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A New Fingerprint Authentication Scheme based on Secret-splitting for Cloud Computing Security



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A New Fingerprint Authentication Scheme
Based on Secret-Splitting for
Enhanced Cloud Security
Ping Wang1, Chih-Chiang Ku1 and Tzu Chia Wang2
1Department of Information Management, Kun Shan University,
2Institute of Computer and Communication Engineering,
National Cheng Kung University,
1. Introduction
The number of commercially-available web-based services is growing rapidly nowadays. In
particular, cloud computing provides an efficient and economic means of delivering
information technology (IT) resources on demand, and is expected to find extensive
applications as network bandwidth and virtualization technologies continue to advance.
However, cloud computing presents the IT industry not only with exciting opportunities,
but also with significant challenges since consumers are reluctant to adopt cloud computing
solutions in the absence of firm guarantees regarding the security of their information.
Two fundamental issues arise when users applying cloud computing to software as a
service (SaaS). First, if enterprise data is to be processed in the cloud, it must be encrypted to
ensure its privacy. As a result, efficient key management schemes are required to facilitate
the encryption (and corresponding decryption) tasks. Second, as the sophistication of the
tools used by malicious users continues to increase, the data processed in the cloud is at
increasing risk of attack. Consequently, there is an urgent requirement for robust
authentication schemes to ensure that the data can be accessed only by legitimate,
authorized users.
Network attacks such as phishing or man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks present a serious
obstacle to consumer acceptance of cloud computing services. According to reports released
by privacy watchdog groups in the US, more than 148 identity theft incidents, affecting
nearly 94 million identities, occurred in 2005 in the US alone (Mark, 2006). Identity theft is
therefore one of the most severe threats to the security of online services. As a result, it is
imperative that SaaS providers have the means to authenticate the identity of every user
attempting to access the system. Due to the non-denial requirements of remote user identity
authentication schemes, this is most commonly achieved using some form of biometrics-
based method.
The term “biometrics” describes a collection of methods for identifying individuals based
upon their unique physiological or behavioral characteristics (Furnell et al. 2008). Generally
speaking, the physiological characteristics include the individual’s fingerprint, vein pattern,
DNA and shape of face, while the behavioral characteristics include the handwriting
dynamics, voice and gait. Automated biometric recognition systems are now widely used
Recent Application in Biometrics
throughout the automotive; IT and banking industries (see Figs. 1 and 2). For example,
Miura et al. (2005) developed a biometric authentication system based on the individual’s
finger vein for accomplishing secure online authentication over small devices such as
notebook computers, cell phones, and so on.
Fig. 1. Fingerprint scanner and smart card reader
Fig. 2. Sensor-based scanning of user fingerprint template
However, existing biometric authentication systems cannot absolutely guarantee the
identity of the individual. For example, biometric features such as the fingerprint may be
acquired surreptitiously and then used by a malicious user. Similarly, even in multi-factor
authentication methods such as smart cards, in which the biometric information is protected
using a password, the password may be cracked by network hackers and the biometric
information then copied and counterfeited. These proposals are invariably based on the
assumption of employee honesty. Unfortunately, this assumption cannot also be guaranteed
in practical applications, and many real cases have been reported in which dishonest interior
staff have stolen users’ authentication details from the authentication database and have
then used these details to acquire the customers’ private information for financial gain (see
A New Fingerprint Authentication Scheme Based on Secret-Splitting for Enhanced Cloud Security
Fig. 3. Theft of biometric features by dishonest staff
To resolve the security issues described above, the present study proposes a new remote
authentication scheme based on a secret-splitting concept. In the proposed approach, part of
the biometric data is encrypted and stored on a smart card, while part of the data is
encrypted and stored on a server (see Fig. 4). This approach not only resolves the problem of
data abuse by interior staff, but also helps protect the users’ information against malicious
attack such as hacking into the Certificate Authority (CA) since to counterfeit the entire
biometric information, dishonest staff or hackers must simultaneously decrypt two secret
keys rather than just one.
Fig. 4. Proposed authentication scheme based on secret-splitting
In addition to the secret-splitting concept, the proposed authentication scheme utilizes the
Diffie-Hellman key exchange / agreement algorithm (Diffie & Hellman, 1976) to guarantee
the security of the data transmissions between the terminal and the server. The main
differences between the scheme proposed in this study and existing methods can be
summarized as follows: (i) the smart card stores only part of the fingerprint template used in
the identity authentication process. As a result, the user’s identity is protected even if the
card is lost or stolen. (ii) the template information stored on the smart card and server,
Recent Application in Biometrics
respectively, is independently encrypted. Consequently, the information obtained by a
hacker or dishonest member of staff from a successful attack on the authentication database
is insufficient to pass the liveness test.
A remote authentication scheme based on a secret-splitting concept is proposed for
resolving the problem of user privacy in cloud-computing applications. In contrast to
existing multi-factor authentication schemes, the proposed method minimizes the threat of
attacks by dishonest interior employees since only a subset of the information required to
pass the liveness test is stored on the user authentication database.
The remainder of this chapter is organized as follows. Section 2 briefly reviews the essential
properties of identity authentication schemes and presents the related work in the field.
Section 3 introduces the remote identity authentication scheme proposed in this study.
Section 4 examines the robustness and computational efficiency of the proposed approach.
Finally, Section 5 presents some brief concluding remarks.
2. Existing multi-factor authentication methods
Remote authentication is essential in ensuring that only legitimate individuals are able to
access a network and make use of its resources. Typically, remote authentication is achieved
using one of the following well-known schemes: (1) user account / password, (2) network
address / domain name, (3) shared secret keys, (4) public keys, (5) digital signatures, (6)
biometric authentication, (7) digital certificates, or (8) smart cards. Figure 5 shows a typical
authentication procedure using a smart card in conjunction with the user’s fingerprint.
Fig. 5. Remote authentication using smart card and fingerprint
Password-based authentication schemes have the advantage of simplicity, but are reliant
upon the user memorizing the password and remembering to modify it periodically in
order to maintain the security of their account. Smart cards, in which the user’s identity
authentication information is encrypted on an embedded chip, have a number of benefits
compared to traditional password-based methods, namely (i) the user’s information is
protected by a simple Personal Identity Number (PIN); (ii) the risk of identity theft is
minimized by means of sophisticated on-chip defense measures; and (iii) single smart cards
can be programmed for multiple uses, e.g. banking credentials, medical entitlement, loyalty
programs, and so forth. Consequently, various multi-factor authentication schemes based
upon smart cards and integrated biometric sensors have been proposed.
In a pioneering work of multifactor authentication schemes, For example, J.K. Lee et al.
(2002) proposed a remote identity authentication scheme in which a smart card was
A New Fingerprint Authentication Scheme Based on Secret-Splitting for Enhanced Cloud Security
integrated with a fingerprint sensor. In the proposed approach, the smart card, a secret
password, and the user’s fingerprint were taken as inputs in the login process and the
fingerprint minutiae, encrypted with the time stamp and the user’s authentication template,
were then compared with the authentication value stored on the card. To enhance the
security of the ElGamal public key system (ElGamal, 1985) used in J.K. Lee et al. (2002), the
encryption parameters were randomly generated in accordance with both the user’s
fingerprint minutiae and the time stamp. However, while the proposed method is therefore
robust toward replay attacks, clock synchronization is required at all the hosts, which is a
significant challenge in open network environments.
Kim et al. (2003) proposed an integrated smart card / fingerprint authentication scheme in
which a password list was not maintained at the server such that the users were able to
change their passwords at will. Moreover, protection against replay attacks was provided by
means of Nonce technology, thereby avoiding the need for clock synchronization at the
hosts. However, Scott (2004) showed that the Nonce-based design rendered the system
vulnerable to imitation attacks given the collection by a hacker of a sufficient number of
network packets to calculate the authentication value.
Later on, Lin and Lai (2004) showed that under certain circumstances, the method proposed
by Lee et al. was unable to resist identity masquerade attacks. Accordingly, the authors
proposed a new scheme for enhancing the security of the method presented in J.K. Lee et al.
(2002) by allowing the users to choose and change their passwords at will. However,
Mitchell and Tang (2005) showed that the method proposed by Lin and Lai also contained a
number of serious flaws, most notably (i) hackers may simply copy the fingerprint from the
imprint cup; (ii) the time stamp generated during a legal login procedure may be detected
by a malicious user and then modified in order to login illegally at some future point in
time; and (iii) the system contains no rigorous mechanism for preventing malicious users
from using old passwords to perform an illegal login operation when the legitimate users
change their passwords.
Recently, Fan et al. (2006) proposed a three-factor remote authentication scheme based on a
user password, a smart card and biometric data. Importantly, in the proposed approach, the
server only stores an encrypted string representing the user identity. That is, the biometric
data is not revealed to any third party; including the remote server. The scheme is
implemented using a two-step procedure. In the first step (the registration step), an
encrypted user template is constructed by mixing a randomly-chosen string with the
biometric characteristics of the user via an exclusive-or operation (XOR). In the second step
(the login step), the fingerprint minutiae obtained via a sensor are encrypted using a second
randomly-chosen string, and the two strings are then sent to a sensor for matching. The
scheme has the advantage that all three security factors (the password, the smart card and
the biometric data) are examined at the remote server, i.e., the system is a truly three-factor
remote authentication system. Furthermore, the authentication process performed at the
remote server does not require the exact value of the user’s biometric data to be known. As a
result, the security of the user’s biometric information is improved. However, when the
registration process is performed in a centralized way (e.g., a central Certificate Authority
(CA) is used to issue certified users with a certificate), the scheme is vulnerable to the theft
of the user’s fingerprint minutiae by interior dishonest staff. In other words, while the
scheme preserves the privacy of the users in the login and authentication phases, the
security of the biometric data is not guaranteed during the registration phase.
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3. A secret-splitting remote authentication scheme
This section proposes a novel remote authentication protocol for network services based on
the secret-splitting concept. The proposed protocol comprises three phases, namely the
initialization phase, the registration phase, and the authentication phase (see Fig. 6).
Fig. 6. Proposed fingerprint matching concept
In the initialization phase, the manufacturer produced a smart card and wrote a set of
unique security parameters (AN) into it. In the registration phase, the user registers with a
CA organization, and verifies their legal identity by means of traditional physical identity
documents such as an identity card or a social security card. Encrypted fingerprint template
A (EA’) is generated from the information extracted by a fingerprint scanner (EA) and the
smart card information obtained from a card reader (AN), and the remaining part of the
encrypted fingerprint template B (EB’) is directly extracted from the authentication
database. Once the two templates (EA’, EB’) have been combined into a complete template
by the terminal, the comparison results are sent to the server to verify the legality of the
user, that is, (EF = EF’). Note that this step is designed to prevent counterfeit attacks in
which a malicious hacker sends a “legal user” message directly from the terminal in order to
deceive the server.
Fig. 7 presents the function flow diagram of the proposed remote authentication scheme.
The details of each phase in the scheme are presented in Sections 3.1~3.3.
A New Fingerprint Authentication Scheme Based on Secret-Splitting for Enhanced Cloud Security
Fig. 7. Function flow diagram of proposed remote authentication scheme
3.1 Initialization phase
When the smart card manufacturer accepts an order from the CA, it writes various security
parameters into the cards (e.g., the card number or authentication number (AN)) and then
sends the cards to the CA. The detailed procedure is shown in Fig. 8
Step 1.1: Manufacturer randomly chooses a large prime number p and determines its root α.
Step 1.2: Manufacturer generates a unique Authentication Number (AN) based on a pre-
defined coding rule.
Step 1.3: Manufacturer randomly selects a 128-bit string K as a key for symmetric
encryption and keeps (p, α, AN, K) secret.
Step Executor Actions
1.1 Manufacturer Randomly choose a large prime number p and determines its
root α
1.2 Manufacturer Generate a unique Authentication Number (AN)
1.3 Manufacturer Randomly select a 128-bit string K as a key for symmetric
encryption and keep [ p, α, AN, K ] Smart card secret.
Fig. 8. Initialization phase
3.2 Registration phase
The user registers with the CA and receives a smart card once he or she has confirmed their
legal identity using some form of physical identity document. As shown in Fig. 9, the
registration phase comprises five steps, namely:
Step 2.1: Let user Ui with identity IDi be about to register with the server. The user chooses a
card password, PWi , the password is then saved to the smart card, and then protected by
the encryption mechanism of smart card.
Recent Application in Biometrics
Step 2.2: The fingerprint image of User Ui is obtained via a sensor and the minutiae are
extracted from this image to form a fingerprint template Fi. The terminal separates Fi into
two parts, FiA and FiB, where FiA and FiB represents part A and part B of fingerprint template,
Step 2.3: The terminal computes EAi= h (FiAAN), EBi= h (FiBAN), and HEFi =h
(EAiEBi ), where is a merge operation and h(.) is a public one-way hash function.
Step 2.4: The terminal sends (IDi, hEBi, p, α, K, HEFi) to the server over a secure channel
Step 2.5: The terminal stores (IDi , PWi, hEAi) in the smart card.
Step Executor Actions
2.1 Ui Determine a card password PWi
2.2 Ui
Form a fingerprint template Fi using the fingerprint
minutiae obtained via a sensor. (Note that Fi represents the
fingerprint template of user Ui.) Separate Fi into two parts,
FiA and FiB .
2.3 Terminal Compute EAi= FiAAN, EBi= FiBAN
2.4 TerminalÎServer Send (IDi, hEBi, p,α,K, HEFi)
2.5 Terminal Store (IDi , PWi , hEAi) on smart card
Terminal ÎUi [ IDi , PWi, hEAi, p ,α, AN, K ] Smart card
Fig. 9. Registration phase
3.3 Authentication phase
Users insert their smart card, containing a partial authentication template into a card reader
and a login request is then sent to the authentication server. The fingerprint information is
checked using the following eight-step procedure (see Figs. 10 and 11):
Step 3.1: User Ui inputs his or her password PWi* into the terminal. If the password is
correct, the AN is extracted; else the login request is rejected.
Step 3.2: Users “provide their fingerprint via a sensor, and the fingerprint is then
compared with that stored on the authentication server. Let Fi* represent the fingerprint
minutiae extracted by the sensor. The terminal separates Fi* into FiA* and FiB*, and then
computes EAi*= FiA*AN and EBi*= FiB*AN. The two parts (i.e., EAi* , EBi*) are then
merged to generate the full biometric template of the user, i.e., EFi*= EAi*EBi*. The server
sends EBi to the terminal for comparison purposes in order to verify the users legal
identity. If a match is obtained (i.e., EBi==EBi*), the authentication process proceeds to
Step 3.3; else it terminates.
Step 3.3: (Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm). The terminal randomly selects a
number A
Xsuch that A
, and then computes mod
=and YA= IDi ||YT, where
α and p are both stored on the smart card. The terminal then sends YA to the server.
Similarly, the server randomly selects a number B
X such that B
computes mod
=, and then sends YB to the terminal.
A New Fingerprint Authentication Scheme Based on Secret-Splitting for Enhanced Cloud Security
Step 3.4: The terminal uses YB to compute the session key
=. Similarly, the
server uses YA to compute the common session key,
=. Note that SK is a
shared secret between the terminal and the server.
Step Executor Actions
3.1 Ui Input password PWi*
Terminal Examine PWi* and gain AN
3.2 Ui Scan finger to provide information required to
construct fingerprint template Fi*
Terminal Separate Fi* into FiA* and FiB*, where
EAi*= FiA*AN , EBi*= FiB*AN, and EFi*= EAi*EBi*
ServerÎ Terminal Extract EBi from server. If a match is obtained (i.e.,
EBi== EBi*), go to Step 3.5; else terminate the
authentication process
3.3 Terminal Randomly select a number XA such that XA <p
Compute mod
TerminalÎ Server YA= IDi ||YT
Server Randomly select a number XB such that XB <p
Server ÎTerminal Send YB to terminal
3.4 Terminal
Fig. 10. Authentication phase (Steps 3.1~3.4).
Step 3.5: The server generates a one-time symmetric key RK, computes M=Esk(EBi||RK),
and then sends M to the terminal. Note that Esk(.) denotes a symmetric encryption function
(such as the AES method) based on the session key SK.
Step 3.6: The terminal acquires EBi and RK by performing the decryption process DSK (M),
and extracts EAi from the smart card. EAi and EBi, are then merged to obtain EFi=
EAiEBi, where Dsk(.) denotes a symmetric decryption function based on the session key
Step 3.7: The terminal compares EFi* and EFi. If a match is obtained, the legal user is
successfully identified; else the terminal sends RM=ERK(h(EFi)||CM) to the server for
reconfirmation purposes. Note that ERK is a symmetric decryption function based on the key
RK, and CM is a message indicating the matching result.
Step 3.8: The server re-verifies the match h(EFi) == HEFi . If a match is obtained, the server
accepts the login request of Ui; else it rejects the request.
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Executor Actions
3.5 Serve
Generate a one-time
rivate ke
ÎTerminal Compute
) and send
3.6 Terminal Decr
t DSK (
) to obtain EBiand R
Extract EAi using card reader, then merge two parts of
template, i.e., EFi= EAiEBi
3.7 Terminal If Match
i*== E
,then CM=true; else CM=false
Terminal ÎServe
Return the Comparison Messa
e (CM) and E
i with
tion RM=ER
3.8 Server Decr
t DRK (RM) to obtain h(E
i) and CM
Verify (h(EFi) == HEFi)
Accept the login request of Ui if match is obtained; else
ect lo
in re
Fig. 11. Authentication phase (Steps 3.5~3.8).
Summarizing the procedures shown in Figs. 9~11, the overall sequence diagram of the
proposed remote authentication scheme can be illustrated as shown in Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Sequence diagram of proposed remote authentication scheme
4. The security performance and computational efficiency
This section discusses the security performance and computational efficiency of the
proposed remote authentication scheme.
A New Fingerprint Authentication Scheme Based on Secret-Splitting for Enhanced Cloud Security
4.1 Security analysis
This sub-section demonstrates the robustness of the proposed authentication scheme toward
three common forms of attack, namely (i) authentication factor attacks; (ii) network attacks;
and (iii) interior attacks originating from the card-issuing organization.
4.1.1 Authentication factor attacks
Given a three-factor authentication scheme (i.e., password, smart card and user biometrics),
a hacker requires all three factors in order to successfully complete the authentication
process. It is possible that the smart card and password may be stolen or duplicated.
However, in the scheme proposed in this study, the biometrics template is strongly
protected using a secret-splitting technique. Thus, even if a hacker manages to obtain the
partial fingerprint template EBi, he or she cannot generate the partial template EAi without
possessing the knowledge of the authentication number (AN) stored on the smart card.
Besides, hackers have no matters to generate the other part of biometrics template (EAi),
except they crack the program which is used for merging EAi* and EBi*, however, this
program generally is an executive binary code and burn in the ROM of card issuing
machine. In other words, it is extremely difficult for a hacker or a dishonest member of staff
to obtain all three authentication factors for a particular user, and thus the proposed scheme
is as safe as other multi-factor authentication schemes.
As described above, in the proposed approach, the biometric data of a user is separated into
two parts (EAi , EBi), encrypted and stored on a smart card and a server, respectively. This
approach not only preserves the privacy of the users in the login and authentication phases,
but also helps protect the users’ information against the theft of the user’s fingerprint
minutiae by interior dishonest staff.
4.1.2 Network attacks
This section demonstrates the robustness of the proposed authentication scheme toward
three common types of network attack, namely (i) man-in-the-middle attacks, (ii) dictionary
attacks, (iii) replay attacks.
Strong encryption authentication helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks. In the proposed
scheme, the authentication template, encrypted using a 128-bit AES symmetric encryption
algorithm, is split into two parts; stored on the smart card and the server, respectively. To
prevent from the man-in-the-middle attacks, the data transmissions between the terminal
and the server are protected by a session key generated using the Diffie-Hellman key
exchange algorithm. Therefore, hackers are not easily able to steal the complete set of
biometric data. Thus, the security of the biometric data is further enhanced since solving the
Discrete-Logarithm Problem (DLP) in order to crack the Diffie-Hellman protected
transmissions is extremely hard within a finite period of time [14]. In addition, the
decryption process is further complicated (from the hacker’s perspective) by the fact that the
session key is changed on a periodic basis. Thus, a hacker not only faces a major challenge in
determining the AN of the smart card and the coding used to construct the partial
authentication template EAi, but also encounters severe difficulties in cracking the encrypted
transmission packets exchanged between the terminal and the server.
For dictionary attacks, cracking a password needs either weak password strength or large
quantity of hash of the target password; two cases can be prevented by both strong hash
function algorithms such as MD5 and the SHA family and long character password with
numbers, mixed case, and symbols in Step 2.1.
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Assume that a hacker has attained the formation of the terminal (AN, EAi* , EBi*) in Steps
3.1~3.4 from the terminal and smart card, and then launches a replay attack to counterfeit a
legal user in the authentication process. In Step 3.5, a one-time session key (RK) is randomly
generated by the server. This key is valid only for the current authentication process. In
other words, old session keys cannot be re-used, and thus imitation attacks are thwarted.
4.1.3 Attacks originating within card issuing organization
This section demonstrates the robustness of the proposed scheme toward interior staff
attacks in the registration phase and authentication phase, respectively.
Registration phase
In the registration process, the users scan their finger in order to provide the system with the
fingerprint minutiae required to construct the finger template (see Step 2.2). The fingerprint
template Fi, stored in the Random Access Memory (RAM) of the terminal is utilized only in
the subsequent registration process. That is, to prevent exposure of the user’s biometric data
to any unauthorized third party, Fi and its related parameters are deleted as soon as the
authentication process is complete. Therefore, interior staff and external hackers have little
chance of acquiring Fi since it exists within the system for only a short period of time and,
moreover, its location within the terminal RAM varies dynamically.
Authentication phase
As shown in Fig. 6, the three components of the authentication template generated in the
proposed scheme are stored separately in the cards, terminal and servers (“on two different
physical components, namely (i) EAi is stored on the smart card; (ii) and (iii) EBi is stored at
the authentication server. Thus, even if the template data at the authentication server is
stolen by a dishonest member of staff, the authentication process cannot be completed since
the remaining template information is missing. In practice, a dishonest member of staff can
only complete the authentication without password and smart card, except someone is
capable of copying process by somehow copying the user’s card and acquiring the user’s
fingerprint from the imprint cup.
4.2 Computational complexity
In this section, the computational complexity of the proposed scheme is compared with that
of the schemes presented by Fan et al. (2006), Lin and Lai (2004), Kim et al. (2003) and J.K.
Lee et al. (2002) (see Table 1). Among the various computations performed by the different
schemes, the exponential operation in the decryption procedure (E) is the most time
consuming. It is observed that the number of exponential operations in the schemes
proposed by Lee et al. and Lin and Lai, respectively, is slightly higher than that in the
proposed scheme and significantly higher than that in the scheme proposed by Fan et al. In
addition, it is seen that the overall computational complexity of the scheme proposed in this
study is slightly higher than that of the scheme proposed by Fan et al. due to the separation
of the authentication data and the encryption of the symmetric keys during transmission.
Compared to the scheme proposed by Fan et al., the proposed scheme requires three
additional exponential operations and two additional merge operations. However, the
number of symmetric decryption operations is reduced by one, while the number of hash
and XOR operations is reduced by three and one, respectively. Significantly, the scheme
proposed by Fan et al. utilizes the Rabin algorithm (Rabin, 1979) to protect the symmetric
keys during transmission. Whilst this approach reduces the number of exponential
operations required, the security of the communications between the terminal and the
A New Fingerprint Authentication Scheme Based on Secret-Splitting for Enhanced Cloud Security
authentication server cannot be guaranteed in an open environment. By contrast, the scheme
proposed in this study uses the Diffie-Hellman key exchange /agreement algorithm to
protect the terminal-server communications. Thus, while a greater number of exponential
operations are required (i.e., to solve the Discrete-Log Problem), the security of the
transmissions is significantly improved relative to that in Fan et al.’s scheme.
It is acknowledged that the proposed scheme has certain limitations. For example, in the
event that the user loses his or her smart card, the CA cannot immediately re-issue a new
card since they do not possess the complete fingerprint template. In other words, the users
must repeat the registration process in order to obtain a new card. Furthermore, the
computational complexity of the proposed scheme is slightly higher than that of existing
schemes. However, compared to existing methods, the proposed scheme ensures the
security of the users’ biometric information even if the contents of the authentication
database are stolen. In other words, the proposed scheme achieves a compromise between
the need to reduce the computational cost of the remote authentication process and the need
to minimize the security threat posed by dishonest interior staff.
Computational cost of lo
and authentication
Store complete
biometric tem
osed scheme 4E+3SE+3SD+H+2X+2M No No
Fan et al.
E+3SE+4SD+4H+3X Client No
Lin and Lai (2004) 5E+3H+4X Client Yes
Kim et al. (2003)
4E+2H Server Yes
Kim et al. (2003)
4E+1H Server No
J.K. Lee et al.
7E+2H+2X Server Yes
Table 1. Comparison of related schemes (revised from Lee S.W. et al., 2005)
Note that E represents the computational time required to perform modular exponentiation;
SE denotes the computational time required to perform modular symmetric encryption; SD
is the computational time required to perform modular symmetric decryption computation;
H denotes the computational time required to perform a one-way hash function; X is the
computational time required to perform a modular exclusive-or operation; and M represents
the computational time required to perform a modular merge operation.
5. Conclusions
This paper has presented a novel remote authentication scheme based on a secret-splitting
concept for cloud computing applications. Compared to existing methods, the proposed
scheme has a number of important advantages, namely (i) the users can choose passwords
(PWi) for their smart cards at will; (ii) the smart card and server each store a partial
biometric template rather than the full template; and (iii) the partial templates are integrated
only when the users have successfully completed the login process in the authentication
phase. The proposed scheme is robust toward three common forms of attack, i.e., man-in-
the-middle attacks, dictionary attacks and replay attacks. As a result, it provides an effective
solution for enhancing the security of cloud computing applications, and is therefore
beneficial to SaaS service providers in improving user acceptance of their services.
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6. Acknowledgements
This study was supported partly by TWISC@NCKU, and by the National Science Council
under the Grants Nos. NSC100-2219-E-006-001 and NSC 99-2219-H-168-001.
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... Eyeprint ID [48] Private Face Recognition [134] Fingerprint recognition with embedded cameras [135] Handwritten password cloud-based [136] FRS [137] SMCBA [138] Cloud-empowered mobile biometrics with face recognition [139] Multi factor authentication schemes Three factor authentication scheme Remote password authentication scheme with smart cards and biometrics [142] Key hash-based fingerprint [143] Provably secure biometrics-based scheme for mobile client-server networks [144] Privacy preserving protocol for e-Health clouds [145] Cryptography based biometric authentication Fingerprint based biocryptographic protocol [147] Mobile device integration of fingerprint [153] Secret-splitting remote authentication [151] Identity based biometric authentication [154] ...
... After successful mutual authentication, communication between mobile user and server is protected by biometric-based symmetric session key. Wang et al. [151] proposed a remote authentication scheme based on secret splitting concept which provides an efficient way of enhancing cloud security by protecting against insider dishonest staff as well as hacking certificate authority. The biometric data are divided into two parts: One part is encrypted and stored on cloud, while other is encrypted independently and stored on authentication database server. ...
... The biometric data matching is done at the terminal so there is a threat of the template leakage in this scheme. This scheme is comprised of three different phases: initialization phase, registration phase and authentication phase as follows [151,152]: ...
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The incessant spurt of research activities to augment capabilities of resource-constrained mobile devices by leveraging heterogeneous cloud resources has created a new research impetus called mobile cloud computing. However, this rapid relocation to the cloud has fueled security and privacy concerns as users’ data leave owner’s protection sphere and enter the cloud. Significant efforts have been devoted by academia and research community to study and build secure frameworks in cloud environment, but there exists a research gap for comprehensive study of security frameworks in mobile cloud computing environment. Therefore, we aim to conduct a comprehensive survey to analyze various cryptographic, biometric and multifactor lightweight solutions for data security in mobile cloud. This survey highlights the current security issues in mobile cloud environment and infrastructure, investigates various data security frameworks and provides a taxonomy of the state-of-the-art data security frameworks and deep insight into open research issues for ensuring security and privacy of data in mobile cloud computing platform.
... The server side uses a dynamic token from the hash table in generating the key. The authors of [24] proposed an authentication system which takes advantage of biometric systems. The mechanism proposes a system that uses fingerprint systems to let the user gain access to the system. ...
... D⊕4⊕3⊕4 = E and C⊕3⊕C = 3. Thus, before swapping C i is randomly selected from C 0-15 where i = 0 to 15 and perform Flm ⊕ Ci operation and then swapped with F cs ⊕ C j where j = 16-31 and C j is randomly selected from C [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31] . The operation is repeated eight rounds and in each round a random index of i and j are selected, so same position can also be selected multiple times. ...
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The popularity of data storage in cloud servers is getting more and more favored in recent times. Its ease of storage, availability and synchronization of personalized cloud file storage using client applications made cloud storage more popular than ever. In cloud storage system, using a basic authentication method like username and password are still one of the most popular forms of authentication. However, the security ensure by such traditional authentication method is weak and vulnerable because the username and password can be compromised by intruders or the user account can be left open by forgetting to logoff in public computers, leading to exposure of information to unauthorized users and hackers. In recent years, using a two-factor authentication has become a trend throughout network-based cloud services, online banking system and any form of services that requires user authentication. Here, in this paper a second layer authentication in the form of session key is used to ensure the authenticity of the activities of the user after user’s web-based account is logged-in successfully. The interesting and the critical contribution in this paper is the way the session key is generated and delivers to the authentic user. The key is generated by using the hash value of the file content, file size, file last modified, pseudo-random generated by the server using CPU temperature, clock speed, system time, and network packet timings, and user based 8 digit random position selection from a 32 digit Hex to mitigate against the attacker while performing vital file activities which may lead to data lost or data destruction or when user’s credentials are compromised.
... In [20], the authors proposed a new remote authentication protocol for network services based on the concept of sharing secrets. Three phases are illustrated in the proposed protocol, namely the initialization phase, the registration phase and the authentication phase. ...
... In [20], authors have suggested a framework known as CS2 highlighting on integrity of data, verifiability and confidentiality. A novel remote authentication method based on secret-splitting policy has been introduced in [21]. Authors have used smart card, and suggested that users can select their own passwords. ...
Conference Paper
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Emerging technologies in cloud environment have not only increased its use but also posed some severe issues. These issues can cause considerable harm not only to data storage but also to the large amount of data in distributed file structure which are being used in collaborative sharing. The data sharing technique in the cloud is prone to many flaws and is easily attacked. The conventional cryptographic mechanism is not robust enough to provide a secure authentication. In this paper, we overcome this issue with our proposed Reliable Framework for Data Administration (RFDA) using split-merge policy, developed to enhance data security. The proposed RFDA performs splitting of data in a unique manner using 128 AES encryption key. Different slots of the encrypted key are placed in different places of rack servers of different cloud zones. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system are analyzed using comparative analysis from which it is seen that the proposed system has outperformed the existing and conventional security standard.
Cloud computing is boon in technology field which provide on-demand services in IT domain. Security and authentication threats are challenges associated with storage and access of data in cloud environment. Authentication in cloud computing is a major concern with the increase in cloud user base. The authentication schemes in cloud computing are based on hash function, biometric, logic functions to keep the data in secure and safe manner. This paper compares the different methods of authentication schemes in terms of complexity and the strength to prevent attacks and proposes a new improved method using sparse matrix approach performing better than simple matrix approach. Our method improves the usability of full matrix approach converting it to sparse matrix to authenticate client for use of cloud service.
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Cloud computing has created much enthusiasm in the IT world, institutions, business groups and different organizations and provided new techniques to cut down resource costs and increase its better utilization. It is a major challenge for cloud consumers and service providers equally. Establishing one's identity has become complicated in a vastly interconnected cloud computing network. The need of a consistent cloud security technique has increased in the wake of heightened concerns about security. The rapid development in cloud data storage, network computing services, accessing the cloud services from vendors has made cloud open to security threats. In this chapter, we have proposed an approach based on Ear Biometric for cloud security of individual consumers and vendors. This approaches started to get acceptance as a genuine method for determining an individual's identity. This chapter provides with the stepping stone for future researches to unveil how biometrics can change the cloud security scenario as we know it.
Conference Paper
Biometric is being increasingly used for authentication of user. During enrolment, an enrolment biometric template is generated from the user's raw biometric data. This template is typically stored in the authentication database and used for matching with the template generated when the user presents himself/herself for login. The stored enrolment template can be vulnerable and lead to security problems if it is not secured. For instance, an attacker who has been able to gain access to the database may replace the template with an imposter's such that the imposter can gain access to the system. In this work, a practical solution is proposed for securing the template by using encryption. Encryption involves a key which then has to be stored securely, otherwise, an attacker who has gained access to the server may retrieve the key and use it to encrypt/decrypt the templates. Our solution proposes the use of dynamic keys which are not stored in the database but which are generated on the fly when the user provides a password. Our proposed practical solution to securing biometric template can be easily implemented with any biometric device.
Conference Paper
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More and more researchers combine biometrics with passwords and smart cards to design remote authentication schemes for the purpose of high-degree security. However, in most of these authentication schemes proposed in the literature so far, biometric characteristics are verified in the smart cards only, not in the remote servers, during the authentication processes. Although this kind of design can prevent the biometric data of the users from being known to the servers, it will result in that they are not real three-factor authentication schemes and therefore some security flaws may occur since the remote servers do not indeed verify the security factor of biometrics. In this paper we propose a truly three-factor remote authentication scheme where all of the three security factors, passwords, smart cards, and biometric data, are examined in the remote servers. Especially, the proposed scheme fully preserves the privacy of the biometric data of every user, that is, the scheme does not reveal the biometric data to anyone else, including the remote servers. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the proposed scheme is immune to both the replay attacks and the offline-dictionary attacks and it satisfies the requirement of low-computation cost for smart-card users.
We introduce a new class of public-key functions involving a number n = pq having two large prime factors. As usual, the key n is public, while p and q are the private key used by the issuer for production of signatures and function inversion. These functions can be used for all the applications involving public-key functions proposed by Diffie and Hellman, including digitalized signatures. We prove that for any given n, if we can invert the function y = E (x1) for even a small percentage of the values y then we can factor n. Thus, as long as factorization of large numbers remains practically intractable, for appropriate chosen keys not even a small percentage of signatures are forgeable. Breaking the RSA function is at most hard as factorization, but is not known to be equivalent to factorization even in the weak sense that ability to invert all function values entails ability to factor the key. Computation time for these functions, i.e. signature verification, is several hundred times faster than for the RSA scheme. Inversion time, using the private key, is comparable. The almost-everywhere intractability of signature-forgery for our functions (on the assumption that factoring is intractable) is of great practical significance and seems to be the first proved result of this kind.
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After a short introduction to biometrics w.r.t. IT security, we derive conclusions on how biometrics should be put to use and how not at all. In particular, we show how to handle security problems of biometrics and how to handle security and privacy problems caused by biometrics in an appropriate way. The main conclusion is that biometrics should be used between human being and his/her personal devices only.
This paper proposes an efficient remote user authentication scheme using smart cards, which does not require password verification tables. To withstand message replay attacks, the proposed scheme uses random nonces in place of timestamps. So, it does not require synchronized clocks. In our scheme, users are able to freely choose and change their passwords. Moreover, the proposed protocol is very efficient in computation cost because the security only relies on one-way hash functions and provides mutual authentication between two entities.
Recently, Lee, Ryu and Yoo proposed a fingerprint-based remote user authentication scheme by using smart cards and biometrics. Their scheme is based on two tiers of ElGamal's private key cryptosystem and fingerprint verification. The scheme is novel by introducing biometrics verification technology into authentication scheme using smart cards. In this paper, we point out that their scheme is vulnerable to masquerade attack. We propose a new scheme to enhance their security. Furthermore, by using our scheme, users can conveniently choose and change their passwords. Our scheme is suitable for applications with high security requirement.
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The home,network is a new,IT technology environment for making an offer of convenient, safe, pleasant, and blessed lives to people, making,it possible to be provided with various home,network services by constructing home network infrastructure regardless of devices, time, and places. This can be done by connecting home devices based on wire and wireless communication networks, such as mobile communication, Internet, and sensor network. However, there are many risks involved, for example user privacy violations and service interference. Therefore, security service is required to block these risk elements, and user au- thentication is an essential component,for secure home,network service. It enables non-authorized persons not to use home network. In this paper, an authentication protocol for secure communications,is proposed for se- cure home,network environments. The proposed authentication protocol is designed to accept existing home,networks based on public key in- frastructure (PKI) and Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA), which both use Kerberos.
Conference Paper
This paper deals with new problems which arise in the application of cryptography to computer communication systems with large numbers of users. Foremost among these is the key distribution problem. We suggest two techniques for dealing with this problem. The first employs current technology and requires subversion of several separate key distribution nodes to compromise the system's security. Its disadvantage is a high overhead for single message connections. The second technique is still in the conceptual phase, but promises to eliminate completely the need for a secure key distribution channel, by making the sender's keying information public. It is also shown how such a public key cryptosystem would allow the development of an authentication system which generates an unforgeable, message dependent digital signature.
Conference Paper
A biometrics system for identifying individuals using the pattern of veins in a finger was previously proposed. The system has the advantage of being resistant to forgery because the pattern is inside a finger. Infrared light is used to capture an image of a finger that shows the vein patterns, which have various widths and brightnesses that change temporally as a result of fluctuations in the amount of blood in the vein, depending on temperature, physical conditions, etc. To robustly extract the precise details of the depicted veins, we developed a method of calculating local maximum curvatures in cross-sectional profiles of a vein image. This method can extract the centerlines of the veins consistently without being affected by the fluctuations in vein width and brightness, so its pattern matching is highly accurate. Experimental results show that our method extracted patterns robustly when vein width and brightness fluctuated, and that the equal error rate for personal identification was 0.0009%, which is much better than that of conventional methods.
This paper proposes two ID-based password authentication schemes, which does not require a dictionary of passwords or verification tables, with smart card and fingerprint. In these schemes, users can change their passwords freely. For a network without synchronization clocks, the proposed nonce-based authentication scheme can withstand message replay attacks. The proposed two schemes require a system to authenticate each user by each user's knowledge, possession, and biometrics, and this feature makes our schemes more reliable.