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Applications of RFID Systems - Localization and Speed Measurement

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RFID location systems for indoor and outdoor positioning are a promise for the future, even the performances of these systems are affected by many factors. We identified here that for a system working in the RF band near 900 MHz, the objects interposed between the antenna system and the tags to be located may have a great influence in terms of accuracy of the measurement results. In closed areas multiple reflection paths may disturb the measurement systems, a percent of only 40 to 60 of total measurements are enough accurate to locate an object. In such conditions, there are small chances for this kind of systems to be used for high precision indoor applications requiring more than several tens of centimetres accuracy. The results obtained from the measurements we made in open area test sites are more promising, more than 93 percent of total result were not affected by notable errors. For speed measurement of mobile objects by using RFID systems, we may conclude there are many aspects to solve before such systems may be used in commercial applications. Despite the precision for both passive and active transponders positioning is in the range of 10-30 centimetres for methods based on the time of arrival and angle of arrival, the performances obtained for speed measurements are not good enough when a large number of mobile objects are simultaneously in range. For a single transponder or a reduced number of transponders and small speeds, bellow 40 km/h, the speed measurement errors were below 30 %. For better speed measurement results we must combine the use of a RFID system for reading IDs and transponder internal memory contents with a classical radar system and process the results in a software interface. Regarding the EMC aspects of this RFID location system, we may say, based on measurements presented here, that the electric field are high enough not to use this system indoors at distances less than 5 meters, if humans are present on a regular basis in that area. For applications in open areas, like access control for auto vehicles and many similar others, this kind of systems are very good.
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8
Applications of RFID Systems -
Localization and Speed Measurement
Valentin Popa, Eugen Coca and Mihai Dimian
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava,
Romania
1. Introduction
Many efforts were made in the last years in order to develop new techniques for mobile objects
identification, location and tracking. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are a
possible solution to this problem. There are many different practical implementations of such
systems, based on the use of radio waves from low frequencies to high frequencies. In this
chapter we present a short review of existing RFID systems and an in depth analysis of one
commercial development system. We also present a speed measurement application using the
same RFID system. The last section of this chapter offers important electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC) information regarding the use of high frequency RFID systems. All
results are from experiments performed in real life conditions. EMC and speed measurements
were performed in a 3 m semi-anechoic chamber using state-of-the-art equipments.
2. RFID locating systems
Localization of mobile objects has become of great interest during the last years and it is
expected to further grow in the near future. There are many applications where precise
positioning information is desired: goods and assets management, supply chain
management, points of interest (POIs), proximity services, navigation and routing inside
buildings, emergency services as defined by the E911 recommendations (FCC 1996) in North
America and EU countries, etc. There are numerous outdoor solutions, based mainly on
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) but there are also so-called inertial systems (INS).
Solutions based on cellular phone networks signals are another good example of outdoor
positioning service. For GPS based solution the precision of location is dictated by a sum of
factors, almost all of them out of user control. Inertial systems can provide continuous
position, velocity and orientation data that are accurate for short time intervals but are
affected by drift due to sensors noise (Evennou & Marx, 2006). For indoor environments the
outdoor solutions are, in most of the practical situations, not applicable. The main reason is
that the received signal, affected by multiple reflection paths, absorptions and diffusion
(Wolfle et al., 1999), is too weak to provide accurate location information. This introduces
difficulties to use positioning techniques applied in cellular networks (time of arrival, angle
of arrival, observed time reference, etc.) in order to provide accurate location information
inside buildings or isolated areas. Indoor positioning systems should provide the accuracy
desired by the context-aware applications that will be installed in that area.
Source: Radio Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Bringing Research to Practice, Book edited by: Cristina Turcu,
ISBN 978-953-7619-73-2, pp. 278, February 2010, INTECH, Croatia, downloaded from SCIYO.COM
Radio Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Bringing Research to Practice
114
There are three main techniques used to provide location information: triangulation, scene
analysis and proximity (Finkenzeller 2003). These three techniques may be used separately
or jointly. Indoor positioning systems may be divided into three main categories. First of all
there are systems using specialized infrastructure, different from other wireless data
communication networks. Second, there are systems based on wireless communication
networks, using the same infrastructure and signals in order to obtain the location
information. Third, there are mixed systems that use both wireless networks signals and
other sources to achieve the goal. There are many implementations, we mention here several
of them having something new in technology and/or the implementation comparing with
previous systems (Gillieron et al., 2004; Gillieron & Merminod, 2003; Fontana 2008; D'Hoe et
al., 2009; Priyantha et al. 2000; Van Diggelen & Abraham, 2001; De Luca et al., 2006; Ni et al.,
2003; Bahl et al., 2000):
- Active Badge is a proximity system that uses infrared emission of small badges
mounted on the moving objects. A central server receives the signals and provides
location information as the positions of the receivers are known;
- Cricket system from MIT which is based on "beacons" transmitting an RF signal and an
ultrasound wave to a receiver attached to the moving object. The receiver estimates its
position by listening to the emissions of the beacons based on the difference of arrival
time between the RF signal and the ultrasound wave;
- MotionStar is a magnetic tracker system which uses electromagnetic sensors to provide
position information;
- MSR Easy Living uses computer vision techniques to recognize and locate objects in 3D;
- MSR Radar uses both triangulation based on the attenuation of the RF signal received
and scene analysis;
- Pinpoint 3D-iD which uses the time-of-flight techniques for RF emitted and received
signals to provide position information;
- Pseudolites are devices emulating the GPS satellite signals for indoor positioning;
- RFID Radar which used RF signals;
- SmartFloor utilizes pressure sensors integrated in the floor. The difference of pressure
created by a person movement in the room is analyzed and transmitted to a server
which provides the position of that person;
- SpotON is a location technology based on RF signals. The idea is to measure on the
fixed receivers the strength of the RF signals emitted by the tags mounted on moving
objects to be located.
3. Location applications using a RFID system
3.1 Introduction
RFID systems are still developing, despite the problems and discussions generated by
privacy issues. Many commercially available systems using passive or active transponders
provide only information regarding the identity (ID), memory content and in very few
cases, the position of the transponders relative to a fixed point, usually the main antenna
system. Very few progresses were made in the direction of using these systems for real-time
position or speed measurements. One development system delivering accurate positioning
information for active transponders is the RFID Radar from Trolley Scan.
Applications of RFID Systems - Localization and Speed Measurement
115
3.2 RFID radar locating system description
The locating system we used to perform the location measurement tests is a mixed one,
based on both ToA - Time of Arrival and AoA - Angle of Arrival methods (Coca & Popa,
2007). It uses a system based on one emitting antenna and two receiving ones. The working
principle, mainly based on a tag-talks-first protocol (Coca et al., 2008), is as follows: when a
transponder enters the area covered by the emitting antenna, it will send its ID and memory
content. The signal transmitted by the transponder is received by two receiving antennas.
Based on the time difference between the two received signals and the range data, it
computes the angle and the distance information.
We used for our tests active long-range transponders of Claymore type. The system uses a
central frequency of 870.00 MHz with a bandwidth of 10 kHz.
3.3 Experimental setup and measurement results
Experimental setup included an anechoic chamber, the RFID system with the antenna
system and several transponders as shown in the figure bellow:
Fig. 1. The RFID system on the turn-table in the anechoic chamber with the control computer
connected to the Ethernet network via optical-fibre isolated converters
The diagrams shown bellow are obtained from the signal transmitted between the receiving
antennas pre-processor (and the demodulation block) and the digital processing board
located inside the reader. The board is made using a Microchip Explorer 16 development
board. We used for measurements a LeCroy 104Xi scope and 1/10 passive probes.
A typical signal received by the processing board, when only one active transponder is in
the active area of the reader, is represented in Figure 2. When multiple transponders are
located in the Radar range, the received signal contains multiple data streams. See, for
example, Figure 3, which presents the signal received in the presence of four transponders.
The information transmitted by the reader system to the processing board inside the reader
is plotted in Figure 4.
The transmission duration for one transponder takes approximately 2.66 milliseconds
for 1024 bits. The ID bits from the first part of the transmission, the so-called header,
which is shown in the zoomed part at the bottom of Figure 5. The last part of the
transmission contains the information regarding the angle and time relative to the receiving
antennas.
Radio Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Bringing Research to Practice
116
Fig. 2. Reading one transponder every 333 ms
Fig. 3. Four transponders located in reader's range
Fig. 4. Reading 1024 bits from one transponder takes 2.66 ms
Applications of RFID Systems - Localization and Speed Measurement
117
Fig. 5. Header data with one active transponder
As one can see in Figure 6, a bit is transmitted every 26 microseconds.
Fig. 6. Every bit takes about 26 µs to be transmitted
We made a series of tests during several days, in different environmental conditions and
using various positions for the tags. Before starting the measurement session the receiver
itself must be calibrated using, as recommended by the producer, an active tag. The tag was
positioned in the centre in front of the antenna system at 9 m distance. The operation is
mandatory as the cables length introduces delays in the signal path from the antenna to the
receiver. We made a calibration for every site we made the measurements, in order to
compensate the influence of antenna, cables and receiver positions.
For the tests we used all three types of tags provided (two active and one passive). The
batteries voltages were checked to be at the nominal value before and after every individual
test in order to be sure the results were not affected by the low supply voltage. For the first
set of tests we used a real laboratory room (outdoor conditions), with a surface of about 165
square meters (7.5 meters x 22 meters). There were several wooden tables and chairs inside,
but we did not changed their positions during the experiment. The antenna system was
mounted about 1.4 meters height above the ground on a polystyrene stand, with no objects
Radio Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Bringing Research to Practice
118
in front. All tags were placed at the same height, but their positions were changed in front of
the antenna. We used a notebook PC to run the control and command software.
We present only the relevant results of the tests and conclusions, very useful for future
developments of this kind of localization systems. For the first result presented we used two
long range tags, one Claymore (at 10 meters in front of the antenna) and one Stick type (at 5
meters) - Figure 7.
Fig. 7. Test setup for distance measurement from two tags - one at 5 m and the second at 10
m in front of the antenna
Fig. 8. Results for 2 active tags placed on 5 meters and 10 meters respectively, in front of the
antenna system in a room
Applications of RFID Systems - Localization and Speed Measurement
119
As one might see in Figure 8, the positions for each individual tag reported by the system
were not stable enough in time. We run this measurement for several times using the same
spatial configuration for all elements. The test presented here was made for duration of 4
hours. Analyzing the numerical results, we find out that 65% of cases where for the tag
located at 5 meters the position was reported with an error less than 10% and for 47% of
cases the results were affected by the same error for the tag located 10 meters in front of the
antenna.
The second setup was the same in respect of location of the measurement, but one tag was
moved more in front of the antenna system, at a distance of 20 meters. The results are
practically the same regarding the position dispersion. Only in about 35% of all
measurements for the tag situated at 20 meters the results were with an error less than 10%.
Fig. 9. Test setup for distance measurement for two tags - one at 5 m and the second at 20 m
in front of the antenna
The measurements for the third case presented here were made in an open area, with no
obstacles between the antenna system and the tags, using a tag placed at 10 meters in front
of the antenna. The results obtained (Figure 10) are much better than the results from the
measurements done in the laboratory. In this case (Figure 11) about 6 % of the measured
distances were affected by an error more than 10 %.
Radio Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Bringing Research to Practice
120
Fig. 10. Results for 2 active tags placed on 5 m and 20 m respectively, in front of the antenna
system in a room
Fig. 11. Results for 1 active tag placed on 10 meters in front of the antenna system in an
open-area site
Applications of RFID Systems - Localization and Speed Measurement
121
4. Speed measurement applications using a RFID system
4.1 Calculating the speed using distance and angle information
In order to calculate the speed of the moving transponder we need to know the distances
and the angles for two consecutive points P1 and P2. Our system provides distance and
angle information for transponders in range. We assume the movement between these
points is linear, which is a reasonable assumption for small distances.
The equipment computes the distance between the reference point "0" (located in the middle
of the antenna system) and the transponder, as well as the angle between the reference axis
and the line connecting "0" to the transponder. Let us consider that the moving object is
located at points P1 and, respectively, P2, at two consecutive readings. Since the RFID radar
provides the values of d1, d2, α1 and α2, one can determine the distance between the two
points as it follows.
Fig. 12. Calculating the speed from two distances and two angles of two consecutive
positions
By taking into account the diagram presented in Figure 12, one can derive the following
expressions:
22
12 12
2. . .cosxdd dd
α
=+ (1)
For the variables in these equations, we have the values determined at two time moments t1
and t2, so computing the speed of the object having attached the tag is obvious:
22
12 12
21
2. . .cosdd dd
x
vttt
α
+−
==
Δ−
(2)
4.2 Software diagram of the speed computing program
We have developed a software program to compute the speed based on the location
information provided by the RFID reader and have made various performance tests using a
RFID Radar. The program was developed on a platform running Windows XP as an
operating system. We used Power Basic for writing and compiling the program, with very
good results regarding the processing speed. Data was exchanged with the RFID system by
using the RS232C serial interface. Results were delivered in a text box and were written in a
text file on the local disk.
Figure 13 presents the software diagram for calculating the speed. The process begins with a
system initialization procedure, followed by a calibration routine. After these operations, we
Radio Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Bringing Research to Practice
122
Fig. 13. Software diagram to calculate the transponder speed
wait for a transponder to come in the active range of the antennas. When the transponder
enters the range, we get the current information, such as the unique ID, the location and
time information. We do not need, and consequently, do not process any information stored
in the transponder internal memory. After a delay of about 100 ms, the program enters a
routine expecting the next reading. When receiving the same ID, the program gets the new
values for location and time information, and then, it computes and displays the distance
travelled by the transponder, and its speed.
Applications of RFID Systems - Localization and Speed Measurement
123
When the current transponder ID is out of range, the program will acquire a new unique ID
to calculate the new speed. If another transponder comes into the active range of the reader
while the software is acquiring the speed for one transponder, the last one will not be read.
In Figure 14 one may see the distance calibration process necessary to be made at system
initialization, before any speed measurement could be done.
Fig. 14. RFID system calibration using a transponder at 9 m distance from the antennas
A photo of the set-up in the anechoic chamber used for speed measurement tests is shown
bellow:
Fig. 15. View of experimental setup in the anechoic chamber for speed measurements
We capture the output screen of the software we developed in Figure 16, showing the
results with two active transponders moving in opposite directions with the same very low
speed and, in Figure 17, a screen capture and a photo taken in order to compare the speed
measured by the RFID system and the K Band radar gun.
Radio Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Bringing Research to Practice
124
Fig. 16. Measurement screen showing two active transponders moving in opposite
directions with the same speed
Fig. 17. Comparison between the speeds measured by the RFID system and a K-band radar
4.3 Theoretical and practical limitations for speed measurement
Considering the distance between the two receiving antennas of 31 cm (factory default), the
system is able to solve angles between -30 and +30 degrees. The time spacing between two
transponder transmissions is, as in Figure 2, about 333 milliseconds (three transmissions per
second). Assuming that a transponder is moving such that the distance to the antenna
system is constant, one can calculate the maximum theoretical speed that may be measured
by using only the angle of arrival information. We also assume that we read two times the
transponder in the whole working range of 60 degrees, the minimum information needed to
compute the speed. If the reader does not receive the second transmitted signal, due to
propagation issues, the speed can not be computed. The software will initiate a new
measurement sequence by acquiring a new transponder ID. Table 1 presents a summary of
the theoretical maximum speed as a function of the distance from the transponder to the
antennas.
Distance to the antenna system (meters) 10 20 30 40 50
Distance traveled by the transponder (meters) 5.8 11 17 23 28
Speed (km/h) 62 124 187 249 311
Table 1. The theoretical maximum speed as a function of the distance between the
transponder and the antenna system
In practical cases, more than two transmissions will be necessary in order to compute and
have trusted information regarding the speed. Moreover, by reducing the angle between
Applications of RFID Systems - Localization and Speed Measurement
125
two transmission points, let us say the system is not able to process the information in a
timely manner or the radio signal is disturbed/attenuated due to propagation, the
maximum measurable speed is much lower.
For the tests we made in a laboratory-controlled environment, with very low RF noise floor,
we obtained the results presented in Table 2.
Distance to the antenna system (meters) 10 20 30 40 50
Speed (km/h) 6 24 32 36 n/a
Table 2. The maximum measured speed as a function of the distance between the
transponder and the antenna system
Due to propagation issues generated by multiple reflections, we were not able to measure
transponder speeds for distances over 40 meters.
5. Electromagnetic compatibility measurements on the RFID location system
We made a set of two measurements, one using a portable equipment for radiated emissions
safety measurements (Narda SRM-3000) and a real life outdoor set-up and one using a
certified set-up in an ISO 17025 accredited Electromagnetic Compatibility Laboratory -
emclab.ro.
The RFID system we used for location and speed measurements is supposed to use a central
frequency of 870.00 MHz with a bandwidth of 10 kHz. The frequency was chosen
intentionally in order to be outside the GSM 900 band used in Europe (880.0 MHz - 915.0
MHz / 925.0 MHz - 960.0 MHz).
As we might see in the capture from the spectrum analyzer (see Figure 18), the electric field
strength, at distance of 20 m in front of the reader antenna, is about 1.2 V/m, a value
sufficiently low to be in accordance with the EMC safety levels in Europe and in the US.
There are also visible, above the RF noise floor, the emissions from the GSM base stations (at
940 MHz and 960 MHz) located at about 600 meters from the location the tests were made.
Problems appear right in front and very close to the antenna system. In Figure 19 we have
the field strength at a distance of 3 meters in front of the antennas. At this distance the
emission level is about 39 V/m, a value high enough to worry. At about 30 cm near the
emission antenna the field was about 200 V/m, the maximum value the spectrum analyzer
could measure.
Regarding the bandwidth of the signal, we observe to be in the range of 10 to 25 kHz, small
enough not to produce interference with other radio spectrum users. If many such devices
are to be used simultaneously, on different central frequencies, there will be no problem if
the spacing between to channel will be as low as 30 kHz.
A second set of measurements were made in an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory, using a
certified set-up. The radiated emissions measurements have been made in a 3 m TDK semi-
anechoic chamber using a Rohde & Schwarz - ESU 26 EMI Test Receiver, calibrated
antennas and cables. The turntable and the antenna mast were operated by using an in-
house made software program. Two international standards specify the emissions level and
the performance characteristics of SRD-RFID equipments respectively: EN 55022 (CISPR 22)
- "Information technology equipment - Radio disturbance characteristics - Limits and
methods of measurements" for the emissions and EN 300-220 - "Electromagnetic
Radio Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Bringing Research to Practice
126
Fig. 18. Electric field magnitude at 20 m distance in front of the antenna
Fig. 19. Electric field magnitude at 3 m distance in front of the antenna
Applications of RFID Systems - Localization and Speed Measurement
127
compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Short Range Devices (SRD)" for the
operating performances and functional characteristics. A standard configuration was used
for the test, as the equipment to be measured (EUT - Equipment Under Test) was positioned
on a turn table at 0.8 meters above the ground and at 3 meters distance from the receiving
antenna tip. During the measurements, the receiving antenna moved from 1 m to 4 m height
and the EUT rotated 360 degrees, to find out the maximum emission level in the 30 to 1000
MHz band (as specified in the standards, in the final scan procedure, the operating
frequencies were excluded from the measurement interval). We placed the transponders just
in front of the RFID Radar antenna system. As stated in the standards above, the readings
were made continuously, one measure per second using quasi-peak and peak detectors for
the pre-scan and the final scan measurements respectively.
Table 3 shows the levels measured using this setup (we preserved also the peaks from the
operating frequency range in order to compare them with the peaks outside this band and
with the results from the first outdoor set-up). The limits used for calculations (QP Margin
column) were 40 dB for 30 to 230 MHz and 47 dB for 230 MHz to 1000 MHz (as stated in
CISPR 22 for 3 m test distance we have to add 20 dB per decade). We observe that outside
the operating frequency band the emissions were below the limits with one notable
Freq
(MHz) Pol.
Tbl.
Ang.
(deg)
QP
(dBuV)
Freq.
peak
(MHz)
QP
Margin
(dB)
QP
Trace
(dB)
188.7 H 65.5 33.20 184.01 -6.80 18.21
202.5 V 44.2 33.98 194.61 -6.02 18.11
865.2 H 18.2 89.00 869.91 42.00 65.36
865.2 V 153.2 72.54 869.91 25.54 48.90
867.0 H 17.7 88.70 869.92 41.70 65.06
867.0 V 150.5 42.38 869.92 -4.62 18.74
868.3 H 18.5 80.43 869.97 33.43 56.79
869.3 H 17.4 72.57 870.00 25.57 48.93
869.3 V 150.9 55.89 870.00 9.11 32.25
869.9 H 18.8 89.46 869.90 42.46 65.82
869.9 V 152.0 72.85 869.90 25.85 49.21
945.6 H 12.6 133.10 945.75 86.10 109.17
945.8 V 62.0 117.61 945.80 70.61 93.68
Table 3. The emission levels measured in the semi-anechoic chamber at 3 meters distance
from the RFID Radar.
exception, at 945 MHz, where the electric field magnitude was over the limits specified in
the standards. For the main operating frequency band, the emissions were very high,
causing possible EMI problems for other electrical equipments operating nearby.
Radio Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Bringing Research to Practice
128
Regarding the safety aspects, there are problems due to very high emissions level, the field
intensity measured being well higher than the maximum values permitted by the standard.
In ETSI EN 300 220-1 V2.2.1 (2008-04) - Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum
Matters (ERM), the power limit for devices operating between 30 MHz and 1.000 MHz, for
all the bands reserved for short range devices, is 500 mW. There are other regulations in the
EU where power levels up to 2 Watts are permitted for RFID systems with non/modulated
carrier. Due to the operating principle, the RF power generator operating continuously, long
time exposure to the EM field produced by the antenna RFID Radar system could be
dangerous for humans.
6. Conclusion
RFID location systems for indoor and outdoor positioning are a promise for the future, even
the performances of these systems are affected by many factors. We identified here that for a
system working in the RF band near 900 MHz, the objects interposed between the antenna
system and the tags to be located may have a great influence in terms of accuracy of the
measurement results.
In closed areas multiple reflection paths may disturb the measurement systems, a percent of
only 40 to 60 of total measurements are enough accurate to locate an object. In such
conditions, there are small chances for this kind of systems to be used for high precision
indoor applications requiring more than several tens of centimetres accuracy. The results
obtained from the measurements we made in open area test sites are more promising, more
than 93 percent of total result were not affected by notable errors.
For speed measurement of mobile objects by using RFID systems, we may conclude there
are many aspects to solve before such systems may be used in commercial applications.
Despite the precision for both passive and active transponders positioning is in the range of
10-30 centimetres for methods based on the time of arrival and angle of arrival, the
performances obtained for speed measurements are not good enough when a large number
of mobile objects are simultaneously in range. For a single transponder or a reduced number
of transponders and small speeds, bellow 40 km/h, the speed measurement errors were
below 30 %. For better speed measurement results we must combine the use of a RFID
system for reading IDs and transponder internal memory contents with a classical radar
system and process the results in a software interface.
Regarding the EMC aspects of this RFID location system, we may say, based on
measurements presented here, that the electric field are high enough not to use this system
indoors at distances less than 5 meters, if humans are present on a regular basis in that area.
For applications in open areas, like access control for auto vehicles and many similar others,
this kind of systems are very good.
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... So far the research and development of the RFID-based localisation techniques focus on their indoor applications. These techniques include the angle-related measurements such as Angle of Arrival (AoA) (Cremer et al., 2015;Azzouzi et al., 2011;Kułakowski et al., 2010) and the distance-related measurements such as Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) (Zhang et al., 2014;Sansanayuth et al., 2013;Ni et al., 2011), Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) (Popa et al., 2010;Bailey at al., 2007), Phase of Arrival (PoA) (Scherhaufl et al., 2015a;Scherhaufl et al., 2013) and Phase Difference of Arrival (PDoA) (Gortschacher et al., 2016;Scherhaufl et al., 2015b). Although different approaches have been studied, these techniques still encounter some problems such as greater complexity of practical implementation, higher cost and lower accuracy, which have limited their practical applications. ...
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... So far the research and development of the RFID-based localisation techniques focus on their indoor applications. These techniques include the angle-related measurements such as Angle of Arrival (AoA) (Cremer et al., 2015;Azzouzi et al., 2011;Kułakowski et al., 2010) and the distance-related measurements such as Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) (Zhang et al., 2014;Sansanayuth et al., 2013;Ni et al., 2011), Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) (Popa et al., 2010;Bailey at al., 2007), Phase of Arrival (PoA) (Scherhaufl et al., 2015a;Scherhaufl et al., 2013) and Phase Difference of Arrival (PDoA) (Gortschacher et al., 2016;Scherhaufl et al., 2015b). Although different approaches have been studied, these techniques still encounter some problems such as greater complexity of practical implementation, higher cost and lower accuracy, which have limited their practical applications. ...
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In this paper, an RFID localisation method using a special antenna technique is presented. By using an active RFID system with an external dipole antenna the angle and the distance from the antenna to the RFID tag can be found based on the principle of null steering. The new localisation method has been demonstrated by using UHF RFID technology operated at 868 MHz and 434 MHz. The measurement results shown that, compared with other techniques, this method has a number of advantages such as simple design, easy to implement, low cost and high reliability.
... In paper [4], the authors suggest measuring the speed by determining the distance and angle of two consecutive points with respect to a reference point. As the figure below shows: ...
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The ability to detect instantaneous speed is crucial for several applications. Moving objects such as vehicles and robots need to detect their speeds on a regular basis. Current systems measure speed using radars and speedometers which base the detection of the speed on the Doppler frequency shift phenomenon. Furthermore, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) do not usually work inside closed structures. In this paper, we present a cheap alternative to measure speed using RFID passive tags. The system is based on a RFID reader that reads tags installed within its reading range. The reader can be fixed or moving. Several configurations are tested to determine the best spacing of the tags as well as the possible benefit of using an extra antenna to detect speed. Moreover, calculations will be based on three different selection criteria of the time instances.
... The system uses a central frequency of 870.00 MHz with a bandwidth of 10 kHz. The performances in term of localization precision are modest, even the location information is available for tags placed up to 40−45 meters in front of the antennas (Popa et al., 2010). The second generation of active RFID tags is present in the true Real Time Locating Systems (RTLS) used today for continuous monitoring applications. ...
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Navigation is usually associated with marine and aviation domains. Except for some lighthouses for orientation or landmarks near the coast, navigation instruments are essential because routes are virtual. Therefore, current position of ships and aircrafts must be drawn on the map. Land navigation is generally bound to the road infrastructure. Car navigation systems have been introduced to replace the use of road maps in order to assist the driver in the choise of the correct way...
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