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The Therapeutic Benefits of Essential Oils



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The Therapeutic Benefits of Essential Oils
Abdelouaheb Djilani1 and Amadou Dicko2
1LSBO, BADJI MOKHTAR-Annaba University,
2LCME, Metz University,
1. Introduction
Since ancient times, essential oils are recognized for their medicinal value and they are very
interesting and powerful natural plant products. They continue to be of paramount
importance until the present day. Essential oils have been used as perfumes, flavors for
foods and beverages, or to heal both body and mind for thousands of years (Baris et al.,
2006; Margaris et al., 1982; Tisserand, 1997; Wei & Shibamoto 2010). Record findings in
Mesopotamia, China, India, Persia and ancient Egypt show their uses for many treatments
in various forms. For example, in the ancient Egypt, the population extracted oils by
infusion. Later; Greeks and Romans used distillation and thus gave aromatic plants an
additional value. With the advent of Islamic civilization, extraction techniques have been
further refined. In the era of the Renaissance, Europeans have taken over the task and with
the development of science the composition and the nature of essential oils have been well
established and studied (Burt, 2004; Peeyush et al., 2011; Steven, 2010; Suaib et al., 2007).
Nowadays, peppermint, lavender, geranium, eucalyptus, rose, bergamot, sandalwood and
chamomile essential oils are the most frequently traded ones.
2. Definition and localization of essential oils
Essential oils (also called volatile or ethereal oils, because they evaporate when exposed to
heat in contrast to fixed oils) are odorous and volatile compounds found only in 10% of the
plant kingdom and are stored in plants in special brittle secretory structures, such as glands,
secretory hairs, secretory ducts, secretory cavities or resin ducts (Ahmadi et al., 2002; Bezić
et al., 2009; Ciccarelli et al., 2008; Gershenzon et al., 1994; Liolios et al., 2010; Morone-
Fortunato et al., 2010; Sangwan et al., 2001; Wagner et al., 1996). The total essential oil
content of plants is generally very low and rarely exceeds 1% (Bowles, 2003), but in some
cases, for example clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), it reaches
more than 10%. Essential oils are hydrophobic, are soluble in alcohol, non polar or weakly
polar solvents, waxes and oils, but only slightly soluble in water and most are colourless or
pale yellow, with exception of the blue essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and
most are liquid and of lower density than water (sassafras, vetiver, cinnamon and clove
essential oils being exceptions) (Gupta et al., 2010; Martín et al., 2010). Due to their
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molecular structures (presence of olefenic double bonds and functional groups such as
hydroxyl, aldehyde, ester); essential oils are readily oxidizable by light, heat and air (Skold
et al., 2006; Skold et al., 2008). Some examples of oxidations are illustrated in figure 1.
β-caryophyllene caryophyllene oxide
Fig. 1. a. Oxidation (ox.) of β-caryophyllene by air at room temperature.
linalyl acetate
1: 7-hydroper-oxy-3,7-dimethylocta-1,5-diene-3-yl acetate
2: 3,6-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethylocta-1,7-diene-3-yl acetate
3: 6,7-epoxy-3,7-dimethyl-1-octene-3-yl acetate
4:7-hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta-1,5-diene-3-yl acetate
Fig. 1.b. Oxidation (ox.) of linalyl acetate and linalool by air at room temperature.
3. Extraction of essential oils
Oils contained within plant cells are liberated through heat and pressure from various parts
of the plant matter; for example, the leaves, flowers, fruit, grass, roots, wood, bark, gums
and blossom. The extraction of essential oils from plant material can be achieved by various
methods, of which hydro-distillation, steam and steam/water distillation are the most
common method of extraction (Bowles, 2003; Margaris et al., 1982; Surburg & Panten, 2006).
Other methods include solvent extraction, aqueous infusion, cold or hot pressing, effleurage,
The Therapeutic Benefits of Essential Oils
supercritical fluid extraction and phytonic process (Da Porto et al., 2009; Hunter, 2009;
Lahlou, 2004; Martínez, 2008; Pourmortazavi & Hajimirsadeghi, 2007; Surburg & Panten,
2006). This later process has been newly developed; it uses refrigerant hydrofluorocarbons
solvents at low temperatures (below room temperature), resulting in good quality of the
extracted oils. Thus, the chemical composition of the oil, both quantitative and qualitative,
differs according to the extraction technique. For example, hydro-distillation and steam-
distillation methods yield oils rich in terpene hydrocarbons. In contrast, the super-critical
extracted oils contained a higher percentage of oxygenated compounds (Donelian et al.,
2009; Eikani et al., 2007; Reverchon, 1997; Wenqiang et al., 2007).
Essential oils are highly complex mixtures of volatile compounds, and many contain about
20 to 60 individual compounds, albeit some may contain more than 100 different
components (Miguel, 2010; Sell, 2006; Skaltsa et al., 2003; Thormar, 2011), such as jasmine,
lemon and cinnamon essential oils.
The major volatile constituents are hydrocarbons (e.g. pinene, limonene, bisabolene),
alcohols (e.g. linalol, santalol), acids (e.g. benzoic acid, geranic acid), aldehydes (e.g. citral),
cyclic aldehydes (e.g. cuminal), ketones (e.g. camphor), lactones (e.g. bergaptene), phenols
(e.g. eugenol), phenolic ethers (e.g. anethole), oxides (e.g. 1,8 cineole) and esters (e.g. geranyl
acetate) (Deans, 1992). All these compounds may be classified into two main categories:
terpenoids and phenylpropanoids (Andrade et al., 2011; De Sousa, 2011; Griffin et al., 1999;
Lis-Balchin, 1997; Sangwan et al., 2001) or also into hydrocarbons and oxygenated
compounds (Akhila, 2006; Halm, 2008; Hunter, 2009; Margaris et al. 1982; Pourmortazavi
and Hajimirsadeghi, 2007; Shibamoto, 2010). This latter classification seems less complex,
and for the current book chapter, we have adopted it. The fragrance and chemical
composition of essential oils can vary according to the geo-climatic location and growing
conditions (soil type, climate, altitude and amount of water available), season (for example
before or after flowering), and time of day when harvesting is achieved, etc (Andrade et al.,
2011; Deans et al., 1992; Margaris et al., 1982; Pengelly, 2004; Sangwan et al., 2001). In
addition, there is another important factor that influences the chemical composition of
essential oils, namely the genetic composition of the plant. Therefore, all these biotope
factors (genetic and epigenetic) influence the biochemical synthesis of essential oils in a
given plant. Thus, the same species of plant can produce a similar essential oil, however
with different chemical composition, resulting in different therapeutic activities. These
variations in chemical composition led to the notion of chemotypes. The chemotype is
generally defined as a distinct population within the same species (plant or microorganism)
that produces different chemical profiles for a particular class of secondary metabolites.
Some examples of various chemotypes are given in Table 1:
Plant Chemotype 1 Chemotype 2 Chemotype 3
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Thymol Thujanol Linalool
Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) Menthol Carvone Limonene.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Camphor 1,8 cineole Verbenone
Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) Carvone Limonene Phellandrene
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.)Linalool Linalyl acetate β-Caryophyllene
Table 1. Main chemotypes of some aromatic plants
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4. Trade of essential oils
The knowledge of composition of essential oils and their therapeutic properties have
contributed to the development of their cultivation and markets. Although only 100 species
are well known for their essential oils, there are over 2000 plant species distributed over 60
families such as Lamiaceae, Umbelliferae and Compositae which can biosynthesize essential
oils. They are about 3,000 essential oils, out of which approximately 300 are commercially
important and are traded in the world market (Baylac and Racine, 2003; Burt, 2004;
Delamare et al., 2007; Sivropoulou et al., 1995; 1996; 1997).
Essential oils constitute a major group of agro-based industrial products and they find
applications in various types of industries, such as food products, drinks, perfumes,
pharmaceuticals and cosmetics (Anwar et al., 2009a; 2009b; Burt, 2004; Celiktas et al., 2007;
Hammer et al., 2008; Hay & Svoboda, 1993; Hussain et al., 2008; Teixeira da Silva, 2004).
The world production and consumption of essential oils is increasing very fast (Lawless,
1995). Despite their high costs (due to the large quantity of plant material required),
essential oil production has been increasing. The estimates of world production of essential
oils vary from 40,000 to 60,000 tonnes per annum and represent a market of approximately
700 million US $ (Verlet, 1994).
The predominately produced essential oils for industry purposes are from orange, cornmint,
eucalyptus, citronella, peppermint, and lemon (Hunter, 2009) but the more commonly
domestically used ones include lavender, chamomile, peppermint, tea tree oil, eucalyptus,
geranium, jasmine, rose, lemon, orange, rosemary, frankincense, and sandalwood. The
countries that dominate the essential oils market worldwide are Brazil, China, USA,
Indonesia, India and Mexico. The major consumers are the USA, EU (especially Germany,
United Kingdom and France) and Japan.
5. Bioavailability of essential oils
The term bioavailability, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs, is used to
describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic
circulation and can be used for a specific function and/or stored. By definition, when a drug
is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%. However, when a drug is
administered via other routes (such as oral), it has to pass absorption and metabolic barriers,
before it reaches the general circulation system, and its bioavailability is prone to decrease
(due to gastro-intestinal metabolism, incomplete absorption or first-pass metabolism).
Bioavailability is measured by pharmacokinetic analysis of blood samples taken from the
systemic circulation and reflects the fraction of the drug reaching the systemic circulation. If
a compound is poorly absorbed or extensively metabolised beforehand, only a limited
fraction of the dose administered will reach the systemic circulation. Thus, in order to
achieve a high bioavailability, the compound must be of sufficiently high absorption and of
low renal clearance (measurement of the renal or other organ excretion ability).
Various factors can affect bioavailability such as biochemical, physiological,
physicochemical interactions; habitual mix of the diet; individual characteristics (life-stage
and life-style) as well as the genotype. In the case of essential oils, the comprehension of
their bioavailability by studying their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in
The Therapeutic Benefits of Essential Oils
the human body is necessary. Unfortunately, there exists only limited data on the
bioavailability of essential oils, and most studies are based on animal models.
All ndings confirm that most essential oils are rapidly absorbed after dermal, oral, or
pulmonary administration and cross the blood-brain barrier and interact with receptors in
the central nervous system, and then affect relevant biological functions such as relaxation,
sleep, digestion etc. .....
Most essential oil components are metabolized and either eliminated by the kidneys in the
form of polar compounds following limited phase I enzyme metabolism by conjugation
with glucuronate or sulfate, or exhaled via the lungs as CO2. For example, after oral
administration of (-)-menthol, 35% of the original menthol content was excreted renally as
menthol glucuronide (Bronaugh et al., 1990; Buchbauer, 1993; Hotchkiss et al., 1990; Jirovetz
et al., 1992; Kohlert et al., 2000).
The same happens with thymol, carvacrol, limonene and eugenol. After their oral
administration, sulphate and glucuronide forms have been detected in urine and in plasma,
respectively (Buchbauer et al., 1993; Guénette et al., 2007; Michiels et al., 2008). The fast
metabolism and short half-life of active compounds has led to the belief that there is a
minimum risk of accumulation in body tissues (Kohlert et al., 2002).
6. Therapeutic benefits of essential oils
The feeding with aromatic herbs, spices and some dietary supplements can supply the body
with essential oils. There are a lot of specic dietary sources of essential oils, such as
example orange and citrus peel, caraway, dill; cherry, spearmint, caraway, spearmint, black
pepper and lemongrass. Thus, human exposure to essential oils through the diet or
environment is widespread. However, only little information is available on the estimation
of essential oil intake. In most cases, essential oils can be absorbed from the food matrix or
as pure products and cross the blood brain barrier easily. This later property is due to the
lipophilic character of volatile compounds and their small size.
The action of essential oils begins by entering the human body via three possible different
ways including direct absorption through inhalation, ingestion or diffusion through the skin
6.1 Absorption through the skin
Essential oil compounds are fat soluble, and thus they have the ability to permeate the
membranes of the skin before being captured by the micro-circulation and drained into the
systemic circulation, which reaches all targets organs (Adorjan & Buchbauer, 2010; Baser &
Buchbauer, 2010).
6.2 Inhalation
Another way by which essential oils enter the body is inhalation. Due to their volatility, they
can be inhaled easily through the respiratory tract and lungs, which can distribute them into
the bloodstream (Margaris et al., 1982; Moss et al, 2003). In general, the respiratory tract
offers the most rapid way of entry followed by the dermal pathway.
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6.3 Ingestion
Oral ingestion of essential oils needs attention due to the potential toxicity of some oils.
Ingested essential oil compounds and/or their metabolites may then be absorbed and
delivered to the rest of the body by the bloodstream and then distributed to parts of the
body. Once essential oil molecules are in body, they interrelate with physiological functions
by three distinct modes of action:
- Biochemical (pharmacological): Interacting in the bloodstream and interacting
chemically with hormones and enzymes such as farnesene.
- Physiological: By acting (for example phytohormones) on specific physiological function.
For example, the essential oil of fennel contains a form of estrogen-like compounds that
may be effective for female problems such as lactation and menstruation.
- Psychological: by inhalation, the olfactory area of the brain (limbic system) undergoes
an action triggered by the essential oil molecules and then, chemical and
neurotransmitter messengers provide changes in the mental and emotional behavior of
the person (Buchbauer, 1993; Johnson, 2011; Shibamoto et al, 2010). Lavender and
lemon essential oils are examples for their sedative and relaxant properties.
Biological activity of essential oils may be due to one of the compounds or due to the entire
mixture. In the following, we present effects of different classes of compounds present in
essential oils together with their major properties and we give some examples of essential
oils and their potential therapeutic activities.
7. Classes of essential oil compounds and their biological activities
7.1 Hydrocarbons
The majority of essential oils fall into this category; these contain molecules of hydrogen and
carbon only and are classied into terpenes (monoterpenes: C10, sesquiterpenes: C15, and
diterpenes: C20). These hydrocarbons may be acyclic, alicyclic (monocyclic, bicyclic or
tricyclic) or aromatic. Limonene, myrcene, p-menthane, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-sabinene, p-
cymene, myrcene, α–phellandrene, thujane, fenchane, farnesene, azulene, cadinene and
sabinene are some examples of this family of products. These compounds have been
associated with various therapeutic activities (Table 2). Some structures of these compounds
are given in figure 2.
7.2 Esters
Esters are sweet smelling and give a pleasant smell to the oils and are very commonly found
in a large number of essential oils. They include for example, linalyl acetate, geraniol acetate,
eugenol acetate and bornyl acetate (Figure 3). Esters are anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic,
sedative, and antifungal (Table 2).
7.3 Oxides
Oxides or cyclic ethers are the strongest odorants, and by far the most known oxide is 1,8-
cineole, as it is the most omnipresent one in essential oils. Other examples of oxides are
bisabolone oxide, linalool oxide, sclareol oxide and ascaridole (Figure 4). Their therapeutic
benefits are expectorant and stimulant of nervous system (Table 2).
The Therapeutic Benefits of Essential Oils
p-Cymene Cadinene Fenchane Farnesene
Fig. 2. Structures of some hydrocarbons commonly found in essential oils.
Fig. 3. Structures of some esters commonly found in essential oils.
Fig. 4. Structures of some oxides commonly found in essential oils.
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Class of
Example Bioactivities Literature
drocarbons Limonene, m
pinene, pinene, sabinene,
cymene, myrcene,
Stimulant, antiviral,
Ozbek, 2003; Pen
2004; Bowles, 2003;
Svoboda & Hampson,
1999; Deans et al.,
1992; Griffin et al.,
1999; Edris, 2007;
Baser & Buchbauer,
Esters linal
l acetate,
acetate, eugenol acetate,
bornyl acetate
sedative, antifungal,
anaesthetic, anti-
, 2004; De
Sousa et al., 2011;
Sugawara et al., 1998;
Peana et al., 2002 ;
Ghelardini et al., 1999;
De Sousa, 2011.
Oxides bisabolone oxide, linalool
oxide, sclareol oxide,
, 2004;
Ghelardini et al., 2001;
De Sousa, 2011.
Lactones nepetalactone, ber
antiviral; Antipyretic,
, 2004; De
Sousa, 2011; Miceli et
al., 2005 ; Gomes et al.,
Alcohols linalol,menthol,borneol,
santalol, nerol, citronellol,
antiseptic, tonifying,
anaesthetic; anti-
, 2004;
Sugawara et al., 1998;
De Sousa, 2011;
Ghelardini et al., 1999;
Peana et al., 2002.
Phenols th
mol, eu
carvacrol, chavicol
lytic, anaesthetic,
irritant, immune
, 2004;
Ghelardini et al., 1999;
De Sousa, 2011.
citral, m
antimicrobial, tonic,
calming, antipyretic,
sedative, spasmolytic
& Deans,
2000; Pengelly, 2004;
Ketones carvone, menthone,
pulegone, fenchone,
camphor, thujone,
tic, cell
sedative, antiviral,
analgesic, digestive,
, 2004; De
Sousa et al. 2008; De
Sousa, 2011; Gali-
Muhtassib et al., 2000
Table 2. Different classes of essential oils compounds and their bioactivities.
The Therapeutic Benefits of Essential Oils
7.4 Lactones
Lactones are of relatively high molecular weight and are usually found in pressed oils. Some
examples of lactones are nepetalactone, bergaptene, costuslactone, dihydronepetalactone,
alantrolactone, epinepetalactone, aesculatine, citroptene, and psoralen (Figure 5). They may
be used for antipyretic, sedative and hypotensive purposes, but their contraindication is
allergy, especially such involving the skin (Table 2).
Fig. 5. Structures of some lactones commonly found in essential oils.
7.5 Alcohols
In addition to their pleasant fragrance, alcohols are the most therapeutically beneficial of
essential oil components with no reported contraindications. They are antimicrobial,
antiseptic, tonifying, balancing and spasmolytic (Table 2). Examples of essential oil alcohols
are linalol, menthol, borneol, santalol, nerol, citronellol and geraniol (Figure 6).
7.6 Phenols
These aromatic components are among the most reactive, potentially toxic and irritant,
especially for the skin and the mucous membranes. Their properties are similar to alcohols
but more pronounced. They possess antimicrobial, rubefacient properties, stimulate the
immune and nervous systems and may reduce cholesterol (Table 2). Phenols are often found
as crystals at room temperature, and the most common ones are thymol, eugenol, carvacrol
and chavicol (Figure 7).
7.7 Aldehydes
Aldehydes are common essential oil components that are unstable and oxidize easily. Many
aldehydes are mucous membrane irritants and are skin sensitizers. They have characteristically
sweet, pleasant fruity odors and are found in some of our most well known culinary herbs such
as cumin and cinnamon. Therapeutically, certain aldehydes have been described as: antiviral,
antimicrobial, tonic, vasodilators, hypotensive, calming, antipyretic and spasmolytic (Table 2).
Common examples of aldehydes in essential oils include citral (geranial and neral), myrtenal,
cuminaldehyde, citronellal, cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde (Figure 8).
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Fig. 6. Structures of some alcohols commonly found in essential oils.
Fig. 7. Structures of some phenols commonly found in essential oils.
Fig. 8. Structures of some aldehydes commonly found in essential oils.
The Therapeutic Benefits of Essential Oils
7.8 Ketones
Ketones are not very common in the majority of essential oils; they are relatively stable
molecules and are not particularly important as fragrances or flavor substances. In some
cases, ketones are neurotoxic and abortifacients such as camphor and thujone (Gali-
Muhtassib et al., 2000) but have some therapeutic effects. They may be mucolytic, cell
regenerating; sedative, antiviral, analgesic and digestive (Table 2). Due to their stability,
ketones are not easily metabolized by the liver. Common examples of ketones found in
essential oils include carvone, menthone, pulegone, fenchone, camphor, thujone and
verbenone (Figure 9).
Fig. 9. Structures of some ketones commonly encountered in essential oils.
In Table 2; the different classes of these compounds are summarized with their bioactivities
based on various biological studies cited in literature.
8. Mechanism of the biological activities of essential oils
So far, there is no study that can give us a clear idea and be accurate on the mode of action
of the essential oils. Given the complexity of their chemical composition, everything
suggests that this mode of action is complex, and it is difficult to identify the molecular
pathway of action. It is very likely that each of the constituents of the essential oils has its
own mechanism of action.
8.1 Antibacterial and antifungal action
Because of the variability of amounts and profiles of the components of essential oils, it is
likely that their antimicrobial activity is not due to a single mechanism, but to several sites of
action at the cellular level. Then, different modes of action are involved in the antimicrobial
activity of essential oils.
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One of the possibilities for action is the generation of irreversible damage to the membrane
of bacterial cells, that induce material losses (cytoplasmic), leakage of ions, loss of energy
substrate (glucose, ATP), leading directly to the lysis of bacteria (cytolysis) and therefore to
its death. Another possibility of action is inhibition of production of amylase and protease
which stop the toxin production, electron flow and result in coagulation of the cell content
(Bakkali et al., 2008; Burt 2004; Di Pasqua et al., 2007; Hammer et al., 2008).
Antifungal actions are quite similar to those described for bacteria. However, two additional
phenomena inhibiting the action of yeast are worth mentioning: the establishment of a pH
gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and the blocking of energy production of yeasts
which involve the disruption of the bacterial membrane.
8.2 Antiviral activity
The complex mixture of essential oils usually shows a higher antiviral activity than
individual compounds (due probably to synergism phenomena); with exception of β-
caryophyllene which is the most famous antiviral compounds found in many different
essential oils from different plant families. Different mechanisms of antiviral activity of
different essential oils and their constituents seem to be present. The antiviral activity of the
essential oil is principally due to direct virucidal effects (by denaturing viral structural
proteins or glycoproteins). Proposed mechanisms suggest that essential oils interfere with
the virus envelope by inhibiting specific processes in the viral replication cycle or by
masking viral components, which are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells, thus,
they prevent the cell-to-cell virus diffusion (Saddi et al., 2007).
9. Therapeutic properties of some essential Oils
9.1 Chamomille essential oil (Matricaria chamomilla):
9.1.1 Main active compounds: Bisabolol and chamazulene (Cemek et al.; 2008; Kamatou &
Viljoen, 2010).
9.1.2 Properties: anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, healing, decongestive
(decongest the skin) and antispasmodic (Bnouham, 2010; Tolouee et al., 2010, Alves et al.,
2010; Mckay & Blumberg, 2006).
9.2 Anise essential oil (Pimpinella anisum):
9.2.1 Main active compound: Anethole (Andrade et al., 2011; Mata et al., 2007;)
9.2.2 Proprieties: antispasmodic, emmenagogue, stomachic, carminative, diuretic, general
cardiac stimulant. (Jaiswal et al., 2009; Muchtaridi et al., 2010; Nerio et al., 2010; Tabanca et
al., 2006).
9.3 Nutmeg essential oil (Myristica fragrans):
9.3.1 Main active compounds: Sabinene, 4-terpineol and myristicin (Muchtaridi et al., 2010).
9.3.2 Properties: Antimicrobial, pesticidal activity, general tonic, brain and circulatory,
hepatoprotective, aphrodisiac, Stimulating the digestive, carminative and digestive systems
Analgesic, Emmenagogue, Antiseptic, anti-parasitic (Sankarikutty & Narayanan, 1993;
Spricigo et al., 1999; Tomaino et al., 2005).
The Therapeutic Benefits of Essential Oils
9.4 Cedar essential oil (Cedrus libani):
9.4.1 Main active compound: Limonene (Cetin et al., 2009).
9.4.2 Properties: Larvicidal, Lymphotonic, draining powerful diuretic, Regenerative blood,
Healing, astringent, Scalp Tonic, Antifungal, Anti-mosquito and anti-moth Decongestant
and antiseptic respiratory Relaxing and comforting (Dharmagadda et al., 2005; Kizil et al.,
2002; Loizzo et al., 2008; Svoboda et al., 1999)
9.5 Dill essential oil (Anethum graveolens):
9.5.1 Main active compound: Carvone (Lazutka et al., 2001; Kishore et al.,1993)
9.5.2 Properties: Antispasmodic in gastrointestinal disorders, fluidity of bronchial
secretions. (Bakkali et al., 2008; Edris, 2007; Jirovetz et al., 2003; Sridhar et al., 2003.)
9.6 Garlic essential oil (Allium sativum):
9.6.1 Main active compound: Diallylle disulfide (Kendler, 1987; Thomson & Ali, 2003)
9.6.2 Properties: Protects and maintains the cardiovascular system, hypoglycemic, Regulates
blood pressure vermifuge, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-fungal and anti-parasitic, insecticidal
and larvicidal, antioxidant (Klevenhusen et al., 2011; Lazarević et al., 2011; Lau et al., 1983;
Park & Shin, 2005)
9.7 Clove essential oil (Syzygium aromaticus):
9.7.1 Main active compound: Eugenol and eugenyle acetate (Silva & Fernandes, 2010; Fichi
et al., 2007)
9.7.2 Properties: Antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, general stimulating, hypertensive
aphrodisiac, light stomachic, carminative, anesthetic. (de Paoli et al., 2007; Koba et al., 2011;
Machado et al., 2011; Politeo et al., 2010).
9.8 Cinnamon essential oil (Cinnamomum cassia):
9.8.1 Main active compound: Cinnamaldehyde (Hseini & Kahouadji, 2007; Vyawahare et al.,
9.8.2 Properties: Powerful, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and parasiticide, uterine tonic,
anticoagulant, insecticide. (Cheng et al., 2004; Geng et al., 2011; Unlu et al., 2010).
9.9 Sweet orange essential oil (Citrus sinensis):
9.9.1. Main active compound: Limonene (Hosni et al., 2010; Viudamartos et al., 2008)
9.9.2. Properties: Antiseptic, sedative, stomachic, carminative, tonic, excellent food flavoring
(Anagnostopoulou et al., 2006; Ezeonu et al., 2001; Singh et al., 2010).
9.10. Eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus):
9.10.1. Main active compound: 1,8-cineole (Nerio et al., 2009; Vilela et al., 2009)
9.10.2. Properties: Anticatarrhale, expectorant and mucolytic, antimicrobial, Antiviral
(Ben-Arye et al., 2011; Ben Hadj et al., 2011; Caballero-Gallardo et al., 2011; Gende et al.,
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9.11. Peppermint essential oil (Mentha piperita):
9.11.1. Main active compound: menthol and menthone (Sala, 2011; Alexopoulos et al., 2011).
9.11.2. Properties: Tonic and stimulant, decongestant, anesthetic and analgesic antipruritic,
refreshing, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, mucolytic, emmenagogue (De
Sousa, 2011; Kumar et al., 2011; Sabzghabaee et al., 2011; Singh et al., 2011).
9.12. Lavender essential oil (Lavandula officinalis):
9.12.1. Main active compound: Linalol and linalyle acétate (Hajhashemi et al., 2003; Lee et
al., 2011).
9.12.2. Properties: antispasmodic, sedative, relaxing, analgesic, anti-inflammatory,
antimicrobial (Kloucek et al., 2011; Pohlit et al., 2011; Woronuk et al., 2011; Zuzarte et al.,
9.13. Tea tree essential oil (Melaleuca alternifolia):
9.13.1. Main active compound: Terpinène-1-ol-4. (Van Vuuren et al., 2009 ; Hammer et al.,
9.13.2. Properties: Antimicrobial, antiviral, antiasthenic, neurotonic, lymphatic, decongestant,
radioprotective, antispasmodic (Garozzo et al., 2009; Lobo et al., 2011; Mickienė et al., 2011).
9.14. Lemon essential oil (Citrus limonum):
9.14.1. Main active compound: limonene (Fisher & Phillips, 2008; Kim et al., 2003)
9.14.2. Properties: Strengthen natural immunity, metabolism regulator, tonic nervous
system, antimicrobial, antiviral, digestive tonic carminative and purgative (Koul et al., 2008;
Pavela et al., 2005; Pavela et al., 2008; Ponce et al., 2004).
10. Conclusion
According to literature, we can say that the essential oils and their components have many
uses, both in pharmacology and in food. In addition, they are endowed with interesting
biological activities and have a therapeutic potential. For example, essential oils exhibit
antimicrobial activities, antiviral activities with broad spectrum, and may be useful as
natural remedies and it seems that essential oils can be used as a suitable therapy for many
pathologies. In the cosmetic and in the food industry, essential oils uses are an integral part,
as they may play different roles. Therefore, economic importance of essential oils is
indisputable. It appears therefore imperative to preserve our natural, diverse flora and
support its protection in order to keep this inexhaustible source of molecules destined for
multiple targets.
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... Essential oils obtained via the supercritical fluid extraction method contain more oxygenated compounds, while oils obtained via steam distillation contain more terpene hydrocarbons [27,30,31]. ...
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Lavender is among the medicinal and aromatic plants with high economic value in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and aromatherapeutic industries, and in its composition has numerous compounds, such as tannins, anthocyanins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols, essential oil and others. The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of lavender are best highlighted by extraction techniques such as hydrodistillation, steam distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction. In the water distillation extraction method, the plants are soaked in water until boiling and steam is released, carrying the essential oils with it, which are then separated via cooling. Steam distillation is one of the most common methods used to extract essential oils from medicinal and aromatic plants. Unlike hydrodistillation, where the water is stored directly in a tank, in this method, the steam is transported into the tank from the outside and the oils are released from the plant components when the steam penetrates the structures that contain it. Essential oils contain essential compounds that have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-fungal, etc., properties. All the component parts of lavender contain essential oils, which are distributed as follows: in leaves at about 0.4%, in stems at about 0.2%, and in inflorescences at about 2–4.5%.
... Alcohol, aldehydes, esters, ketones, phenols, oxides, and terpenes are all volatile chemicals with a unique aromas. Some oils possess aromatic and therapeutic properties [30][31][32] . The rhizome contains phytochemical substances such as linalool (53.3%), limonene (14.0%), -pinene (9.3%), and -pinene (4.4%); however, essential oil from the seed of Zingiber roseum exhibited the presence of phytochemicals viz: -pinene (13.9%), -pinene (53.5%), limonene (2.2%), p-cymene (4.1%), -terpineol (4.7%) and verticiole (1.4%) [ 15 , 33 ]. ...
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Introduction: A perennial, aromatic, tuberose plant Zingiber roseum (Roscoe.) (Zingiberaceae), flourishes in tropical and subtropical climates. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, several pharmacological properties of Zingiber roseum have been reported its antiseptic, antivertigo, and antidiarrheal activities. Therefore, the present article aims to provide insights into the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Zingiber roseum. Methods: The literature was compelled after systematically searching scientific databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Research Gate. The selection criteria for the plant comprised the therapeutic potential of Zingiber roseum and its active components. Moreover, to explore anti-diabetic activity, ligands of interest from Z. roseum were evaluated for their affinity towards PPAR-and PPAR-. Results and discussions: Out of 200 articles, 140 were selected for the current study, and from the para-topic literature , it was found that Zingiber roseum has numerous pharmacological properties due to the presence of phyto-constituents like flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic chemicals, terpenoids, saponins, and phytosterols. Furthermore, in silico studies were carried out using PyRx. It was found that rosmarinic acid (-8.3 kcal/mol) and stigmasterol (-11.12 kcal/mol) exhibited the highest binding affinities for PPAR-and PPAR-, respectively, when compared to standard Rosiglitazone. Conclusion: It may be concluded that Z. roseum has several therapeutic activities. Moreover, in silico studies revealed the anti-diabetic action of Z. roseum via modulation of PPAR-and PPAR- .
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The honey bee (Apis mellifera) faces a significant threat from Varroa destructor, causing the losses of millions of colonies worldwide. While synthetic acaricides are widely used to control Varroa infestations, excessive application has led to resistant strains and poses side effects on the host. Consequently, there is an urgent need for a new acaricide that is both effective and affordable, yet safe to use on bees. One potential source of these acaricides is essential oils (EOs) and their constituents. This study evaluated the acaricidal properties of four essential oils (Eucalyptus globulus, Rosemary officinalis, Trachyspermum ammi (Ethiopian and Indian varieties), their constituents and mixture of constituents against V. destructor through the complete exposure method. Our finding showed that a 1:1 mixture of thymol and carvacrol (4 h-LC50 = 42 μg/mL), thymol (4 h-LC50 = 71 μg/mL), and T. ammi oil (4h-LC50 = 81–98 μg/mL) were the most toxic test samples against V. destructor. Honey bee behavior and selectivity were also assessed with one additional EO Thymus schimperi, indicating that T. schimperi, T. ammi, and their components were selective and did not affect the learning and memory of bees. In conclusion, the thymol and carvacrol (1:1) mixture was shown to be a promising replacement for synthetic acaricides, being three times more toxic than a commercial acaricide, fluvalinate (4 h-LC50 =143 μg/mL).
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Gymnosperm include many evergreen trees and shrubs which are extremely captivating because of their graceful habit and attractive shapes. Gymnosperms are highly important in forestry and different industries like timber, resin, essential oils, edible nuts etc. Essential oils (EOs) are popularly known as secondary metabolites. EOs are extracted from plants by steam distillation. Compounds generally have low molecular weight. α-pinene, β-pinene, terpenoids, 3-carene, myrcene, sabinene, camphene, and phenylpropanoids exhibit biological properties, which are major constituents of EOs. EOs are involved in various traditional system of medicine to cure cancer, diabetes, inflammation, bacterial and viral diseases. In the current review, we are trying to cover the potential uses of essential oils of angiosperm and gymnosperms.
Jerawat merupakan salah satu penyakit kulit autoinflamasi yang terkait dengan autoimmun yang biasa dijumpai para remaja di Indonesia. Permasalahannya, ternyata penyakit ini mempunyai prevalensi seumur hidup sebesar 85% dan menimbulkan dampak mekanisme inflamasi kompleks yang melibatkan imunitas bawaan. Bahkan bagi wanita yang berusia di atas usia 25 tahun, pengobatan jerawat menggunakan obat kimiawi mempunyai tingkat kegagalan yang tinggi. Kebutuhan akan pengembangan obat tradisional menjadi salah satu solusi untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut, khususnya terkait dengan keamanan dan kemudahan dalam penggunaannya serta mempunyai efek samping yang lebih kecil. Tanaman herbal di Indonesia telah menarik banyak perhatian karena penggunaannya secara tradisional dalam kehidupan sehari-hari yang telah banyak memecahkan permasalahan terkait dengan beberapa penyakit kulit yang disebabkan oleh autoimun. Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan aktivitas konsorsium tanaman herbal dalam menghambat mikroorganisma penyebab jerawat. Metode penelitian dilakukan dengan mengisolasi mikroorganisme penyebab jerawat dan melakukan uji penghambatan pertumbuhan mikroorganisme yang berasal dari pasien penderita jerawat dibandingkan dengan kontrol menggunakan rebusan konsorsium tanaman herbal dan menganalisis potensi aktivitas obat jerawat dari setiap tanaman menggunakan analisis PASS. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan 21 jenis tanaman herbal mempunyai aktivitas dalam mengatasi penyakit kulit yang terkait dengan autoimun dan mikroorganisme. Uji aktivitas antimikroorganisme menunjukkan diameter zona hambatan pertumbuhan sebesar 2 - 5 mm sesuai dengan semakin banyaknya larutan. Hasil analisis PASS memperlihatkan bahwa tanaman sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) memperlihatkan potensi tertinggi dalam mengobati jerawat dengan kemampuan sebesar 86%. Meskipun demikian, hasil penelitian memperlihatkan potensi tanaman herbal sebagai obat jerawat akibat autoimun akan mencapai hasil yang lebih optimal bila digunakan bersama-sama.
The Camellia genus (Theaceae) comprises more than 200 species, including the most famous Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Camellia oleifera Abel, and Camellia japonica (L.). The commercial interest in these plants linked to their seed fatty acid content increased in the last decades due to their quality and health-enhancing properties, which significantly depend on different aspects such as environmental conditions. Nowadays, the traditional extraction methods of fatty acids from camellias include mechanical press extraction and solvent extraction, which have a high environmental impact. Therefore, it is essential to develop extraction techniques to achieve the maximum lipid yield with the minimum environmental impact and cost. These innovative methods include enzymatic extraction, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). However, they are often limited to the laboratory or pilot scale due to economic or technical bottlenecks. This article aims to explore recent advances and innovations related to the extraction of fatty acids from Camellia.
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This study presents systematic data on the major percentage of compounds from aromatic plants, the yield of oil, the method used to extract oil, the scent profile, and their uses. Since then, essential oils have gained popularity due to the high potential of their novel properties, i.e. as fragrant raw materials for many products such as toothpaste, hand soap, shampoos, hair oils, bath soap, cosmetic products, floor cleaner, mosquito repellents, incense sticks, food products, therapeutic products, herbal medicines, etc. Therefore, before using some raw materials that are naturally fragrant in products, it is crucial to understand their features, such as the percentage of molecules from aromatic plants, the percentage of oil yield, the used process for oil extraction, and their fragrance profiles. It will be highly beneficial in the development of new, high-quality products items. Researchers, scientists, business owners, farmers, and industries will all benefit at the same time when new fragrance goods are developed. Abstract Introduction The secondary metabolites, volatile, fragrant oils known as essential oils (EOs) are derived from the different parts of plants and are utilised by them as defence mechanism against attacks by herbivore (Blowman, K.,, 2018). The hydrophobic liquids that make up these complex, concentrated combinations of terpenoid hydrocarbons,
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The present work examined the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract from Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae). The essential oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against 8 bacteria, 14 fungi and the yeast C. albicans, whereas methanolic extract remained inactive. The antioxidative capacity of the samples was evaluated by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. In both assays, the extract showed better antioxidative capacity than the oil. The extract reduced the stable free radical DPPH with lower IC 50 value (89.90 μg/ml) than the oil (8900 μg/ml). In the β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, the samples were not effectively able to inhibit the linoleic acid oxidation, exhibiting only 22.7% (the extract) and 16% (the essential oil) inhibitions at 2 mg/ml, far below than that of BHT (97.0%). Total phenolic constituent of the extract was 51 μg/mg (5.1%, w/w) as gallic acid equivalent. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 64 components representing 92.24% of the oil. Piperitone, camphor and 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) were the main constituents.
Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in clinical practice. It mostly occurs due to imbalance between aggressive factor and the maintenance of mucosal integrity through endogenous defense mechanism. Moreover, changes in lifestyle, increase in stress and prolong use of NSAID's found to be responsible for increasing incidences of peptic ulcer. The modern medicines have its own limitations especially against ulcers with complex pathology indicating need of substitute medication from alternative system of medicine. This review has presented the recent research advancements of herbal medicine as an antiulcer agent with the view to aid the further research to prepare ideal antiulcer agents and or formulation.
Since active compounds in herbal plants are usually present in low concentrations, a great deal of research has been done to develop more effective and selective extraction methods for the recovery of the desired compounds from the raw materials. In conventional extraction methods such as hydrodistillation (steam distillation) and solvent extraction, there are few adjustable parameters to control the selectivity of the extraction processes. Therefore, the development of alternative extraction techniques with better selectivity and efficiency is a highly desirable target. The high price of organic solvents and increasing concern over environmental factors also drive the development of new processing techniques. Since the late 1970s, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been used to isolate natural products but for a long time this technique was only applied to a few products. The development of processes and equipment over the last three decades is today beginning to pay off and industries are becoming more and more interested in supercritical techniques. Consequently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was introduced as an environmentally responsible and efficient extraction technique for solid materials. This technique has been extensively studied for the separation of active compounds from herbs and other plants as well as for the samples for the alimentary industry. Supercritical extraction of bioactive compounds from leaves of sunflower and antioxidants compounds has been studied.