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Emotional Intelligence

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Emotional Intelligence
Adrian Furnham
Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology
University College London
UK
“Emotional intelligence is an organising framework for categorising abilities relating to
understanding, managing and using feelings (P SALOVEY & J MAYER 1994)
“Emotional Intelligence: long neglected core component of mental ability or faddish and
confused idea massively commercialised” (A. FURNHAM 2001)
1. Introduction
It has been suggested that there are now well over 10,000 scholarly books, chapters and
papers on emotional intelligence. This is remarkable given that it has only been 21 years
since the topic first appeared under that name in the psychological literature. If you Google
Amazon you will find around 20 books with Emotional Intelligence in the title and three to
five times that number dealing with the concept in one form or another.
The history of emotional intelligence is this: In 1920 the concept of “Social Intelligence” was
first introduced; in 1990 the first published scientific paper on the topic using this term; in
1995 Goleman wrote the best seller “Emotional Intelligence”; in 1997 the first popular self-
report questionnaire was developed; in 2003 the first ability measure devised. There is now
a comprehensive Wikipaedia entry on the topic and various very serious handbooks and
reviews.
A few authors are very well known. One very well known model is that of Bar-On (1988).
According to the Bar-On model, emotional intelligence consists of interrelated emotional and
social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how well we understand and express
ourselves, understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands, challenges and
pressures. The emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators included in this
broad definition of the construct are based on the 5 meta-factors: intrapersonal EQ,
interpersonal EQ, Stress management EQ, Adaptability EQ and General Mood EQ. Other
models, notably that of Petrides and Furnham (2000 ab, 2003) is given below.
Since first coined by Thorndike (1920) and echoed later by Guilford (1967) psychologists
have been interested in the “social intelligences”. These are nearly always put in “inverted
commas” because, strictly speaking, they are not intelligences but conceived of as social
skills, even dispositions/traits that have both multiple causes and multiple consequences.
There are many explanations for the long standing interest in the “social intelligences”.
Cognitive ability/intelligence rarely explains more than a third to a half of the variance in
Emotional Intelligence – New Perspectives and Applications
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any outcome measure, be it academic achievement, job performance or health. The question
is, do the social intelligences account for incremental variance over IQ test results? A second
reason is that it is difficult to improve or teach cognitive ability.Third, for over twenty years
new advocates of “multiple intelligence” have been enormously successful in persuading
people both of their existence and importance, despite the quality of their empirical
evidence.
The question is what is social intelligence? Eysenck (1985) conceived of a useful model that
differentiated three types of intelligence – biological, psychometric and social – and what
factors influenced it. As we shall see there remains debate and discussion as to whether EI is
a “real” intelligence or rather a social intelligence.
Fig. 1. Eysenck’s representation of three different conceptions of “intelligence”. In this
model many things, like cognitive ability, predict social intelligence.
Mackintosh (1998) argued that social intelligence was social competence and success in
social interaction that is adaptive and can be seen in other animal species. It allows
individuals to understand others’ hopes, fears, beliefs and wishes. He noted that it is not too
difficult to define social intelligence (mainly in terms of social skills) nor devise tests to
measure it. He doubted two things: first, if these many social and interpersonal skills
actually load on a single dimension, and second whether they are uncorrelated with, and
therefore related to, standard IQ measures of cognitive ability.
Various researchers have reviewed the concept of social intelligence including its
discriminant validity, relationship to personality and classic cognitive ability, its role in “life
tasks” and how it develops over time. They believe it is multifactional, relating to such
issues as social sensitivity, social insight and social communication. In other words it is
much more of a social or personality variable than a cognitive variable which is more about
information processing and accumulation. Hence trait emotional intelligence (Petrides &
Furnham, 2001, 2003, 2006). Others like Landy (2006) are much more circumspect about the
concept. This is nicely described in the title of his chapter heading: “The long, frustrating
and fruitless search for social intelligence”.
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2. Multiple intelligences
Over the past decade or so there has been an explosion in the number of “multiple
intelligences” discovered. Hardly a year goes by before yet another is discovered. The
following table shows 14 ‘different intelligences’.
Multiple Intelligence Author Year
1. Analytical Sternberg 1997
2. Bodily-kinesthetic Gardner 1999
3. Creative Sternberg 1997
4. Emotional Salovey and Mayer 1990
5. Interpersonal Gardner 1999
6. Intrapersonal Gardner 1999
7. Mathematical Gardner 1999
8. Musical Gardner 1999
9. Naturalistic Gardner 1999
10. Practical Sternberg 1997
11. Sexual Conrad and Milburn 2001
12. Spatial Gardner 1999
13. Spiritual Emmons 2000
14. Verbal Gardner 1999
Table 1. The many identified multiple intelligences
Among academic researchers social intelligences are not usually considered part of
cognitive ability and “intelligences” is always put in inverted commas. There are two
reasons for this: first, there is very little good, empirical evidence supporting the idea that
these are separate, distinguishable factors from each other; second, they seem unrelated to
traditional measures of intelligence. More interesting, in a variety of studies, Furnham
(2001) has shown lay people believe many of the multiple intelligences (i.e. musical, bodily-
kinesthetic, emotions) are not linked to traditional ideas of intelligence.
The two figures most powerfully involved with the multiple intelligence world are
Sternberg (1997) and Gardner (1983, 1999). Gardner (1983) defined intelligence as “the
ability to solve problems or to create products that are valued within one or more cultural
setting” (p.11) and specified seven intelligences. He argued that linguistic/verbal and
logical/mathematical intelligences are those typically valued in educational settings. Linguistic
intelligence involves sensitivity to the spoken and written language and the ability to learn
languages. Logical-mathematical intelligence involves the capacity to analyse problems
logically, solve maths problems and investigate issues scientifically. These two types of
intelligence dominate intelligence tests.
Three other multiple intelligences are arts based: musical intelligence which refers to skill in
the performance, composition and appreciation of musical patterns; bodily kinaesthetic
intelligence which is based on the use of the whole or parts of the body to solve problems or
to fashion products; and spatial intelligence which is the ability to recognise and manipulate
patterns in space. There are also two personal intelligences: interpersonal intelligence which is
the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people and to
Emotional Intelligence – New Perspectives and Applications
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work effectively with them; and intrapersonal intelligence which is the capacity to understand
oneself and to use this information effectively in regulating one’s life. It is these latter two
intelligence that combined make up emotional intelligences.
However, in his later book Gardner (1999) defines intelligence as a “biopsychological
potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems
or create products that are of value in a culture” (p.33-34). In it, he introduces three possible
new intelligences although he notes: “The strength of the evidence for these varies, and
whether or not to declare a certain human capacity another type of intelligence is certainly a
judgement call” (p.47). However, he only added one new intelligence, namely naturalistic
intelligence which is “expertise in the recognition and classification of the numerous species –
the flora and fauna – of his or her environment” (p.43). It is the capacity to taxonomise: to
recognise members of a group, to distinguish among members of a species and to chart out
the relations, formally or informally, among several species. The other two were spiritual
and existential intelligences. Spiritual intelligence is the ability to master a set of diffuse and
abstract concepts about being, but also mastering the craft of altering one’s consciousness in
attaining a certain state of being. This has recently become an issue of considerable debate
(Emmons, 2000). Existential intelligence is yet more difficult to define: “the capacity to locate
oneself with respect to the furthest reaches of the cosmos – the infinite and infinitesimal –
and the related capacity to locate oneself with respect to such existential features of the
human condition as the significance of life, the meaning of death, the ultimate fate of the
physical and the psychological worlds and such profound experiences as love of another
person or total immersion in a work of art” (p.61).
Despite its popularity in educational circles, Gardner’s theory has been consistently attacked
and criticised by those working empirically in the area (Allix, 2000; Klein, 1997; Morgan,
1996: White, 2005). Visser, Ashton and Vernon (2006) tested 200 participants giving them
eight tests of the Gardner intelligences. Factor analysis reveal, against the Gardner theory, a
large g factor. The highest loading tests on this g factor were Linguistic (Verbal),
Logical/Mathematical, Spatial, Naturalistic and Interpersonal intelligences. The authors
concluded: “Results support previous findings that highly diverse tests of purely cognitive
abilities share strong loadings on a factor of general intelligence and that abilities involving
sensory, motor or personality influences are less strongly g-loaded”. (p.487). Later they
conclude: “ The substantial g-loadings of all purely cognitive tests in the current study
contradict Gardner’s assertion that there are at least eight independent intelligence domains.
Although Gardner has acknowledged the existence of g and has conceded that the eight
intelligences might not be entirely independent, his contention that positive correlations
between various cognitive tasks are largely due to verbal demands was clearly not
supported in this study, in which those verbal demands were minimized. Instead, measures
of Linguistic, Spatial, Logical-Mathematical, Naturalistic, and Interpersonal intelligences
showed a positive manifold of correlations, substantial loadings on a g factor, and
substantial correlations with an outside measure of general intelligence. The common
element that saturated the highly g loaded tests most strongly was their demand on
reasoning abilities, not their specifically verbal content.
Sternberg (1997) has also developed a multi-dimensional model also known as the
“triarchic” theory of “successful” intelligence. This posits that human intelligence comprises
three aspects, that is, componential, experiential and contextual. The componential aspect
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refers to a person’s ability to learn new things, to think analytically and to solve problems.
This aspect of intelligence is manifested through better performance on standard
intelligence tests, which require general knowledge and ability in areas such as arithmetic
and vocabulary. The experiential aspect refers to a person’s ability to combine different
experiences in unique and creative ways. It concerns original thinking and creativity in both
the arts and the sciences. Finally, the contextual aspect refers to a person’s ability to deal with
practical aspects of the environment and to adapt to new and changing contexts. This aspect
of intelligence resembles what lay people sometimes refer to as “street smarts”. Sternberg
(1997) popularised these concepts and refers to them as analytic, creative and practical
intelligence. However, practical intelligence theory has also attracted very serious criticism.
Gottfredson (2003) in an extremely exhaustive review of all the work in the area disputes
Sternberg’s central claim that there exists a general factor of practical intelligence (made up
of the three intelligences) that is distinct from academic intelligence as usually conceived.
Interest in emotional intelligence began at the same time as an interest in the multiple
intelligences. Throughout this period there was disillusionment with orthodox intelligence
(cognitive ability) testing. It was believed that IQ tests were devise and discriminatory and
that most people knew of very clever people who were quite obviously not very successful
at work. The concept of EI seemed to “arrive” just at the right time to become very popular.
3. Defining emotional intelligence
Despite its popularity, and the fact that most people claim to have heard of it, very few can
accurately define emotional intelligence. Sceptics claim that “charm and influence” became
“social and interpersonal skills” which has become “emotional intelligence”. The new term
and concept chimed with the zeitgeist and became very popular. It spawned a huge
industry particularly with those interested in success at work. Many books make dramatic
claims: for instance that cognitive ability or traditional academic intelligence contributes
only about 20% to general life success (academic, personal and work) while the remaining
80% is directly attributable to EI.
Below is a simple 2x2 way of conceiving on EI: self vs other; emotional awareness vs
management.
Goleman’s (1995) book told a simple and interesting story about emotional intelligence that
helped explain its appeal. Technical training in the essential job knowledge of any career is
easy compared to teaching IQ skills. That is, as an adult it is comparatively more straight
forward to teach a person the technical aspects of the job than the soft skills. The idea is that
there is a critical period to acquire the basis of EI which is probably during early to late
adolescence. The young person, often a male, may experience social anxiety, discomfort and
rejection while attempting to interact with and influence others (specifically those they are
attracted to, which is most often people of the opposite sex).
Hence they may over time find solace in computers and other activities with a high
skills/low contact basis. Thus, in early adulthood, they appear to be technically competent
in certain areas (IT, engineering) but still rather undeveloped in people skills and more
specifically emotional awareness and regulation. They may even be ‘phobic’ about
emotional issues and resistant to (social skills) training. It is also assumed that people are
less able to pick up EI ‘skills’ as well as less willing to try. To acquire technical skills often
Emotional Intelligence – New Perspectives and Applications
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requires considerable dedication so opportunities to acquire social skills (EQ) are, therefore,
reduced. Then the low EQ person chooses technology rather than people for fun, comfort, a
source of ideas because they do not understand emotions.
Emotional Competencies
Self Awareness
Emotional Self-Awareness
Self Confidence
Accurate Self-Assessment
Social Awareness
•Empathy
Organisational Awareness
Service Orientation
Self Management
Emotional Self-Control
• Adaptability
Achievement Orientation
• Optimism
• Initiative
• Transparency
Relationship Management
•Influence
Conflict Management
Ins. Leadership
Change Catalyst
Developing Others
Teamwork and Collaboration
Some adults often tend to be rigid, with poor self-control, poor social skills and are weak at
building bonds. Understanding and using emotions/feelings are at the heart of business and
indeed being human. Often business people prefer to talk about emotional competencies
(rather than traits or abilities) which are essentially learned capabilities. Emotional
competencies include: emotional self-awareness, emotional self-regulation, social-emotional
awareness, regulating emotions in others: understanding emotions, etc. If one is to include
older related concepts, like social skills or interpersonal competencies, it is possible to find a
literature dating back thirty years showing these skills predict occupational effectiveness
and success. Further, there is convincing empirical literature that suggests these skills can be
improved and learnt.
4. Emotional intelligence as a management fads
The application of EI in the work place seems the virtual prototype of a fad. Furnham (2006)
suggested that all management fads have a similar natural history which has seven separate
identifiable phases: One question is whether EQ will follow this trajectory, and if so, where
is it now?
a. Academic Discovery: Faddish ideas can often be traced to the world of academia. A
modest discovery may result in a paper in a specialist journal. These papers show the
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causal link between two factors relevant to work situations. These papers are not only
complicated and heavily statistical but they are cautious and preliminary. Academics
often call for replications, more research, they are hesitant and underline the complexity
of all the actual and possible factors involved. The early social and emotional
intelligence papers are a little like this. However, it is difficult to trace the concept to
one study or paper.
b. Description of the Study:This process can last a long time, and usually involves a lot of
elaboration and distortion in the process. Someone reads the paper and provides a
summary. Others hear it and repeat it. But with every repetition, the findings become
stronger and the complexity weaker. In this sense effect size estimates go up and
criticisms about experimental technique go down. The crucial findings are recorded and
embellished.
c. Popularisation in a Best Seller: The next stage is a business writer/guru takes up the call,
hears about the finding, gives them a catchy title and before you know what the fad is
about to begin. That one single, simple idea/finding/process soon becomes a book.
This is where the Goleman (1998) book plays such an important role. It is very widely
reviewed in the media around the world. It is at this stage that the fad becomes a
buzzword.
d. Consultant Hype and Universalisation: It is not the academic or the author that really
powers the fad but an army of management consultants trying to look as if they are at
the cutting edge of management theory. Because the concepts are easy to understand
and are said to have wide application, the consultants seek to apply them everywhere.
What made the EQ phenomena different? Two things: first the web which now has a
very big impact on the rapid and universal popularisation of ideas. The second was the
rapid development of measures of EQ. The concept not only struck home but it could
be (supposedly) efficiently and validly measured very easily. It was the measurement of
EQ that really appealed to the management consultants.
e. Total Commitment by “the believers”:At this point, the evangelists move from the
consultants to the managers. For a small number of companies, the technique seems to
have brought quick, massive benefits. They become happy and willing product
champions, which only serves to sell more books and fan the fires of faddishness. EQ
champions are paraded at conferences. EQ awareness, courses and training improve
performance and make people into better managers.
f. Doubt, Scepticism and Defection: After pride comes the fall. After a few years of heavy
product selling, the appetite for the fad becomes diminished. The market is saturated.
Various ‘new and improved’; or just as likely ‘shorter and simpler’; versions of the fad
are introduced. But it is apparent that the enthusiasm is gone. Managerial doubt follows
academic scepticism, followed by journalistic cynicism, and finally consultant defection.
It may be that the whole process starts with people pointing out the poor cost-benefit
analysis of introducing the fad. Or it may occur because someone goes back to the
original finding and shows that the gap has widened so much between what was
initially demonstrated and what is now done, that the two are different species.
g. New Discoveries: The end of one fad is an ideal time for trainers, writers and consultant
to spot a gap in the market. They know there is an incurable thirst for a magic bullet,
fix-all solutions, so the whole process starts again. The really clever people begin to
sense when the previous fad is reaching its sell-by-date, so that they have just enough
time to write their new best seller to get the market just right.
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Is EI a management or educational fad? Has it passed through the above phases? And if so
where is it now? Certainly the academics are only now beginning to respond with careful,
considered research that attempts to unpick the concept. Suddenly the academic journals,
particularly in differential psychology, are bursting with papers that take (hopefully) a
disinterested scientific and measured look at EI (Austin, 2004; Chan, 2004; Roberts, Zeidner
& Matthews, 2001). There has also appeared a serious, thoughtful and balanced review of
work in the area (Matthews, Zeidner & Roberts, 2002). Academic researchers are not
immune to fad and fashion. However the lag time is longer and thus what interests the two
worlds of science and practice may easily be out-of-synchrony.
5. The components of EQ
There remains still no agreement about what features, factors, abilities or skills do or do not
form part of EI. As more and more tests of, and books about EI appear on the market the
situation gets worse rather than better. Most, but not all theories and systems include ideas
about emotional awareness and regulation. Some distinguish between intra and
interpersonal emotional skills. Some use the concept of ability, others of skills, and some of
competencies.
Facets High Scorers perceive themselves as being or having……
Adaptability Flexible and willing to adapt to new conditions
Assertiveness Forthright, frank and willing to stand up for their rights
Emotion expression Capable of communicating their feelings to others
Emotion management
(others)
Capable of influencing other people’s feelings
Emotion perception
(self-and others)
Clear about their own and other people’s feelings
Emotion regulation Capable of controlling their emotions
Impulsiveness (low) Reflective and less likely to give into their urges
Relationship skills Capable of having fulfilling personal relationships
Self-Esteem Successful and self-confident
Self-Motivation Driven and unlikely to give up in the face of adversity
Social competence Accomplished networkers with excellent social skills
Stress management Capable of withstanding pressure and regulating stress
Trait empathy Capable to taking someone else’s perspective
Trait happiness Cheerful and satisfied with their lives
Trait optimism Confident and likely to ‘look on the bright side’ of life.
Table 2. Common facets in salient models of EI
This lack of agreement is typical at the beginning of the academic exploration of a new
concept. Indeed disagreement can continue for decades as big egos slog it out both
conceptually and empirically to prove the validity and veridicality of their system. It does
however make it particularly frustrating and confusing for the interested lay person.
A central unresolved question is what are the facets or components of EI. Thus early models
distinguished between the perception, appraisal and expression of emotion in self and
others; using emotion to facilitate thinking; the use of emotional knowledge to understand
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and analyse emotions as well as the reflective regulation of emotions to promote growth.
Some writers talk of emotional literacy (which involves the knowledge and understanding of
one’s own emotions and how they function), emotional fitness (which involves
trustworthiness and emotional hardiness and flexibility), emotional depth (which involves
emotional growth and intensity), and emotional alchemy (which involves using emotions to
discover creative opportunities).
Others “divide up” EI into factors like self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation,
empathy, and social skills. One more popular conception has 15 components (Petrides &
Furnham, 2003)
These fifteen scales can be combined into four related, but independent, factors labelled
well-being, self-control skills, emotional skills and social skills.
Another measure, less impressive psychometrically, but well marketed, has different scales
and dimesions
Intrapersonal (self-awareness and self-expression)
Self-Regard: To accurately perceive, understand and accept oneself
Emotional Self-Awareness: To be aware of and understand one’s emotions
Assertiveness: To effectively and constructively express one’s emotions and oneself
Independence: To be self-reliant and free of emotional dependency on others
Self-Actualization: To strive to achieve personal goals and actualize one’s potential
Interpersonal (social awareness and interpersonal relationship)
Empathy: To be aware of and understand how others feel
Social Responsibility: To identify with one’s social group and cooperate with others
Interpersonal Relationship: To establish mutually satisfying relationships and relate
well with others
Stress Management (emotional management and regulation)
Stress Tolerance: To effectively and constructively manage emotions
Impulse Control: To effectively and constructively control emotions
Adaptability (change management)
Reality-Testing: To objectively validate one’s feelings and thinking with external
reality
Flexibility: To adapt and adjust one’s feelings and thinking to new situations
Problem-Solving: To effectively solve problems of a personal and interpersonal
nature
General Mood (self-motivation)
Optimism: To be positive and look at the brighter side of life
Happiness: To feel content with oneself, others and life in general
Other scales have yet different dimensions depending on how EI is defined and measured.
This makes life rather complicated for the practitioner who is not always clear as to what
measure to use and why.
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6. Measurement
Dispute about what to measure when trying to ascertain a person’s EI is paradoxically
clearer but much more passionate when it comes to EI. Psychometricians make a basic
distinction between measures of maximum performance (e.g. IQ tests – right or wrong
answers) and measures of typical response (e.g. personality questionnaires, preference
answers) which has far-reaching implications. Self-report measurement leads to the idea of
EI as a personality trait (‘trait EI’ or ‘emotional self-efficacy), whereas potential maximum-
performance measurement would lead to ideas of EI as a cognitive ability (‘ability EI’ or
‘cognitive-emotional ability).
Thus trait EI and ability EI are two different constructs. The primary basis for discriminating
between trait EI and ability EI is found in the type of measurement approach one chooses to
employ. Many dispute the more fundamental point that EI could ever be actually measured
by cognitive ability tests. That is, EI concepts, like emotional regulation, can never be
reliably and validly measured by an objective ability test because of the subjective nature of
emotional experience.
A major difficulty with the measurement of ability EI is that emotional experiences are
inherently subjective and, consequently lack the objectivity required to make them
amenable to robust, valid and reliable maximum performance measurement. There is no
simple way of applying truly veridical criteria in the objective scoring of items relating to
the intrapersonal component of ability EI (e.g. “I am aware of my emotions as I experience
them”) simply because the application of such scoring procedures would require direct
access to privileged information, such as inner feelings and private cognitions, that is
available only to the individual who is being assessed.
This dispute has not prevented many people developing both types of tests. There currently
exists well over a dozen trait EI type tests which look essentially like personality tests. On
the other hand, there are those who see EI as a “real” intelligence or ability that needs to be
measured as such. The most well established measure is called the MSCEIT. It measures
four factors: perceiving and identifying emotions (the ability to recognise how you and
those around you are feeling), using emotions to facilitate thought (the ability to generate
emotion, and then reason with this emotion), understanding emotions (the ability to
understand complex emotions and emotional ‘chains’, and how emotions evolve), and
managing emotions (the ability to manage emotions in yourself and in others)
The eight task-level scores are reported for research and qualitative use only. The MSCEIT
asks test takers to:
Identify the emotions expressed by a face or in designs.
Generate a mood and solve problems with that mood.
Define the causes of different emotions. Understand the progression of emotions.
Determine how to best include emotion in our thinking in situations that involve ourselves
or other people.
The ‘objective’ scoring is based on two types of scoring systems. The first is called consensus
scoring which is based on popular agreement. So, show a large group a photo and/or play
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music and ask them to identify the emotion of the person in the photo and the emotion
engendered by the music. If 82% think the photo shows the person is angry then that
becomes the correct answer for the question. Equally if 73% say the music makes one
maudlin then that is the correct answer. The second way in which it is hoped to achieve
objective scoring is through expert scoring. Here various researchers whose specialty is the
emotions are asked to make judgements: i.e. do the test. Their scores are thought of as best.
Both methods are used in conjunction to determine test scores.
Measure Authors Reliability
α
Reliability
test-retest
Predictive
Validity
Incremental
Validity
Convergent /
Discriminant
Validity
Factor
Structure
EARS.
Emotional
Accuracy
Research Scale
Ma
y
er &
Geher,
1996
Low (.24
for target
scoring,
and. 53 for
consensus
scoring)
? ? ? Small and unstable
correlations with
self-report empathy
Unclear
(4 factors?)
EISC.
Emotional
Intelligence
Scale for
Children
Sullivan,
1999
Low to
moderate
??? ? ?
MEIS.
Multifactor
Emotional
Intelligence
Scale
Ma
y
er,
Caruso &
Salovey,
1999
Good for
global
ability EI
(.70-.85),
but low
(.35-.66) for
branches 3
& 4 (better
for
consensus
than for
expert
scoring)
? Unclear ? Small to moderate
correlations with
crystallized intelligence
(Gc)
Low correlations with
the Big Five
Unclear
(3 factors?)
MSCEIT.
Mayer Salovey
Caruso
Emotional
Intelligence Test
Ma
y
er,
Salovey,
& Caruso,
2002
Better for
version 2
than
version 1
(.68-.71)
? Well-
being,
verbal
SAT
scores.
Social
deviance
(over
personality
and verbal
intelligence)
Conver
g
ence between
general consensus and
expert consensus
scoring. Very low
correlations (<.30) with
trait EI measures
Unclear
(4 factors?)
FNEIPT.
Freudenthaler &
Neubauer
Emotional
Intelligence
Performance
Test
Freudent
h
aler &
Neubauer,
2003
Moderate:
.69 for
“managing
own
emotions,”
and .64 for
“managing
others’
emotions”
??? “Mana
g
in
g
own
emotions” correlated
with self-reported
intrapersonal EI (.51)
and, “managing others’
emotions” correlated
with self-report
interpersonal EI (.25).
Both subscales
correlated with the Big
Five (.18 to -.51)
Unclear
(2 factors?)
Note: Information in this table is necessarily succinct and readers are encouraged to consult the original
sources for specific details. Entries designated ‘unclear’ do not necessarily indicate conflicting evidence,
as they may also refer to lack of adequate data. Question marks indicate that we have been unable to
obtain data for the relevant entry.
Table 3. Summary of Ability EI Measures
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There are thus two very different ways to measure EI. One looks like a personality test and
indeed see EI as a type of personality trait. The other is more like an ability test. The former
is much easier and cheaper to administer than the latter. But the real question is which is the
more accurate and reliable measure. Studies have shown that scores from the two tests are
modestly positively correlated. Researchers still argue which is the better measure, but at
the very heart of the debate is whether EI is just another personality trait or conceptualised
more accurately as a real part of intelligence.
Perez et al (2005) did an excellent comprehensive review of the extant measures in the area.
No doubt more have appeared since then.
Three things are interesting about the attached tables. First, how very many tests exist which
suggests many have been rather rushed.
Second, how very little data exists to demonstrate their validity which is the gold standard
for psychometricians. Third, that there does not seem to be any attempt to look at the
relationship between these measures in a systematic review.
Measure Authors Reliability
α
Reliability
test-retest
Predictive
Validity
Incremental
Validity
Convergent /
Discriminant
Validity
Factor
Structure
TMMS. Trait
Meta Mood
Scale
Salovey
et al., 1995
.70-.85 ? Depression,
mood
recovery, goal
orientation
? Moderate
correlations
with the Big
Five
3 factors, but
no global
score
EQ-i. Emotional
Quotient
Inventory
Bar-On,
1997
Generally
good
(about .85)
Good Mental health,
coping, work
and marital
satisfaction
? Moderate to
high
correlations
with the
Big Five
Unclear
SEIS. Schutte
Emotional
Intelligence
Scales
Schutte
et al., 1998
.70-.85 ? Social support,
life and
marital
satisfaction,
depression,
performance
on cognitive
tasks
Some
evidence vis-
a-vis the
Big Five
Medium-to-hi
g
h
correlations
with the
Big Five
Unclear
(3 or 4
factors),
global score
EI-IPIP.
Emotional
Intelligence-
based IPIP
Scales
Barchard,
2001
.70-.85 ? ? ? ? ?
ECI. Emotional
Competence
Inventory
Boyatzis,
Goleman,
&
Hay/McB
er, 1999
.70-.85 for
global
score
>.85 for
social skills
Adequate,
but based
on small
samples
Moderate
correlations
with
managerial
styles and
organizational
climate. Low
correlations
with career
success
?
Unclear (small
samples);
uncorrelated
with critical
thinking and
with analytical
reasoning
Unclear
(4 factors?)
Emotional Intelligence
15
Measure Authors Reliability
α
Reliability
test-retest
Predictive
Validity
Incremental
Validity
Convergent /
Discriminant
Validity
Factor
Structure
EISRS.
Emotional
Intelligence Self-
Regulation Scale
Martinez-
Pons, 2000
.75-.94 ? Depression,
life
satisfaction,
positive affect
? Unclear Unclear
(1 factor?)
DHEIQ.
Dulewicz &
Higgs
Emotional
Intelligence
Questionnaire
Dulewicz
& Higgs,
2001
Low to
moderate
(.54-.71)
? Organizational
level
advancement
? Unclear Unclear
TEIQue. Trait
Emotional
Intelligence
Questionnaire
E.g.,
Petrides,
2001;
Petrides,
Pérez, &
Furnham,
2003
Generally
good
(about .85)
Good
(.50 to .82;
global score
.78; 12-
month
period)
Mental health
(depression,
personality
disorders,
dysfunctional
attitudes),
adaptative
coping styles,
job stress, job
performance,
organizational
commitment,
deviant
behaviour at
school,
sensitivity to
mood
induction
Good vis-a-vis
Giant Three,
Big Five, and
positive and
negative affect
The TEIQue can
be isolated in
Giant Three and
Big Five factor
space
4 factors,
global score
SPTB. Sjöberg
Personality Test
Battery
(EI Scale)
Sjöberg,
2001
.70-.85 ? Anti-
authoritarian
attitudes,
emotion
identification
skills, social
orientation
? Moderate
correlations
with
extraversion
(.37)
and
neuroticism
(-.50)
?
TEII. Tapia
Emotional
Intelligence
Inventory
Tapia,
2001
.70-.85 Good
(.60 to .70)
? ? ? 4 factors,
global score
SUEIT.
Swinburne
University
Emotional
Intelligence Test
Palmer &
Stough,
2002
Generally
good
(about .85)
Good (.82 to
.94;
1-month
period)
Well-being,
occupational
stress
? Moderate
correlations
with
neuroticism
(-.41),
extraversion
(.44),
openness
(.27)
?
WEIP-3.
Workgroup
Emotional
Intelligence
Profile
(version 3)
Jordan
et al., 2002
.70-.85 ? Self-
monitoring,
empathy
? Small to
moderate
correlations
with TMMS
Unclear
(7 factors?)
Emotional Intelligence – New Perspectives and Applications
16
Measure Authors Reliability
α
Reliability
test-retest
Predictive
Validity
Incremental
Validity
Convergent /
Discriminant
Validity
Factor
Structure
EIS. Emotional
Intelligence
Scales
Van der
Zee
et al., 2002
Adequate
for ‘other-
ratings’
(.70-.85).
Low for
self-ratings
(<.60).
? Academic
performance,
social success
Some
evidence vis-
a-vis the
Big Five
Low
correlations
with IQ.
Moderate to
high
correlations
with the
Big Five
Unclear
(3 factors?)
WLEIS. Wong
& Law
Emotional
Intelligence
Scales
Wong &
Law, 2002
.70-.85 ? Job
performance
and
satisfaction.
Or
g
anizational
commitment,
turnover
intention
? Small negative
correlations
with IQ
4 factors,
global score
LEIQ. Lioussine
Emotional
Intelligence
Questionnaire
Lioussine,
2003
.70-.85 ? ? ? Moderate
correlations
with the
Big Five
Unclear
(7 factors?)
Note: Information in this table is necessarily succinct and readers are urged to consult the original
sources for specific details. Entries designated ‘unclear’ do not necessarily indicate conflicting evidence,
as they may also refer to lack of adequate data. Question marks indicate that we have been unable to
obtain data for the relevant entry.
Table 4. Summary of Trait EI Measures
7. Emotional intelligence at work
It was no doubt Goleman’s book that electrified the public and popularised the term. He has
retried to capture attention more recently with Social Intelligence (Goleman, 2006). In his
second book he extended his ideas to the workplace. Now he has over 25 facets subsumed
under five domains. Any one inspecting this system (see below) would be astounded by the
conceptual muddle at both levels. Thus personality traits, like Conscientiousness, are
subsumed under the domain of self-regulation. Equally unrelated psychological concepts
like initiative and optimism, are classified under motivation. It seems difficult, in fact to
determine, what is not a facet of EQ. That is: does it have any divergent validity?
But the book seems to have an over inclusive view of what EQ is. There are lists of facets
and features, some derivative of each other, some quite unrelated to anything about emotion
(see Table 5). It does echo themes in the zeitgeist; hence its popularity. The book is also easy
to dip into; with many summaries and précis. Hence, there were, and indeed still are, a rash
of magazine and newspaper articles that popularised the book and the concept. This is not
“trickle down” economics, rather a waterfall of publicity. The sheer amount of positive
publicity given to the book must be one of the factors involved in its success and the
popularity of the concept at the heart of it.
Emotional Intelligence
17
Personal Competence
Self-Awareness: Knowing one’s internal states, preferences, resources and intuitions
Emotional Awareness: recognising emotions and their effects
Accurate self-assessment: knowing own strengths and limits
Self-confidence: strong sense of self-worth and capabilities
Self-Regulation: managing one’s internal states, impulses and resources
Self Control: keeping disruptive emotions and impulses in check
Trustworthiness: maintaining standards of honesty and integrity
Conscientiousness: taking responsibility for personal performance
Adaptability: flexibility in handling change
Innovation: being comfortable with novel ideas, approaches and new information
Motivation: Emotional tendencies that guide or facilitate reaching goals
Achievement drive: striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence
Commitment: aligning with the goals of the group or organisation
Initiative: readiness to act on opportunities
Optimism: persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles or setbacks
Personal Competence
Empathy: Awareness of others’ feelings, needs and concerns
Understanding others: sensing others’ feelings and perspectives and taking an active
interest in their concerns.
Developing others: sensing others’ development needs and bolstering their abilities
Service orientation: anticipating, recognising and meeting customer needs
Leveraging diversity: cultivating opportunities through different kinds of people
Political awareness: reading a group’s emotional currents and power relationships
Social Skills: Adeptness at inducing desirable responses in others
Influence: wielding effective tactics for persuasion
Communication: listening openly and sending convincing messages
Conflict management: negotiating and resolving disagreements
Leadership: inspiring and guiding individuals and groups
Change catalyst: initiating or managing change
Building bonds: nurturing instrumental relationships
Collaboration and co-operation: working with others toward shared goals
Team capabilities: creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals.
Table 5. The Emotional Intelligences at work
In his 1995 book, Goleman claimed that cognitive ability (i.e. intelligence) contributed
around 20% toward life success but the remaining 80% is directly attributable to emotional
intelligence. In a later book, Goleman (1998) lists 25 social competencies from conflict
management to self-control all of which make-up social competencies that lead success at
work.
Equally in their book entitled “Executive EQ”, Cooper and Sawaf (1997) put forth the four
cornerstones of emotional intelligence at the executive level: emotional literacy (involves the
knowledge and understanding of one’s own emotions and how they function), emotional
fitness (involves trustworthiness and emotional hardiness and flexibility), emotional depth
Emotional Intelligence – New Perspectives and Applications
18
(involves emotional growth and intensity), and emotional alchemy (involves using emotions
to discover creative opportunities).
But how to explain how EQ works: the process to explain why EQ is correlated with or
essential for business success. Consider some of the explanations for how EQ operates in the
workplace and why people with higher EI are supposed to be more successful. First, high
EQ people are better at communicating their ideas, intentions and goals. They are more
articulate, assertive and sensitive. Second, EQ is closely associated with team-work social
skills which are very important at work. Next, business leaders, high in EQ, build
supportive climates which increase organisational commitment which in turn leads to
success. Fourth, high EQ leaders are perceptive and know their own and their teams’
strengths and weaknesses which enable them to leverage the former and compensate for the
latter. Fifth, EQ is related to effective and efficient copying skills which enable people to deal
with demands, pressure and stress better. Sixth, high EQ leaders can accurately identify
what followers feel and need, as well as, being more inspiring and supportive. They
generate more excitement, enthusiasm and optimism. Seventh, high EQ managers, unlike
their low EQ companions, are less prone to negative, defensive and destructive coping and
decision-making styles.
There is no doubt that social skills and emotional sensitivity of managers at work is very
important. Emotional perceptiveness, sensitivity and management is more important is
some jobs than others. More than 20 years ago after a study of airline steward staff,
Hochschild (1983) wrote a book, The Managed Heart: Commercialisation of Human Feeling. In it
she argued for a new concept: emotional labour. She said many jobs require physical and
mental labour but some, uniquely, require emotional labour.
The idea is that service staff are required to express emotions they do not necessarily feel.
They are required to smile, be positive and appear to be relaxed regardless what they are
actually experiencing. Hochschild called this surface acting. However, in some jobs you are
almost required to feel these emotions. This is called deep acting. The idea is that (canny)
customers can spot the false display of emotion, so you have to learn the “inside-out
smile”.
Service staff have to learn to become method actors. Karl Marx said workers were alienated
from the products of their labour. Equally, Hochschild believed service workers, whose
emotions are “managed and controlled” by their employers, become alienated from their
real feelings. Hochschild argued that this cost too much, in that it caused psychological
damage in the long term. Yet there remains controversy, not so much about the concept but
whether it is essentially damaging in the way it alienates workers from their true feelings
(Seymore, 2000).
Since the start of the Millennium there have been a stream of empirical papers on EQ (Lopes
et al., 2003; Petrides & Furnham, 2000ab, 2001, 2003). Some have focused very specifically on
EQ at work. Thus Jordan et al (2002) developed a workgroup EQ scale to test hypotheses
about the relationship between EQ, team process effectiveness and team goal focus. They
did indeed find some evidence that low EQ teams did perform at lower levels than high EQ
teams. Critics however would probably simply want to relabel EQ as social skills or
emotional awareness.
Emotional Intelligence
19
Quebbeman and Rozell (2002) defined emotional intelligence in terms of self-awareness,
self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. They tested a model that suggested
that work experiences trigger responses that are mediated by EQ and Neuroticism to
produce affective outcomes, and thence behavioural outcomes. Similarly, Petrides and
Furnham (2006) looked at the relationship between EQ, job stress, control and satisfaction as
well as organisational commitment. EQ predicted perceived job control which predicted job
satisfaction and thence commitment. However, they found significant sex differences in the
whole process.
Many have subsequently discussed and tested the idea that emotional intelligence is related
to work success. Some papers have been theoretical, others empirical. Thus, Quebberman
and Rozell (2002) propose a model that posits how emotional intelligence is related to work-
place aggression. Dulewicz and Higgs (2001) developed, and part tested, a model that puts
EQ at the centre of the predictors of job performance. Thus, they believe that cognitive
ability and specified management competencies contribute to a person’s EQ (self-awareness,
interpersonal sensitivity, etc). EQ is modified by other factors called drivers (decisiveness)
and constrainers (lack of emotional resilience), but directly predicts performance. They
argue that they have evidence to suggest that EQ is directly related to leadership through
specific leadership competencies like creating the case for change, engaging others, as well
as implementing and sustaining change.
Jordan et al (2002) looked at the work related performance of low vs high EQ work groups.
They found high emotional intelligence teams operated at high levels of performance
throughout the study period while low emotional intelligence teams, initially performed at a
low level, but equalled the performance of the high emotional intelligence teams by the end
of the study period. This suggests the power of EQ is rather limited.
Petrides and Furnham (2006) found in a study of British working adults that emotional
intelligence was related to perceived job control, which predicted job satisfaction. They
found, however, evidence of sex differences such that in males EQ was negatively predictive
of perceived job stress while there was no significant relationship in females.
Zeidner, Matthews and Roberts (2004) provided a useful critical overview of the role of EQ in
the workplace. As they note, often business people prefer to talk about emotional
competencies (rather than traits or abilities), which are essentially learned capabilities. In
this sense, EQ is “the potential to become skilled at learning certain emotional responses”
(p.377). It, therefore, does not ensure that individuals will (as opposed to can) manifest
competent behaviours at work. Thus, EQ is an index of potential. However, emotional
competence does, it is argued, assist in learning (soft) interpersonal skills. They tried to
specify these emotional competencies. They include: emotional self-awareness, emotional
self-regulation, social-emotional awareness, regulating emotions in others, understanding
emotions, etc. If one is to include older related concepts like social skills or interpersonal
competencies then it is possible to find a literature dating back thirty years showing these
skills predict occupational effectiveness and success. Further, there is convincing empirical
literature that suggests these skills can be improved and learnt.
However Zeidner et al (2004) are quite rightly eager to squash the IQ vs EQ myth. They note
(my italics) “several unsubstantiated claims have appeared in the popular literature and the
media about the significance of EI in the workplace. Thus, EI has been claimed to validly
Emotional Intelligence – New Perspectives and Applications
20
predict a variety of successful behaviours at work, at a level exceeding that of intelligence…
Of note, however, Goleman is unable to cite empirical data supporting any causal link
between EI and any of its supposed, positive effects” (p.380).
The authors point out that EQ measures must demonstrate criterion, discriminant,
incremental and predictive validity to be cost effective in business and scientifically sound.
We know that general ability (IQ) predicts around 20 – 30 % of the variance in (higher) job
performance across all jobs, all criteria, but more for complex jobs.
They review studies which provide positive, mixed and negative results. Quite rightly they
offer critiques of the studies which purport to show EQ linked to work success. Typical
problems include: The psychometric properties of the EQ measure; Not controlling for
intelligence (cognitive ability) or personality factors; not having very robust measures of
work-related behaviour; Not being able to disentangle the direction of causality through
using longitudinal studies; and having too many impressionistic, anecdotal studies, too few
of which are published in peer review journals.
The authors are also interested in the explanation for the process. Thus if EQ does predict
satisfaction, productivity, team work etc. the question is what is the process or mechanism that
accounts for this? It seems in the literature, there are various speculations to account for this:
High EQ people are better at communicating their ideas, intentions and goals. They are
more articulate, assertive and sensitive.
EQ is closely associated with team-work social skills, that are very important at work.
Business leaders, high in EQ, build supportive climates which increase organisational
commitment, which in turn leads to success.
High EQ leaders are perceptive and know their own and their teams’ strengths and
weaknesses, which enables them to leverage the former and compensate for the latter.
EQ is related to effective and efficient coping skills, which enable people to deal with
demands, pressure and stress better.
High EQ leaders can accurately identify what followers feel and need, as well as, be
more inspiring and supportive. They generate more excitement, enthusiasm and
optimism.
High EQ managers, unlike their low EQ companions, are less prone to negative,
defensive and destructive coping and decision-making styles.
Zeidner et al (2004) end with an evaluative summary and guidelines to do good research in
the area: “Overall, this section of our review suggests that the current excitement
surrounding the potential benefits from the use of EI in the workplace may be premature or
even misplaced. Whereas EI appears related to performance and affective outcomes, the
evidence for performance is very limited and often contradictory. Much of the predictive
validity of questionnaire measures of EI may be a product of their overlap with standard
personality factors. Furthermore, the literature is replete with unsubstantiated
generalisations, with much of the existing evidence bearing on the role of EI in occupational
success either anecdotal or impressionistic and/or based on unpublished or in-house
research. Thus, a number of basic questions still loom large: Do emotionally intelligent
employees produce greater profits for the organisation? Does EI enhance well-being at the
workplace? Are the affects of training in EI likely to result in increases in job performance
and/or work satisfaction?” (p.380).
Emotional Intelligence
21
In order to provide both good theory and evidence to support the use of EQ in
organisational settings, Zeidner et al (2004) recommend the following:
The measure of EQ used needs to have reliability and validity and be clearly
differentiated from related constructs. “A science of EI requires specifying the
definition, number, type and range of primary emotional abilities within a formal
psychometric model” (p.390).
Researchers need to match the test to the job and specify precisely the context and
process by which it works. They recommend an emotional task analysis to understand
how EQ works in different jobs.
Researchers need good measures of the criterion job behaviour; they need to look at
facets or components of EQ and they need to measure other variables like IQ or
personality traits. In short, despite some rather fantastic claims to the contrary, the
guiding principle appears presently as “caveat emptor”.” (p.393).
A special issue of the Journal of Organisational Behaviour (Vol 26) in 2005 was dedicated to EI
in the workplace. This included a review of measures (Conte, 2005), but also a conceptual
critique by Locke (2005) who concluded robustly that: “EI’s extension into the field of
leadership is even more unfortunate. By asserting that leadership is an emotional process,
Goleman denigrates the very critical role played by rational thinking and actual intelligence
in the leadership process. Given all the add-ons to the concept proposed by Goleman et al.
(2002), any associations between leadership effectives and an EI scale that included these
add-ons would be meaningless.
However, Ashkansy and Daus (2005) argue the concept and its measurement is sound and
worthy of attention. They assert four things: Emotional intelligence is distinct from, but
positively related to, other intelligences. It is an individual difference, where some people
are more endowed, and others are less so. It develops over a person’s life span and can be
enhanced through training. It involves, at least in part, a person’s abilities to identify and to
perceive emotion (in self and others), as well as possession of the skills to understand and to
manage those emotions successfully.
Daus and Ashkansy (2005) also identified and refuted three claims by their critics namely:
Emotional intelligence is dominated by opportunistic “academics-turned-consultants” who
have amassed much fame and fortune based on a concept that is shabby science at best. The
measurement of emotional intelligence is grounded in unstable, psychometrically flawed
instruments, which have not demonstrated appropriate discriminant and predictive validity
to warrant/justify their use. There is weak empirical evidence that emotional intelligence is
related to anything of importance in organisations.
The area is thus alive and well with vigorous debate about concepts, measurement and
usefulness. From an academic perspective it seems very important to establish the
independence of either trait or ability emotional intelligence from related concepts and
provide robust measures of it. More importantly there remains a great deal of work to be
done on demonstrating how, when and why emotional intelligence impacts work related
behaviour. If the area has done nothing else, it has succeeded in making emotions at work a
topic worth of investigation.
Emotional Intelligence – New Perspectives and Applications
22
8. Conclusion
If you “google” emotional intelligence you will notice that there are over 7 million hits. This
is true testament to the popularity of the concept that has come of age. The academics are
now catching up and there are now reviews and meta-analyses which show the predictive
power of EI. Thus, for instance, Martins, Ramalho and Morin (2010) in a comprehensive
meta-analysis showed EI was clearly, strongly and explicably linked to mental and physical
health. Mavroveli & Sanchez-Ruiz (2011) showed EI related to academic behaviour and
school achievement. In a masterly review one of the most important researchers in the area
Petrides (2011) noted how the applications of EI have been to organizational, clinical, health,
educational and social psychology.
However it should not be thought that the area has escaped criticism and debate. Still some
wonder if EI adds anything beyond traditional personality and cognitive ability variables
(Bastian, Burns & Nettelbeck, 2005). There is accumulating evidence that EI does indeed add
incremental evidence over classic personality and ability measures to predict career-making
decision difficulties (Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2009a) and scholastic success (Di Fabio &
Palazzeschi, 2009b).
Another issue of great interest and importance is whether EI can be trained: that is whether
EI is in some sense a trainable skill. Recent evidence by Di Fabio and Kenny (2011) suggests
that specific training can have significant beneficial success. However we need to know
more what type of training is most successful and why.
There also remains a bitter war between those who hold an ability vs a trait conception of EI.
(Petrides, 2010). Yet the field has come a long way in 20 years. Academics are still trying to
test the claims of the early enthusiasts and beginning to understand where EI “fits in” with
what we know about individual differences. It remains an exciting time for all those
working in this area.
9. Acknowledgements
Many sections of this chapter are based on previous papers that I have written. I remain, as
always, constantly in debt to my good friend and colleague Dr Dino Petrides for allowing
me to access his amazing knowledge of the whole story of emotional intelligence,
particularly on how it is measured
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Thesis
Le présent travail est une première étape de recherche et développement (R et D), basée sur une adaptation du modèle d‟Harvey et Loiselle (2009), établissant un modèle de conception d‟un logiciel ludique et pédagogique désigné par le terme de « jeu sérieux lexical » (JSL). Cette démarche vise à favoriser l‟apprentissage du vocabulaire d‟une langue étrangère, les jeux sérieux constituant une tendance montante en éducation, bien qu‟ils connaissent présentement des limites. Une recension des écrits est effectuée autour des concepts liés au vocabulaire et au jeu sérieux. L‟accent est mis sur la recension des stratégies d‟apprentissage du vocabulaire, au nombre de 109. Les thèmes de la motivation (pour apprendre le vocabulaire ou pour jouer) et de l‟apprentissage (du vocabulaire ou via un jeu sérieux) font également l‟objet d‟une recension des écrits. Les réseaux sociaux, parce qu‟ils permettent l‟interaction et offrent des jeux vidéo, sont aussi abordés. À partir de ces données, le mémoire propose une manière d‟adapter les concepts des jeux vidéo et des réseaux sociaux pour exploiter les différentes stratégies d‟apprentissage du vocabulaire sous la forme d‟un JSL. La méthode consiste à réaliser des équivalences (appelées « fusions ») entre les concepts liés au vocabulaire et au jeu sérieux afin d‟aboutir à la conception du JSL. Les stratégies d‟apprentissage du vocabulaire sont ainsi transposées dans un jeu en vue d‟en constituer les règles. Des critères de connaissances à acquérir et d‟aspects ludiques sont définis. Au final, un modèle conceptuel de transposition des stratégies d‟apprentissage du vocabulaire dans un jeu sérieux est établi.