Surgical Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation in Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

and §§Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, GA USA.
Innovations Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery 03/2010; 5(2):84-96. DOI: 10.1097/IMI.0b013e3181d9199b
Source: PubMed


OBJECTIVES:: This meta-analysis sought to determine whether surgical ablation improves clinical outcomes and resource utilization compared with no ablation in adult patients with persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS:: A comprehensive search was undertaken to identify all randomized (RCT) and nonrandomized (non-RCT) controlled trials of surgical ablation versus no ablation in patients with AF undergoing cardiac surgery up to April 2009. The primary outcome was sinus rhythm. Secondary outcomes included survival and any other reported clinically relevant outcome or indicator of resource utilization. Odds ratios (OR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were analyzed as appropriate using the random effects model. Heterogeneity was measured using the I statistic. Meta-regression was performed to explore the relationship between the benefit from surgical AF and duration of follow-up. RESULTS:: Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria (10 RCTs and 23 non-RCTs) for a total of 4647 patients. The number of patients in sinus rhythm was significantly improved at discharge in the surgical AF ablation group versus (68.6%) the surgery alone group (23.0%) in RCTs (OR 10.1, 95% CI 4.5-22.5) and non-RCTs (OR 7.15, 95% CI 3.42-14.95). This effect on sinus rhythm (74.6% vs. 18.4%) remained at follow-up of 1 to 5 years (OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.8-15.7 for RCT, and OR 15.5, 95% CI 6.6-36.7 for non-RCT). The risk of all-cause mortality at 30 days was not different between the groups in RCT (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.52-3.16) or non-RCT studies (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.52-1.87). In studies reporting all-cause mortality at 1 year or more (up to 5 years), mortality did not differ in RCT studies (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.59-2.51) but was significantly reduced in non-RCT studies (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.96). Stroke incidence was not reduced significantly; however, in meta-regression, the risk of stroke decreased significantly with longer follow-up. Other clinical outcomes were similar between groups. Operation time was significantly increased with surgical AF ablation; however, overall impact on length of stay was variable. CONCLUSIONS:: In patients with persistent or permanent AF who present for cardiac surgery, the addition of surgical AF ablation led to a significantly higher rate of sinus rhythm in RCT and non-RCT studies compared with cardiac surgery alone, and this effect remains robust over the longer term (1-5 years). Although non-RCT studies suggest the possibility of reduced risk of stroke and death, this remains to be proven in prospective RCTs with adequate power and follow-up.

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    • "The clinical advent of linear ablation lines generalized this technically challenging procedure throughout cardiac surgery with preserved clinical efficacy [32, 33]. A recent meta-analysis (N=4647: 10 randomized trials; 23 non-randomized control studies) demonstrated that AF ablation during concomitant cardiac surgery significantly increased the likelihood of durable sinus rhythm (odds ratio 10.1; 95% confidence interval 4.5-22.5 for randomized studies) [34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There has been significant progress throughout 2013 in cardiothoracic and vascular anaesthesia and intensive care. There has been a revolution in the medical and interventional management of atrial fibrillation. The medical advances include robust clinical risk scoring systems, novel oral anticoagulants, and growing clinical experience with a new antiarrhythmic agent. The interventional advances include left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke reduction, generalization of ablation techniques in cardiac surgery, thoracoscopic ablation techniques, and the emergence of the hybrid ablation procedure. Recent European guidelines have defined the organization and practice of two subspecialties, namely general thoracic surgery and grown-up congenital heart disease. The pivotal role of an effective multidisciplinary milieu is a central theme in both these clinical arenas. The anaesthesia team features prominently in each of these recent guidelines aimed at harmonizing delivery of perioperative care for these patient cohorts across Europe. Web-Enabled Democracy-Based Consensus is a system that allows physicians worldwide to agree or disagree with statements and expert consensus meetings and has the potential to increase the understanding of global practice and to help clinicians better define research priorities. This "Democratic based medicine", firstly used to assess the interventions that might reduce perioperative mortality has been applied in 2013 to the setting of critically ill patient with acute kidney injury. These advances in 2013 will likely further improve perioperative outcomes for our patients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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    • "As a consequence we now consider these patients for an off-pump bypass surgery approach with an epicardial ablation concept using a pulmonary vein isolation in paroxysmal AF and a full box lesion in persistent AF types. To date, neither the success rate nor the survival rates of surgical ablation in the different etiological groups (lone, valvular and ischemic AF) can be definitively recommended on the basis of comparative trials, even if some loose estimates exist [26, 27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) can be found in an increasing number of cardiac surgical patients due to a higher patient's age and comorbidities. Atrial fibrillation is known, however, to be a risk factor for a greater mortality, and one aim of intraoperative AF treatment is to approximate early and long-term survival of AF patients to survival of patients with preoperative sinus rhythm. Today, surgeons are more and more able to perform less complex, that is, minimally invasive cardiac surgical procedures. The evolution of alternative ablation technologies using different energy sources has revolutionized the surgical therapy of atrial fibrillation and allows adding the ablation therapy without adding significant risk. Thus, the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation in combination with the cardiac surgery procedure allows to improve the postoperative long-term survival and to reduce permanent anticoagulation in these patients. This paper focuses on the variety of incisions, lesion sets, and surgical techniques, as well as energy modalities and results of AF ablation and also summarizes future trends and current devices in use.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Cardiology Research and Practice
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: This purpose of this consensus conference was to determine whether surgical atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation during cardiac surgery improves clinical and resource outcomes compared with cardiac surgery alone in adults undergoing cardiac surgery for valve or coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS:: Before the consensus conference, the consensus panel reviewed the best available evidence, whereby systematic reviews, randomized trials, and nonrandomized trials were considered in descending order of validity and importance. Evidence-based statements were created, and consensus processes were used to determine the ensuing recommendations. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology system was used to label the level of evidence and class of recommendation. RESULTS:: The consensus panel agreed on the following statements in patients with AF undergoing cardiac surgery concomitant surgical ablation: CONCLUSIONS:: Given these evidence-based statements, the consensus panel stated that, in patients with persistent and permanent AF undergoing cardiac surgery, concomitant surgical ablation is recommended to increase incidence of sinus rhythm at short- and long-term follow-up (class 1, level A); to reduce the risk of stroke and thromboembolic events (class 2a, level B); to improve EF (class 2a, level A); and to exercise tolerance (class 2a, level A) and long-term survival (class 2a, level B).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Innovations Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
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