Variations between level I trauma centers in 24-hour mortality in severely injured patients requiring a massive transfusion.
Department of Surgery, and The Center for Translational Injury Research, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA. The Journal of trauma
(Impact Factor: 2.96).
08/2011; 71(2 Suppl 3):S389-93. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318227f307
Significant differences in outcomes have been demonstrated between Level I trauma centers. Usually these differences are ascribed to regional or administrative differences, although the influence of variation in clinical practice is rarely considered. This study was undertaken to determine whether differences in early mortality of patients receiving a massive transfusion (MT, ≥ 10 units pf RBCs within 24 hours of admission) persist after adjustment for patient and transfusion practice differences. We hypothesized differences among centers in 24-hour mortality could predominantly be accounted for by differences in transfusion practices as well as patient characteristics.
Data were retrospectively collected over a 1-year period from 15 Level I centers on patients receiving an MT. A purposeful variable selection strategy was used to build the final multivariable logistic model to assess differences between centers in 24-hour mortality. Adjusted odds ratios for each center were calculated.
: There were 550 patients evaluated, but only 443 patients had complete data for the set of variables included in the final model. Unadjusted mortality varied considerably across centers, ranging from 10% to 75%. Multivariable logistic regression identified injury severity score (ISS), abbreviated injury scale (AIS) of the chest, admission base deficit, admission heart rate, and total units of RBC transfused, as well as ratios of plasma:RBC and platelet:RBC to be associated with 24-hour mortality. After adjusting for severity of injury and transfusion, treatment variables between center differences were no longer significant.
In the defined population of patients receiving an MT, between-center differences in 24-hour mortality may be accounted for by severity of injury as well as transfusion practices.
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ABSTRACT: Interhospital transfer of critically ill patients is a common part of their care. This article sought to review the data on the current patterns of use of interhospital transfer and identify systematic barriers to optimal integration of transfer as a mechanism for improving patient outcomes and value of care.
Narrative review of medical and organizational literature.
Interhospital transfer of patients is common, but not optimized to improve patient outcomes. Although there is a wide variability in quality among hospitals of nominally the same capability, patients are not consistently transferred to the highest quality nearby hospital. Instead, transfer destinations are selected by organizational routines or non-patient-centered organizational priorities. Accomplishing a transfer is often quite difficult for sending hospitals. But once a transfer destination is successfully found, the mechanics of interhospital transfer now appear quite safe.
Important technological advances now make it possible to identify nearby hospitals best able to help critically ill patients, and to successfully transfer patients to those hospitals. However, organizational structures have not yet developed to insure that patients are optimally routed, resulting in potentially significant excess mortality.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In clinical research, massive transfusion (MT) is commonly defined as transfusion of 10 or more red blood cell (RBC) units within 24 hours. However, the clinical relevance of this definition remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated whether patients who reach the MT threshold during hemorrhage control differ clinically from those who reach it after hemorrhage control (i.e., after intensive care unit [ICU] arrival) but before 24 hours. METHODS: Prospective data were collected on all Level I trauma resuscitations within 5.5 years. Patients transfused 10 or more RBCs in the first 24 hours of hospitalization were identified and stratified according to when the MT threshold was achieved: before ICU arrival (Pre-ICU) versus after ICU arrival but before 24 hours of hospitalization (Post-ICU). Clinical characteristics between groups were compared. RESULTS: Three hundred five patients received 10 or more units before ICU arrival, and 46 reached the MT threshold after ICU arrival but before 24 hours. Both groups were clinically similar with respect to age, sex, and Injury Severity Score, but the Post-ICU group had a larger proportion of blunt injuries (71 vs. 53%, p < 0.05), lower mean admission lactate (5.9 vs. 8.1 mmol/L, p < 0.05), and higher systolic blood pressure (112 vs. 96 mm Hg, p < 0.05) compared with the Pre-ICU group. Twenty-four-hour mortality was significantly lower in the Post-ICU group compared with the Pre-ICU group (9 vs. 33%, p < 0.05). In-hospital mortality was not significantly different between groups (33 vs. 46%, p = 0.11). CONCLUSION: Patients reaching the MT threshold after ICU arrival comprise a relatively small proportion of those that would be included by the traditional MT definition. However, they have a significantly decreased mortality risk at 24 hours and the potential to dilute the study cohort. For research purposes, restricting the MT definition to 10 or more RBCs during hemorrhage control may result in study cohorts with relatively more uniform mortality risks. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level II.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To relate in-hospital mortality to early transfusion of plasma and/or platelets and to time-varying plasma:red blood cell (RBC) and platelet:RBC ratios. DESIGN Prospective cohort study documenting the timing of transfusions during active resuscitation and patient outcomes. Data were analyzed using time-dependent proportional hazards models. SETTING Ten US level I trauma centers. PATIENTS Adult trauma patients surviving for 30 minutes after admission who received a transfusion of at least 1 unit of RBCs within 6 hours of admission (n = 1245, the original study group) and at least 3 total units (of RBCs, plasma, or platelets) within 24 hours (n = 905, the analysis group). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE In-hospital mortality. RESULTS Plasma:RBC and platelet:RBC ratios were not constant during the first 24 hours (P < .001 for both). In a multivariable time-dependent Cox model, increased ratios of plasma:RBCs (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16-0.58) and platelets:RBCs (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98) were independently associated with decreased 6-hour mortality, when hemorrhagic death predominated. In the first 6 hours, patients with ratios less than 1:2 were 3 to 4 times more likely to die than patients with ratios of 1:1 or higher. After 24 hours, plasma and platelet ratios were unassociated with mortality, when competing risks from nonhemorrhagic causes prevailed. CONCLUSIONS Higher plasma and platelet ratios early in resuscitation were associated with decreased mortality in patients who received transfusions of at least 3 units of blood products during the first 24 hours after admission. Among survivors at 24 hours, the subsequent risk of death by day 30 was not associated with plasma or platelet ratios.
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