Seismic Ground Motion Amplifications Estimated by Means of Spectral Ratio Techniques: Examples for Different Geological and Morphological Settings

In book: Earth and Environmental Sciences
Source: InTech
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Available from: Simone Marzorati
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    • "Researchers and practitioners have approached the problem of topographic effects from four primary avenues: (1) field observations of earthquake damage patterns and strong motion recordings (Hough et al. 2011, Rathje et al. 2011, Assimaki and Gazetas 2004, Athanasopoulos et al. 1999, 2001, Ashford and Sitar 1994, Celebi 1987, 1991, Boore 1972); (2) experimental studies using arrays of sensors placed strategically on topography to record aftershocks or other weak-motion data (Massa et al. 2011, 2014, Barani et al. 2014, Hartzell et al. 2014, Formisano et al. 2012, Marzorati et al. 2011, Buech et al. 2010, Graizer 2009, Stewart and Sholtis 2005, Caserta et al. 2000, Davis and West 1973); (3) theoretical and analytical estimates of frequency content and amplification for simple two-dimensional (2-D) cross sections (Paolucci 2002, Ashford and Sitar 1997, Sanchez-Sesma 1985); and (4) numerical modeling of 2-D (Assimaki and Jeong 2013, Lovati et al. 2011, Maufroy et al. 2012, Lee et al. 2009, Bakavoli et al. 2011) and three-dimensional (3-D) (Bakavoli et al. 2011, Lovati et al. 2011, Assimaki and Kausel 2007, Assimaki et al. 2005, Ashford et al. 1997, Geli et al. 1988, Sanchez-Sesma et al. 1982, Bouchon 1973) simplified topography. Although topographic amplification remains difficult to quantify for irregular 3-D topographic features, the previous studies on have revealed several key qualitative insights, originally summarized by Wood et al. (2012): 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes two large, high-quality experimental data sets of ground motions collected with locally dense arrays of seismometers deployed on steep mountainous terrain with varying slope angles and topographic features. These data sets were collected in an area of central-eastern Utah that experiences frequent and predictable mining-induced seismicity as a means to study the effects of topography on small-strain seismic ground motions. The data sets are freely available through the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation data repository ( under the DOI numbers 10.4231/D34M9199S and 10.4231/D3Z31NN4J. This paper documents the data collection efforts and metadata necessary for utilizing the data sets, as well as the availability of supporting data (e.g., high-resolution digital elevation models). The paper offers a brief summary of analyses conducted on the data sets thus far, in addition to ideas about how these data sets may be used in future studies related to topographic effects and mining seismicity.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Earthquake Spectra