Systemic vasculitis may present with multiple
neurologic and psychiatric symptoms due to involvement of the central and
peripheral nervous systems. Painful paresthesias and weakness of the limbs
have been reported in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (49, 50).
Multiple sclerosis: One of the most common presenting symptoms in Multiple
Sclerosis is paresthesia (51, 52). About 40% of the patients reported that such
symptoms had an important adverse influence on daily activities. Painful
paresthesia leads to avoidance of any triggering activities (53).
Transverse myelitis: Sensory impairment and paresthesia in the extremities are
two common presentations of acute transverse myelitis (54-57). That is a
relatively uncommon neurological disease in which affected patients exhibit
acute dehabilitating symptoms associated with the loss of spinal cord segment
Spinal puncture: Paresthesia rarely occurs during spinal puncture or injection
of local anesthetic for spinal anesthesia (58). A paresthesia may result from
needle-to-nerve contact with a spinal nerve in the epidural space, or, with far
lateral needle placement, such as during placement of a spinal needle into the
intervertebral foramen (59). It seems that lateral decubitus position results in a
higher incidence of paresthesiae than the sitting position (60).
Vitamin B12 deficiency: Neurological symptoms such as paresthesia are
frequent in vitamin B12 deficiency (61, 62). However therapeutic response to
vitamin B12 with resolution of associated symptoms is dramatic (63).
Peripheral nervous system etiologies (with or without pain)
The most common source of paresthesia is peripheral neuropathy.
Cutaneous afferents nerves are more volatile than motor axons, due to differences
in their biophysical properties. These differences maybe include more persistent
Na+ conductance and inward rectification on cutaneous afferents, properties which
probably give greater protection from impulse-dependent conduction failure but
produce a greater tendency for ectopic activity (8).
Entrapment neuropathies
Numbness and paresthesia are two more common complaints in patients with
peripheral neuropathies (64).
Underlying Causes of Paresthesia
Carpal tunnel syndrome: Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common
entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve
within the carpal tunnel. It is characterized by pain and paresthesia, with a
usual night exacerbation and aggravation by activity along the distribution
of the median nerve (65-67).
Lateral femoral cutaneous syndrome: Meralgia paresthetica is a rarely
encountered sensory mononeuropathy characterized by paresthesia, pain
or sensory impairment along the distribution of the lateral femoral
cutaneous nerve (LFCN) caused by entrapment or compression of the
nerve as it crosses the anterior superior iliac spine and runs beneath the
inguinal ligament. Ultrasound-guided blockade of the LFCN is a safe and
success technique to treat this condition (68, 69).
Isolated femoral neuropathy: This neuropathy occurs due to direct
compression of the femoral nerve, indirect compression by the psoas
muscle during pelvic surgery, direct ischemia of the nerve by clamping of
the iliac artery during the vascular anastomosis or vessel dissection, or by
postoperative hematoma in the retroperitoneum or psoas muscle. Isolated
femoral neuropathy causes numbness and paresthesia located in the
anteromedial part of the thigh (70).
Tarsal tunnel syndrome: Paresthesia in the foot is the most frequent
symptom of tarsal tunnel syndrome and may have an arterial etiology (71).
Kim and Childers suggested ultrasound-guided injection of 0.5% lidocaine
to temporarily resolve the paresthesia as a diagnostic modality (72).
Sciatica: Sciatica is commonly due to a prolapsed intervertebral disc, although
spinal canal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, piriformis syndrome, spinal tumours
and other causes must be considered. Leg pain, paresthesia and weakness are
the most bothersome symptoms in sciatica (73-75).
Disc herniation: Radicular compression by a disc herniation may lead to the
radiating paresthesia into the extremities (76, 77)
Cervical spondylosis: Hand paresthesia is a frequent and early symptom found
in patients either with cervical spondylosis or carpal tunnel syndrome (78). In
cervical spondylosis, paresthesia is not commonly nocturnal, aggravated by
hand activity, or associated with hand pain, in contrast to carpal tunnel
syndrome (67).
Pressure palsy: Paresthesia may be a presenting complaint in pressure palsy
(79). Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an
autosomal-dominant inherited disease clinically characterized by painless and
episodic or recurrent neurological symptoms such as peripheral palsy or
paresthesia, often preceded by minor trauma or toxic damage (80, 81).
However, the presence of mild symptoms and the marked phenotypic
variability of the disease result in underdiagnosis of HNPP (82).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary neuropathy
refers to a group of disorders characterized by a chronic motor and sensory
polyneuropathy (83). The affected individual typically has distal muscle
weakness and atrophy often associated with mild to moderate sensory loss,
depressed tendon reflexes, high-arched feet, severe cramps and painful
paresthesia (83, 84)
Amyloid neuropathy: In 1975, Kyle and Bayrd investigated 236 cases of
amyloidosis and reported that paresthesia was one of the most common
presenting symptoms besides fatigue, light-headedness and weight loss (85).
Paresthesia may have a glove and stocking or even thoraco-abdominal
distribtuion (86).
Repetitive motion or prolonged vibration: Nerve compression in repetitive
motion disorders is being recognized with increasing frequency. The
pathophysiology of chronic nerve compression spans a broad spectrum
beginning with subperineurial edema and progressing to axonal degeneration.
The changes seen depend on the amount and duration of the compressive
forces and lead to pain, tingling, numbness and paresthesia (87).
Neuralgia: Neuralgia is a painful sensation in one or multiple nerve
distribution which can be mild or severe, and acute or chronic. Many patients
with neuropathic pain exhibit persistent or paroxysmal pain and paresthesias
that are independent of any stimulus (88).
Removal of impacted mandibular third molars (M3s): Extraction of impacted
M3s may cause temporary or permanent neurosensorial disturbances of the
inferior alveolar and lingual nerves (89, 90).
Circulatory disorders (As mentioned before, insufficient blood supply could lead to
transient or chronic paresthesia).
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS)
Arterial TOS. The symptoms of Arterial TOS include digital ischemia, claudication,
pallor, coldness, paresthesia and pain in the hand but seldom in the shoulder or
neck. These symptoms are the result of arterial emboli arising either from mural
thrombus in a subclavian artery aneurysm or from a thrombus forming just distal
to a focus of subclavian artery stenosis.
Venous TOS. Paresthesia in the fingers and hands is common in venous TOS and
may be secondary to swelling in the hand rather than to nerve compression in the
thoracic outlet area.
Neurogenic TOS. Pain, paresthesia, and weakness in the hand, arm, and shoulder,
plus neck pain and occipital headaches are the classical symptoms of Neurogenic
TOS. Raynaud’s phenomenon, hand coldness and color changes is also frequently
seen in NTOS. It is the latter symptoms that can lead to an erroneous diagnosis of
Arterial TOS (91).
Metabolic disorders
Diabetes: The most common causes of paresthesia in the United States are diabetes
and alcoholism (22). Sensory nerve dysfunction is a progressive form of diabetic
neuropathy, and is often accompanied by other microvascular complications. This
complication is more common in middle aged and elderly men with type 2 diabetes
mellitus (92).
Alcoholism: The most common complication of chronic alcohol intake is a toxic
polyneuropathy. Nutritional deficiency as well as the direct neurotoxic effects of
ethanol or its metabolites can cause alcoholic neuropathy (93). This neuropathy is
manifested by distal sensory disturbances with pain and paresthesia in a glove and
stocking pattern (94).
Hypoglycemia: Specific symptoms and signs may vary by age, the severity of the
hypoglycemia and the speed of the decline in blood sugar. Paresthesia may be a
Underlying Causes of Paresthesia
neuroglycopenic or adrenergic manifestations of hypoglycemia. Recurrent
hypoglycemia which is commonly seen in patients with an insulinoma causes
periodic weakness, vertigo and perioral paresthesia (95).
Hypothyroidism: Paresthesia is a more frequent clinical manifestation observed in
hypothyroidism (96, 97). About 40% of hypothyroid patients have predominantly
sensory signs of a sensorimotor axonal neuropathy early in the course of thyroid
disease. It appears that the axonal myelin sheath begins to degenerate without
sufficient thyroid hormone, and regeneration of damaged nerves also slows (98).
Hypoparathyroidism: Hypoparathyroidism is the most common cause of
hypocalcemia. Acute hypocalcemia causes increased neuromuscular irritability
which in milder forms lead to paresthesia and numbness of acral and perioral areas
(99, 100).
Hyperaldosteronism: Most clinical effects of hyperaldoste-ronism result from
hypokalemia, which increases neuromuscular irritability and produces weakness,
paralysis, and paresthesia (101).
Menopause: One of the most common reported somatic symptoms is paresthesia in
the extremities (102). Decreasing estrogen production causes decreased structural
effectiveness of collagen and thinning of the skin. This leads to reduced blow flow
to the superficial nerves and symptoms of numbness and tingling (103).
Abnormal blood levels of calcium, potassium or sodium (See Hyperventilation
syndrome in Causes of transient paresthesia)
Uremia: Polyneuropathy is one of the most frequent manifestations in chronic
uremia. Hemodialyzed uremic patients have been found to have vitamin B6
deficiency which may lead to paresthesia (104). Uremia can also cause restless legs
syndrome which is clinically defined as an urge to move the legs with or without
associated paresthesia (105).
Porphyria: The most common symptoms of porphyria are abdominal pain,
peripheral polyneuropathy, flaccid paresis, with or without autonomic
involvement (106). Nerve biopsy shows segmental demyelination and axonal
degeneration and also many small vacuolations are seen in the cell body of affected
nerves (107).
Amyloidosis (See Amyloid neuropathy in Peripheral nervous system etiologies)
Infections and post-infection syndromes
Herpes simplex virus: Herpetic infection causes paresthesia. Immunohistochemical
studies suggest that sensory ganglion infection occurs via centripetal axonal
migration of the virus (108). Topical caffeine can inhibit this paresthesia through
direct action on sensory neurons (109).
Herpes zoster virus: Primary infection by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may be
associated with several neurologic complications such as paresthesia (110, 111).
VZV remains dormant in dorsal root and cranial nerve ganglia and can be
reactivated as a consequence of declining VZV-specific cellular immunity leading
to herpes zoster (shingles) (112). Following reactivation, centrifugal migration of
herpes zoster virus occurs along sensory nerves to produce a characteristic painful
cutaneous or mucocutaneous vesicular eruption that is generally limited to the
affected dermatome (113). The commonest prodromes are pain, itching and
paresthesia (114-116)
Canker sores: Canker sores or apthous ulcers are painful and round white sores
with a red border that occur inside the mouth. There is a tingling or burning
sensation prior to the appearance of the sores. They are associated with various
nutritional and immunological deficiencies. However, they are more common in
individuals with acute HIV infection (117, 118).
Lyme disease: Lyme disease, caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia
burgdorferi, is associated with a wide variety of neurologic manifestations.
Neuropathic symptoms such as symmetric, distal and nonpainful paresthesia, and
asymmetric radicular pain begin 8 months after erythema migrans occurs and are
present for up to 12 months (119, 120)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1): Peripheral neuropathies
commonly complicate all stages of the HIV-1 disease. Whereas symptomatic
neuropathies occur in approximately 10% to 15% of HIV-1-infected patients overall,
pathologic evidence of peripheral nerve involvement is present in virtually all end-
stage AIDS patients. The dominant clinical features in distal sensory
polyneuropathy which is the most common among the HIV-1-associated
neuropathies include distal pain, paresthesia and numbness in a typical length-
dependent fashion with a proximal to distal gradient (121, 122).
Leprosy: Leprosy is a slowly progressive, chronic infectious disease caused by the
bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The skin and peripheral nerves are the most
commonly affected organs (123). Predominant presenting symptoms are
paresthesia, pain and sensory/motor deficit (124).
Syphilis: Neurosyphilis may cause paresthesia (125, 126). Paresthesia can be due to
spinal myelitis caused by neurosyphilis (127).
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS): GBS is an acute, symmetrical polyneuropathy with
distinctive features. The early clinical course involves painful paresthesia that is
usually followed by proximal motor weakness (128). Some infectious pathogens
may play a role in the pathogenesis of GBS (129).
Rabies: Rabies, which is an acute, progressive, fatal zoonotic infectious disease, is
almost always caused by the bite of rabid animals (130, 131). The rabies virus
travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. Once the rabies virus
reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is
effectively untreatable and usually fatal within days. Early-stage symptoms of
rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, paresthesia,
violent movements and hydrophobia (132).
Autoimmune diseases
Rheumatoid arthritis: Dry mouth, pruritus and paresthesia are frequent complaints
in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (133). Rheumatoid cervical myelopathy causes
paresthesia in the arms and neck pain (134).
Systemic lupus erythematosus (See Systemic lupus erythematosus in Central nervous
system etiologies)
Sjogren's syndrome: Peripheral neuropathy occurs in Sjogren's syndrome. The
history often reveals complaints of burning, tingling paresthesias in a symmetrical
stocking or glove distribution or in the face (Trigeminal Nerve) area (135-137).
Pernicious anemia (See Vitamin B12 deficiency in Central nervous system etiologies)
Diabetes (See Diabetes in Methabolic disorders)
Underlying Causes of Paresthesia
Arthritis: The involvement of the cervical spine is the most serious skeletal
manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. In patients with basilar impression
and/or rheumatoid cervical myelopathy, paresthesia in the upper limbs was
significantly more common (134, 138). Paresthesia can occur in psoriatic
arthritis (139).
Fibromyalgia: Fibromyalgia is a frequent disorder of the middle aged,
particularly in women characterized by chronic, diffuse musculoskeletal pain
and by a low pain threshold at specific anatomical points (tender points) (140).
Cacace et al. found that paresthesia had the highest frequency among
associated clinical distress in fibromyalgia (141).
Nutrient deficiency
Vitamin B1: Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency leads to Beri-Beri which takes two
forms. Dry beri-beri has symptoms of peripheral neuropathy with ataxia,
weakness, paresthesia, and patchy sensory loss with areflexia (142).
Vitamin B5: It seems that pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) can cause sensory
polyneuropathy (143).
Vitamin B6: The symptoms related to pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency are
peripheral neuropathies, such as paresthesia and burning dysesthesias (104).
Vitamin B12 (See Vitamin B12 deficiency in Central nervous system etiologies)
Malignancies: Local paresthesia can be caused by a malignancy which puts
pressure on adjacent nerves. For example a reported osteosarcoma in the left
segment of the maxilla led to swelling and paresthesia in the left cheek (144),
and periorbital paresthesia is usually a sign of malignancy (145). Multiple
myeloma with extraosseous lesions may result in paresthesia of soft tissue
(146). On the other hand the association between polyneuropathy and multiple
myeloma as the result of various clinical variants should be considered (147).
POEMS syndrome which is identified as Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly,
Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal Gammopathy and Skin changes, presents with
abdominal distension, progressive paresthesia and motor weakness of both
lower extremities (148).
Skin disorders
Burns: Studies of patients recovering from significant burns show that abnormal
sensations such as paresthesia are frequently reported as long as several years after
the injury (149, 150). Furthermore long-term paresthesia is a complication reported
after electrical burns (151, 152).
Frostbite: Frostbite injuries occur mainly in the toes, fingers, ears, nose and cheek.
Typically an initial vasoconstriction in the skin will protect against drop in core
temperature. Ice crystal development occurs when tissue temperature drops to -2°
C, leading to increased osmolality of the extracellular fluid and intracellular
dehydration. White-cyanotic discoloration, pain and paresthesia followed by
hypoesthesia are the symptoms of frostbite injury (153).
Ito syndrome: Hypomelanosis of Ito is a rare neurocutaneous disorder. It is
characterized by depigmented skin areas often associated with ocular,
musculoskeletal and neurological abnormalities (154).
Pink disease: Acrodynia (pink disease) occurs in children exposed to mercury for
prolonged periods (155). Affected patients are initially listless, anorexic, and
irritable. Their blood pressure and heart rate increase. Significant pain occurs in the
hands and feet preventing sleep. Finally the hands and feet will swell and become
paresthetic, becoming a dusky pink color along with a similar process which occurs
in the nose (156).
Acroparesthesia: Postmenopausal women may experience acroparesthesia.
Hormone therapy can increase forearm/hand blood flow, and help ameliorate
these symptoms (157).
Migraine: The somatosensory aura of a migraine may consist of digitolingual
or cheiro-oral paresthesias. The paresthesia may migrate up the arm and then
extend to involve the face, lips and tongue (158).
Psychological disorders: Anxiety, panic attack and psychiatric diseases may
cause hyperventilation which can lead to paresthesia (6). Paresthesia also can
be a manifestation of depression (159).
Medications: Paresthesia can be a side effect of some medications such as anti-
convulsant drugs, topiramate, amiodarone, digoxin, dimercaprol,
colistimethate, mefloquine, metronidazole, HIV medications, riluzole,
tetrodotoxin, thallium, vincristine, diphenoxylate, overdose of lidocain or
vitamin B6 (1). Sertraline can induce facial paresthesia (160). SSRI withdrawal
may cause paresthesia. The neurotoxicity of immuno-suppressive agents (e.g.
calcineurin-inhibitors) may cause mild symptoms, such as tremors and
paresthesia (161). Motexafin lutetium which is used in the treatment of
coronary atherosclerosis or vulnerable plaque can cause the paresthesia (23).
Alcohol (See Alcoholism in Metabolic disorders)
Tobacco: Smoking is a strong risk factor for arteriosclerosis and Buerger's disease
which can cause sensitive axonal polyneuropathy (15, 162).
Drug abuse: Intravenous administrating of strong pharmaceutical drugs acting on
the central nervous system, mainly opioids especially in non-medical use (drug
abuse) can lead to neurological manifestations such as paresthesia (1).
Heavy metals
Mercury: toxicity from organic mercurials includes neurologic decompensation
with mental deterioration, ataxia, spasms, paresthesia, deafness, and
eventually coma (156).
Arsenic: Neurological and neurophysiological studies indicate that the
functions of the central and peripheral nervous system may be impaired under
conditions of exposure to arsenic (163).
Lead: The prominent findings among the lead-exposed workers are fatigue,
abdominal discomfort, backache, myalgia and paresthesia (164).
Nitrous oxide: Exposure to nitrous oxide may damage the nervous system which
can lead to ascending paresthesia of the limbs, severe ataxia of gait, tactile sensory
loss on the limbs and trunk, and absent tendon reflexes (165, 166).
Carbon monoxide: Paresthesia, emesis, diarrhea, unilateral headache, palpitation or
death are non-specific but common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning (167).
Snake bites: Some venom contains toxins which attack the nervous system, causing
neurotoxicity. The victim may present with strange disturbances to their vision,
paresthesia, difficulty speaking and respiratory paralysis (168).
Underlying Causes of Paresthesia
Ciguatera: Ciguatera is the most frequently observed form of tropical fish
poisoning. It blocks the sodium channel leading to slowed nerve conduction and
causes the peripheral and central nervous system symptoms such as facial
paresthesia, myalgia, cramps and weakness. Ciguatera poisoning leads to the
gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disturbances too (169, 170).
Radiation exposure: Chronic progressive radiation myelopathy develops with a
latency of several months to years after spinal cord irradiation. The symptoms
are paresthesia, paresis or paralysis, leading to severe physical disability (171).
Chemotherapy: Intrathecal injections of cytarabine and methotrexate can lead
to paresthesias and weakness causing patient to be wheelchair bound (172).
Hereditary diseases
Fabry disease: Fabry syndrome is a genetic disease related to changes on the X
chromosome. It is caused by deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A and is
characterized by intralysosomal storage of glycosphingolipids. The main clinical
features are paresthesia, hypohidrosis, angiokeratoma, renal insufficiency, and
cardiovascular or cerebral complications (173, 174).
Refsum syndrome: Refsum's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder with
clinical features that include retinitis pigmentosa, blindness, anosmia, deafness,
sensory neuropathy, ataxia and accumulation of phytanic acid in plasma- and
lipid-containing tissues (175).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (See Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in Peripheral nervous
system etiologies)
Porphyria (See Porphyria in Metabolic disorders)
Ataxia-teleangiectasia: Ataxia-telangiectasia is a progressive neurodegenerative
disorder, with onset in early childhood. It is an autosomal recessive disorder that
includes progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthric speech, oculomotor apraxia,
choreoathetosis and, later, oculocutaneous telangiectasia (176, 177).
Immune deficiency: The immune response dysfunction induced by the human
immunodeficiency virus infection sometimes causes inflammatory lesions of
the central and peripheral nervous system leading to neurological symptoms
such as paresthesia (178).
4. References
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... 22 The occurrence of nerve injury be affected by several things, including the depth of the impacted tooth, the position of the mandibular third molar tooth to the mandibular canal, age, and the lack of operator experience. 28,29 Clinically, paresthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve can be described as persistent or temporary numbness in the corners of the mouth, lower lip, chin, inner mucosa of the lips, and labial gingiva. In contrast, paresthesia of the lingual nerve is described as a loss of taste sensation on the tongue in the gingival mucosa's dorsal or ventral and lingual part. ...
... In contrast, paresthesia of the lingual nerve is described as a loss of taste sensation on the tongue in the gingival mucosa's dorsal or ventral and lingual part. 28,29 In this study ( Table 3), complications of paresthesia only occurred in female patients. This result follows a study by Tyler Kovisto et al 30 , which stated that the distance between the mandibular canal and the roots of the molar teeth in females is closer than in males. ...
... Depleting the myelin sheath induces conduction blockade, inhibiting the transmission of nerve impulses resulting in paresthesia. 29 Trismus commonly occurs due to spasms of the masticatory muscles, which are characterized by an inability to open the mouth, difficulty speaking, and chewing be accompanied by pain. 16 Trismus occurs due to trauma during odontectomy procedures and opening the mouth for too long, so trismus is associated with lengthy surgical procedures. ...
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Introduction: Odontectomy is a surgical procedure to remove an impacted tooth. Some cases of odontectomy are performed under general anesthesia because it has risks and complications that need to be considered, such as a patient with mental or physical disorder, difficulty level of the impacted tooth, number of impacted teeth extracted, and operative duration. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of post-odontectomy complications under general anesthesia in RSGM Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study using retrospective data of medical records of a patient who underwent odontectomy under general anesthesia from 2017 until 2018 in RSGM Unpad. Samples were taken using a purposive non-probability sampling technique by setting inclusion criteria such as undamaged medical records and providing patient data on the first and a week control visit. The variables, including age, gender, classification of impacted teeth, number of teeth, and complications, were assessed in this study. The minimum sample size was determined by using the Slovin formula. The minimum sample required is 94% - 95% confidence level and 5% margin of error. Result: The data that had been collected shows that the number of female patients (67%), male patients (37%), the most common age was 21-30 years (52%), and odontectomy in 4 third molars (73%). Odontectomy that performed on four third molars (73%) with the ordinary post odontectocmy complications found in the female patient, such as trismus (2%), prolonged pain (7%), edema (3%), paraesthesia (3%). Conclusion: The prevalence of post-odontectomy complications under general anesthesia in RSGM Universitas Padjadjaran Banding is relatively low.Keywords: prevalence; odontectomy; general anesthesia; complications; impacted tooth.
... Early intervention following first identification of substance use targets such disorders at a less advanced phase and hence prevents progression. A report published in 2009 showed a significant cost-benefit ratio for early detection and treatment interventions (6). These reduced costs relate to health care, the adult and juvenile criminal justice systems, education, and work productivity (6). ...
... A report published in 2009 showed a significant cost-benefit ratio for early detection and treatment interventions (6). These reduced costs relate to health care, the adult and juvenile criminal justice systems, education, and work productivity (6). ...
... The dysregulation of the neurotransmitter serotonin has been linked to depression, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse (5). Particularly, lower levels of 5-hydroxyindoleactic acid, a principal metabolite of serotonin, have been associated with increased suicide and suicidal behavior (6). Although researchers are examining many other potential neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of suicide, such discussion is beyond the focus of this article. ...
... Early intervention following first identification of substance use targets such disorders at a less advanced phase and hence prevents progression. A report published in 2009 showed a significant cost-benefit ratio for early detection and treatment interventions (6). These reduced costs relate to health care, the adult and juvenile criminal justice systems, education, and work productivity (6). ...
... A report published in 2009 showed a significant cost-benefit ratio for early detection and treatment interventions (6). These reduced costs relate to health care, the adult and juvenile criminal justice systems, education, and work productivity (6). ...
... The dysregulation of the neurotransmitter serotonin has been linked to depression, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse (5). Particularly, lower levels of 5-hydroxyindoleactic acid, a principal metabolite of serotonin, have been associated with increased suicide and suicidal behavior (6). Although researchers are examining many other potential neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of suicide, such discussion is beyond the focus of this article. ...
... Early intervention following first identification of substance use targets such disorders at a less advanced phase and hence prevents progression. A report published in 2009 showed a significant cost-benefit ratio for early detection and treatment interventions (6). These reduced costs relate to health care, the adult and juvenile criminal justice systems, education, and work productivity (6). ...
... A report published in 2009 showed a significant cost-benefit ratio for early detection and treatment interventions (6). These reduced costs relate to health care, the adult and juvenile criminal justice systems, education, and work productivity (6). ...
... The dysregulation of the neurotransmitter serotonin has been linked to depression, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse (5). Particularly, lower levels of 5-hydroxyindoleactic acid, a principal metabolite of serotonin, have been associated with increased suicide and suicidal behavior (6). Although researchers are examining many other potential neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of suicide, such discussion is beyond the focus of this article. ...
Full-text available
Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, with 44,193 suicides occurring each year, or 121 completed suicides per day. Approximately 494,169 individuals present to hospitals each year because of self-harm (1). Globally, it is estimated that about one million people die annually from suicide, equivalent to one death every 40 seconds. Suicide is a complex phenomenon caused by neurobiological, sociocultural, and genetic factors. This complexity is linked to risk factors such as chronic substance abuse, concomitant mental illness, personal stressors, family breakdown, previous suicide attempts, access to firearms, and history of lifetime physical or sexual abuse. These risk factors can interrelate with each other, be a product of each other, or operate independently.
... But it is currently designed suitable for those who are adequately tall (Amrutkar & Rajhans, 2011). This condition will produce the inner-thigh pressure which occluded blood supply then it leads to transient paresthesia (Alhoseini et al., 2012). As stated by Shivakumara and Sridhar, (2010), the blood is having the role to give the muscle energy to get muscular system activity. ...
... Transient Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation of burning, numbness, tingling, itching or prickling caused by the insufficient blood supply to muscle so as inflicting muscle fatigue at the bottom of the thigh (Alhoseini et al., 2012). A study from Suhardi et al (2016) expressed that unavailability of the footrest can lead to the muscle fatigue, especially for children. ...
... Furthermore, paraesthesia can be caused by non dental causes, for example infections or degenerative diseases. 11,12 In Canada, 1995, a retrospective study of complaints after administration of anaesthetics was published. The complaints were submitted to a liability programme. ...
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The biochemical composition of articaine differs from other amide anaesthetics. The lipophilic part of articaine consists of a thiophene ring, whereas other amide anaesthetics contain a benzene ring. When used correctly, local anaesthetics are remarkably safe. However, all local anaesthetics are potentially neurotoxic. In rare cases a prolonged abnormal perception/sensation may be present after the expected duration of action (paraesthesia). In several countries retrospective studies have been conducted that examined the incidence of persistent paraesthesia after the use of local anaesthetics. In most studies the number of paraesthesia cases after the use of articaine was higher than the market share of this anaesthetic. In animal studies and in cell culture experiments, however, articaine did not have a higher toxicity compared to other amide anaesthetics. Further studies of the cause of paraesthesia after administration of local anaesthetics seem to be warranted.
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Merokok adalah salah satu faktor resiko terjadinya penyakit jantung dan pembuluh darah. Tingginya jumlah perokok terutama di Jakarta dan sekitarnya dapat menyebabkan meningkatnya angka kejadian penyakit jantung dan pembuluh darah di daerah tersebut. Pada rokok terdapat zat yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinya penebalan dan kekakuan dinding pembuluh darah atau yang disebut arteriosklerosis. Bila kondisi ini berlanjut dan didukung dengan proses metabolik yang tidak baik maka dapat memicu terjadinya atherosklerosis dan penyumbat pembuluh darah. Kesemutan atau kebas yang terjadi pada jari-jari tangan atau kaki, merupakan gejala awal terjadinya atherosklerosis. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran kebiasaan merokok (lama dan jumlah) dan adanya gejala kesemutan atau kebas pada jari tangan dan atau kaki. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode deskriptif cross-sectional dan consecutive non-random sampling dalam merekrut responden. Data dari 60 responden dengan rentang usia 18-69 tahun, dikumpulkan menggunakan google form. Gejala kesemutan mayoritas didapatkan pada kelompok dengan riwayat merokok lebih dari 20 tahun dengan jumlah rokok termasuk dalam kategorik sedang. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah semakin banyak dan lamanya riwayat merokok dapat meningkatkan resiko terjadinya gangguan pembuluh darah yang ditandai dengan munculnya gejala kesemutan atau kebas.
Background and objectives: Despite immense progress of imaging and updates in the MacDonald criteria, the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis remains difficult as it must integrate history, clinical presentation, biological markers, and imaging. There is a multitude of syndromes resembling multiple sclerosis both clinically or on imaging. The goal of this review is to help clinicians orient themselves in these various diagnoses. We organized our review in two categories: inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that are close or can be confused with multiple sclerosis, and non-inflammatory syndromes that can present with symptoms or imaging mimicking those of multiple sclerosis. Method: Review of literature CONCLUSION: Progress of imaging and biological sciences have drastically changed the approach and management of multiple sclerosis. But these developments have also shined a light on a variety of diseases previously unknown or poorly known, therefore greatly expanding the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. While autoimmune, many of these diseases have underlying biological mechanisms that are very different from those of multiple sclerosis, rendering MS therapies usually inefficient. It is crucial to approach these diseases with utmost thoroughness, integrating history, clinical exam, and evolving ancillary tests.
Along with visual feedback, somatosensory feedback provides the nervous system with information regarding movement performance. Somatosensory system damage disrupts the normal feedback process, which can lead to a pins and needles sensation, or paresthaesia, and impaired movement control. The present study assessed the impact of temporarily induced median nerve paresthaesia, in individuals with otherwise intact sensorimotor function, on goal-directed reaching and grasping movements. Healthy, right-handed participants performed reach and grasp movements to five wooden Efron shapes, of which three were selected for analysis. Participants performed the task without online visual feedback and in two somatosensory conditions: 1) normal; and 2) disrupted somatosensory feedback. Disrupted somatosensory feedback was induced temporarily using a Digitimer (DS7AH) constant current stimulator. Participants’ movements to shapes 15 or 30 cm to the right of the hand’s start position were recorded using a 3 D motion analysis system at 300 Hz (Optotrak 3 D Investigator). Analyses revealed no significant differences for reaction time. Main effects for paresthaesia were observed for temporal and spatial aspects of the both the reach and grasp components of the movements. Although participants scaled their grip aperture to shape size under paresthaesia, the movements were smaller and more variable. Overall participants behaved as though they perceived they were performing larger and faster movements than they actually were. We suggest the presence of temporally induced paresthaesia affected online control by disrupting somatosensory feedback of the reach and grasp movements, ultimately leading to smaller forces and fewer corrective movements.
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Title : Sleep Disorders and its Consequences upon Quality of Life of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Abstract : Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system pathology that can involve quality of life of people who suffer it. Its clinical expression is very complex and encompasses several areas, including sleep disorders too. This problem, more common in MS patients than in general population, may impact heavily on emotional wellbeing and quality of life, comprehending more intense fatigue and cognitive function deterioration. The aim of our study is to explore this topic on a 55 patients sample with MS diagnosis, classified by presence or ausence of sleeping problems. For doing that, we will administate a especially designed survey (MSQOL-54) for assessing quality of life (QOL) on this population, making a multiple comparation analysis through One Way ANOVA. Our results show that MS subjects with sleeping issues have a higher QOL alteration than those who doesn’t have this comorbidity, especially in physical and cognitive areas. Because of this, it’s very important to explore its presence on this population. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, quality of life, sleep disorders, cognitive function, fatigue
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Acute low back pain (LBP) with associated sciatica is a common problem leading patients to see a physician. It is usually a benign and self-limited disorder. Radicular pain in the distribution of the sciatic nerve, resulting from herniation of one or more lumbar intervertebral discs, is a common and painful event. The lifetime incidence of this situation is expected to be between 13% and 40%. Compression of a lumbar nerve root by a herniated intervertebral disc is a common cause of sciatica. Non-discogenic causes of sciatica include benign and malignant tumors, infections including epidural abscess and discitis, vascular compression, bony compression due to spinal stenosis, epidural adhesions, Piriformis syndrome, or compression by gynecological structures (i.e. uterine fibroid, pelvic endometriosis).The evidence suggests that a multifactorial interaction of inflammatory, immunological, and pressure-related processes may play a role in the pathophysiology of sciatica neuralgia. Sciatica is a clinical diagnosis. The history and physical examination can frequently reveal the etiology..Imaging studies including MRI or CT myelograms may help with the diagnosis and in selecting specific treatment plans. Several conservative and surgical therapeutic options are available for management of discogenic sciatica. Physical therapy, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics are the most commonly prescribed treatment. While commonly used, physical therapy, epidural steroid injections, systemic glucocorticoid therapy, trigger point injectionsspinal manipulation, bracing, and traction have little support in the literature. Different types of electro-acupuncture stimulation have had mixed results in sciatica patients. Further clinical trials are necessary to confirm their efficacy. Chemonucleolysis is the last step of conservative management in patients without extruded disk material. Allergic reactions are a possible severe complication and plans should be in place to deal with any reaction that might occur. There is limited scientific data supporting this treatment. This procedure does not affect the outcome of the later surgery if necessary. Surgical discectomy may be considered for selected patients with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniations that fail to resolve with the conservative management or in patients with severe paralysis or a cauda equina syndrome. To prevent complications, an appropriate pre-operative work up including neuroimaging is necessary, especially when there is a lack of correlation between the history, physical examination, or radiologic examination. Surgery has been shown to be highly effective, shortening the time to recovery by about 50% compared to nonsurgical treatment. Whether one specific surgical procedure is better than others remains uncertain. Methodological limitations of studies evaluating the efficacy of percutaneous methods prevent ultimate conclusions. Post-operative complications occur in 1% to 3% of cases. If patients were appropriately selected, failures happen in less than 10% of cases, which are primarily due to recurrent disc herniation or fibrosis. After pain is controlled, a multidisciplinary approach including physical, psychological, socioeconomic, and self-management techniques is recommended.
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The objective of the study was to investigate how patients with sciatica due to disc herniation rate the bothersomeness of paresthesia and weakness as compared to leg pain, and how these symptoms are associated with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 411 patients with clinical signs of radiculopathy. Items from the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (0=none to 6=extremely) were used to establish values for paresthesia, weakness and leg pain. Associations with socio-demographic and clinical variables were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Mean scores (SD) were 4.5 (1.5) for leg pain, 3.4 (1.8) for paresthesia and 2.6 (2.0) for weakness. Women reported higher levels of bothersomeness for all three symptoms with mean scores approximately 10% higher than men. In the multivariate models, more severe symptoms were associated with lower physical function and higher emotional distress. Muscular paresis explained 19% of the variability in self-reported weakness, sensory findings explained 10% of the variability in paresthesia, and straight leg raising test explained 9% of the variability in leg pain. In addition to leg pain, paresthesia and weakness should be assessed when measuring symptom severity in sciatica. KeywordsSciatica-Disc herniation-Lumbosacral radicular syndrome-Neuromuscular manifestations-Pain measurement
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Meralgia paresthetica is a rarely encountered sensory mononeuropathy characterized by paresthesia, pain or sensory impairment along the distribution of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) caused by entrapment or compression of the nerve as it crossed the anterior superior iliac spine and runs beneath the inguinal ligament. There is great variability regarding the area where the nerve pierces the inguinal ligament, which makes it difficult to perform blind anesthetic blocks. Ultrasound has developed into a powerful tool for the visualization of peripheral nerves including very small nerves such as accessory and sural nerves. The LFCN can be located successfully, and local anesthetic solution distribution around the nerve can be observed with ultrasound guidance. Our successfully performed ultrasound-guided blockade of the LFCN in meralgia paresthetica suggests that this technique is a safe way to increase the success rate.
Central poststroke paresthesia is characterized by a persistent abnormal sensation in the body after a cerebrovascular accident. Between 1998 and 2001, 89 stroke patients admitted to the Chia-Yi Christian Hospital were diagnosed as having central poststroke paresthesia. Fifty-two of them, 25 males and 27 females with a mean age of 58 years, participated in the two-phase study. During phase one, patients were observed without any specific treatment for the paresthesia. Forty-four patients then entered phase two and received amitriptyline therapy. Fourteen patients (31.8%) reported alleviation of the paresthesia. Our data indicated that amitriptyline might be useful in the management of central poststroke paresthesia.
Introduction: In the paper, the authors presents medical meaning of whiplash neck injury (WNI) according right time diagnosis and management. Patients and methods: The aim was to estimate the functional answer according diagnosis and therapeutical modalities. 35 patients were treated in Clinical center University of Sarajevo in period 2004/2008. They were divided in two groups--G1 with 18 patients and G2 with 12 patients. G1 group is treated by soft cervical collar and analgetics, G2 by physiotherapeutic modalities. First check was 6 months after injury and treatment beginning. Results: Immediately after a whiplash accident all patients have back pain in the cervical spine. Two of them have paresthesia in the upper extremity, headaches have 7 of them, spasm of paravertebral muscles has 1, spasm of art. carotis 1, laceration of the longus colli muscles, accompanied by hemorrhage and edema 1. Conclusion: The authors did 6 weeks follow- up after treatment of patients and 77% of them had no problems, 23% patients lost symptoms of WNI after 2 - 6 months. They come back to everyday activities in period 1 - 3 months except 2 of them who needed 6 months. Presented values clinical parameters indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in finale results between groups, G1 and G2 (p > 0.05).
Herpetic infection causes paresthesia, including hypoalgesia, in humans and hypoalgesia in rats. This study was conducted to examine the effect of caffeine, which inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV) and affects several neuronal functions, on HSV-induced paresthesia in rats. HSV-induced hypoalgesia was suppressed by repeated treatment of unilateral hindpaw with 10% caffeine gel regardless of when the treatment was started. Repeated treatment with acyclovir, an anti-HSV agent, suppressed HSV-induced hypoalgesia only when started before inoculation; acyclovir did not produce therapeutic effects on the HSV-induced sensory abnormality. Many dorsal root ganglion neurons were positive for HSV antigen following HSV inoculation of the hindpaw. Repeated treatment with caffeine and acyclovir markedly decreased HSV antigen-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglia when started before, but not 2 or 4 days after, infection. These results suggest that topical caffeine inhibited HSV-induced paresthesia through direct action on sensory neurons, and that not only antiviral activity but also direct alteration of neural functions are involved in the caffeine sensory actions.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) hereditary neuropathy refers to a group of disorders characterized by a chronic motor and sensory polyneuropathy. The affected individual typically has distal muscle weakness and atrophy often associated with mild to moderate sensory loss, depressed tendon reflexes, and high-arched feet. The genetic neuropathies need to be distinguished from the many causes of acquired (non-genetic) neuropathies. Clinical diagnosis is based on family history and characteristic findings on physical examination, EMG/NCV testing, and occasionally sural nerve biopsy. More than 40 different genes/loci are associated with CMT. Molecular genetic testing is available on a clinical basis for some types of CMT. CMT hereditary neuropathy syndrome can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner. Genetic counseling regarding risk to family members depends on accurate diagnosis, determination of the mode of inheritance in each family, and results of molecular genetic testing. Prenatal testing for pregnancies at increased risk is possible for some types of CMT if the disease-causing mutation(s) in the family are known. Treatment of manifestations: Management by a multidisciplinary team of neurologists, physiatrists, orthopedic surgeons, and physical and occupational therapists; special shoes and/or ankle/foot orthoses (AFOs) to correct foot drop and aid walking; gripping exercises for hand weakness; orthopedic surgery as needed for severe pes cavus deformity and hip dysplasia; acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents for musculoskeletal pain; tricyclic antidepressants, carbamazepine or gabapentin for neuropathic pain. Prevention of secondary complications: Daily heel cord stretching exercises. Agents/circumstances to avoid: Drugs and medications such as vincristine, taxol, cisplatin, isoniazid, and nitrofurantoin that are known to cause nerve damage; obesity as it makes walking more difficult.
A 67-year-old man affected by moderate weight loss, acral paresthesia and plantar burning sensation was admitted to our department. Electromyographic (EMG) and electroneurographic (ENG) studies confirmed a peripheral, asymmetrical, motor-sensorial polyneuropathy (PPN). Hematological data and bone marrow biopsy discovered a non-secerning multiple myeloma (MM). All other probable causes of peripheral neuropathy could be excluded, and the possible relationship between nerve damage and neoplasia was confirmed. Furthermore, all possibilities of association of MM with PPn, namely the osteosclerotic variant, the Crow-Fukase syndrome, and the amyloid one have been evaluated. The only finding of osteolytic bone areas by radiology, the absence of organomegaly, diabetes mellitus, skin alterations, and of amyloid deposition in muscles and nerves, exclude the possible connection of the case to any of the listed possibilities. On the other hand, some clinical aspects differ, in part, to others described in the literature. In conclusion, the association between PPN and MM as the result of multiform clinical variants could be considered.
Few studies have attempted to delineate the clinical profile of multiple Sclerosis (MS) among people of Asia. This study sought to identify the characteristics of early-onset Multiple Sclerosis (EOMS) comparison to adult-onset form (AOMS) in Isfahan, IRAN. This prospective study was conducted on 104 youths with multiple sclerosis beginning before the age of 16 years and 123 patients with adult-onset multiple sclerosis. Patients were observed for a mean period of 5 years. The common presenting symptoms, MRI finding, course of disease and disability score were compared between the two groups. The mean onset age of disease in youths and adults were 14 ± 1.9 and 27.7 ± 8.06 years, respectively. Female/male ratio was 4.47:1 in EOMS and 3.92:1 in AOMS, this ratio was 7:1 in early childhood MS (≤ 10 year). The most common presenting symptom was optic neuritis in the EOMS group and paresthesia in AOMS. Optic neuritis was common in AOMS too, but brainstem/cerebellar signs were more common in EOMS than AOMS. Seizure occurred more frequently in EOMS than in the AOMS group (12.6% vs. 1.6%, respectively, p < 0.001). MRI showed that brainstem plaques were more prevalent in the EOMS compared with the AOMS group. It was concluded that early-onset MS does not significantly differ from adult form in terms of major clinical manifestation and course of disease, however Seizure is more common in EOMS, and brainstem and cerebellar symptoms as presenting symptom are more common.