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All fats, including saturated fatty acids, have important roles in the body. However, the most important fats are those that the body cannot make and thus must come from the food we eat. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) are based on linoleic acid (omega-6 group) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3 group). We need both groups of essential fatty acids to survive. For various reasons EFA deficiency is common in the general population, as is a disproportionate intake of omega-6 fatty acids over omega-3 fatty acids. As such, it is important to eat the right foods to make sure that you're taking in enough and the right kinds of the essential fatty acids. However, there is much more to the story. Studies have shown that increasing the intake of certain essential fatty acids, either alone or in combination with other fats and compounds, can increase health, help in treating certain diseases, and even improve body composition, mental and physical performance.
© 2008 Dr. Mauro Di Pasquale, Inc.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
The Essentials of Essential Fatty Acids
Increasingly over the past few decades research is showing that supplementing your diet
with essential fatty acids (EFAs) can keep you out of harms way, help deal with certain
diseases, provide a foundation for optimal health, and improve body composition, and
mental and physical performance.1,2,3,4 ,5 ,6 ,7 ,8 ,9 ,10 ,11
As well, some other fatty acids and companion compounds have also been shown to have
significant effects on health and body composition and can work additively or even
synergistically with the essential fatty acids.
Dietary Fats
Dietary fats are essential for normal
metabolism and good health. Not only
are they necessary for the proper
absorption, transportation and
function of the fat-soluble vitamins A,
D, E, and K, fats are used by the body
to produce cellular components,
hormones and other compounds that
are essential to the proper functioning
of the body. As well, a moderate
intake of fat is essential for
maximizing body composition and
decreasing body fat.
But while all fats, including saturated
fatty acids, have an important role in
energy metabolism and body
functions, the most important fats are
the essential fatty acids (EFAs) since
the body needs them to survive.
While the human body can manufacture most of the fats it needs from other fats,
carbohydrates and protein, including cholesterol, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated
fatty acids, there are two groups of fatty acids, called essential fatty acids, based on
linoleic acid (omega 6 group – which includes GLA) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega 3
group which includes EPA and DHA), which cannot be manufactured in the body.
The body cannot make an omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acid because human metabolism
cannot add a double-bond to a fatty acid that is more than 9 carbons away from the delta
end. For the same reason, the body cannot interconvert omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Page 2 of 21
Unfortunately, for various reasons, many people are EFA challenged.
EFA Deficiency
Why are EFAs, especially the omega-3s, deficient in modern diets? Part of the problem is
the food that’s given to livestock and poultry. It’s a lot different from the natural food that
these animals would normally consume in the wild or even in the past.
So while both omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acid) and omega-6 (linoleic acid) are plentiful in the
leafy plants consumed by roaming animals, providing nearly equal ratios of these EFAs,
that’s no longer the case when they’re switched from grass to grains. The result is that the
fat in wild game and grazing ruminant contains roughly seven times more omega-3 fatty
acids than animals raised for commercial meat.
Another reason is that processing or cooking changes healthy EFAs into unhealthy trans-
fatty acids. So the meat and eggs that we consume today that’s already low in omega-3s is
even more depleted once it reaches our tables.
As well, we consume a lot of vegetable oils most of which are rich in omega-6 fatty acids
and poor in the omega-3s.
The increased omega-6/omega-3 ratio common to our modern diets, but not to man during
most of his existence, can give rise to disturbances in cellular structure and function, and
an increase in systemic inflammation, which can lead to dysfunction and disease.
So although you can get the EFAs you need from food, you have to know what you’re
doing and what you’re eating (and perhaps more importantly what you’re eating was
eating), and even then, although you’re trying to eat right, you likely will still need to
supplement your diet with some of the essential fatty acids.
The Secrets of EFAs: How the Omegas Work
Alpha linolenic acid is the principal essential fatty acid in the omega-3 family and linoleic
acid takes the lead in the omega-6 series. In a healthy body with sound nutrition, various
metabolic conversions take place transferring the raw dietary materials into usable,
biologically potent EFAs and other compounds.
Alpha linolenic acid is transformed into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and later into
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The series three prostaglandins are formed from EPA. As
well, EPA reduces the production of the bad prostaglandins from arachidonic acid.
The omega-6 linoleic acid converts to gamma linolenic acid (GLA). Both the EPA and the
GLA synthesized from dietary sources undergo another conversion, resulting in hormone-
like biochemical compounds know as eicosanoids. These substances aid in virtually every Page 3 of 21
body activity, from vital organ functioning down to intracellular processes, including helping
to regulate inflammation and blood pressure as well as heart, gastrointestinal, and kidney
As such, their use can be preventative and therapeutic for various conditions including
some types of cancer, and cardiovascular, neurological and musculoskeletal diseases.
Because of their anti-inflammatory properties they are effective anti-aging nutrients. As
well, they can be used as an aid for weight loss and for improving body composition.
Omega 3 Fatty Acids
Omega-3 fatty acids are long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that have biological
functions because they are converted to a number of active substances in the body such
as prostaglandins and leukotrienes and are involved in a number of metabolic events.
Linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid since it cannot be synthesized in the body. Other
omega-3 fatty acids can, however, be synthesized from linolenic acid.
Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids are precursors for hormones and determine the
composition of our cell membranes, influencing the production of pro- and anti-
inflammatory substances.12
Omega-3 fatty acids, found in fish oils (mainly EPA and DHA) and flaxseed oil, are useful
in a wide variety of conditions:13 They have been shown to:
1. Reduce oxidant stress14 (oxidative stress or free radical damage is a factor of
importance in the development of inflammatory events).
2. Suppress the production of pro-inflammatory compounds in the body and
therefore influence inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, diabetes,
inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, autoimmune disorders, and
aging.15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23, 24,25,26,27 28,29,30
3. Improve serum lipids and provide cardiovascular protection,31,32,33,34,35
4. Provide protection against stress,36 cognitive aging37,38 and depression.39
5. Blood pressure, clotting, immune response, insulin resistance, and
triglyceride levels are all positively affected by the omega-3s in EFA+.40
6. May be effective in the prevention of coronary heart disease,41,42 and
7. Aid in weight and fat loss, especially when combined with CLA (see below).
8. Be positively associated with peak bone density in young men.44
While it’s generally known that EFAs are good for the cardiovascular system and for
arthritis, it’s not as well known the EFAs can affect mental health. In fact, a deficiency in
EFAs or too little omega 3 fatty acids can lead to decreased mental health, depression and
even aggressive tendencies.
EFAs have been shown to assist in treating depression and other mental health conditions.
Low levels of omega-3 EFAs are common in depression. In one 2002 study, researchers Page 4 of 21
found that treatment with EPA improved outcomes in patients with persistent depression.45
Another study found that EPA may prove an effective add-on treatment in schizophrenia.46
There is even some evidence that the decrease in omega 3 consumption may be
responsible for increasing homicide rates.47
Part of omega-3's effectiveness in treating brain disorders and the reason why lack of
omega 3’s results in some mental aberrations may be linked to its role in
neurotransmission and brain development. DHA in particular is crucial for proper brain
function, and pregnant women are advised to consume adequate levels for fetal brain
A recent paper published in 2005 concluded:48
There is no doubt that cerebral lipids, and EFA-derived LC-PUFAs in particular, have
significant direct and indirect actions on cerebral function. Not only does the lipid
composition of neural membranes affect the function of their embedded proteins, but also
many LC-PUFAs are converted to neurally active substances.
There is good evidence that psychiatric illness is associated with depletion of EFAs and,
crucially, that supplementation can result in clinical amelioration. As well as challenging
traditional views of aetiology and therapeutics in psychiatry, the clinical trial data may
herald a simple, safe and effective adjunct to our standard treatments for many disabling
EFAs and Body Composition and Exercise Performance
Besides all the health benefits above, the EFAs may also be useful in improving body
composition and exercise performance, They have been shown to affect insulin sensitivity
and growth hormone secretion, have anti-catabolic effects, both enhance weight loss and
help keep the weight off, and influence exercise performance.
Fish oil may, through perhaps more than one mechanism, have anti-catabolic properties.
By extrapolating from burn injury studies, there is the possibility of modifying the catabolic
processes secondary to training through the use of fish oil.49,50 There is the possibility that
fish oil may modulate PGE sub 2-mediated muscle proteolysis.
Studies have shown that the mechanism of interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced muscle proteolysis
involves PGE sub 2 synthesis.51 Thus it is likely that omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil
competitively inhibit the PGE sub 2 synthesis,52,53 resulting in less muscle proteolysis.
Furthermore, it has been shown that fish oil feeding in healthy volunteers can reduce the in
vitro production of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor by macrophages.54 Thus, the reduction of
IL-1 level may represent another mechanism by which fish oil moderates muscle
proteolysis. Page 5 of 21
Omega-3 fatty acids may increase growth hormone secretion since they are involved in the
formation of prostaglandin E1, which in turn is involved in GH release.55 As well, to add to
the possible benefits in improving exercise performance and body composition,
Several studies have shown that fish oil increases insulin sensitivity, the breakdown of
body fat and the use of fat as a primary energy source. As such, besides decreasing
inflammation and increasing cardiovascular health, they also provide substantial weight
and fat loss benefits.
LNA, EPA, and DHA can enhance lipolysis (body fat breakdown)56,57 and decrease
lipogenesis (body fat formation).58,59 The combined breakdown of stored body fat and
decrease in additional body fat can have very positive results for the dieter. You actually
end up making less and breaking down more body fat when using these oils.
As well, a recent study found that GLA reduced weight regain in humans following major
weight loss, suggesting a role for essential fatty acids in fuel partitioning in humans prone
to obesity.60
A recent study61 in horses found that n-3 fatty acids laced vitamin supplement induced
changes in membrane composition, which modulated the decrease in erythrocyte
membrane fluidity seen during exercise, and therefore found to be potentially beneficial in
exercising horses.
Gamma linolenic acid
Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is important for health and has suppressive effects on both
acute and chronic inflammation, and effects on decreasing the response to anxiety and
stress.62,63,64,65,66,67,68 It also works synergistically with some of the essential fatty acids to
decrease inflammation and stress responses.69,70,71
GLA is needed by the body for the manufacture of certain hormone-like substances called
Prostaglandins. These substances have beneficial regulatory effects on the immune
system, circulation and the menstrual cycle. Their purpose is to help control and regulate
cell growth and to maintain hormonal balance. Also helps to maintain healthy skin.
The use of EPA with GLA (as in EFA+) decreases some of the possible inflammatory
effects of using GLA supplements. That’s because GLA can be a precursor for arachidonic
acid (AA, a “bad” type of prostaglandin that increases platelet aggregation and
inflammation) and the addition of EPA reduces AA accumulation in some cells and tissues
secondary to GLA supplementation.72
A recent study found that GLA reduced weight regain in humans following major weight
loss, suggesting a role for essential fatty acids in fuel partitioning in humans prone to
obesity.73 Page 6 of 21
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), while
not an essential fatty acid, has
significant effects on body composition.
It’s a mixture of isomers of linoleic acid,
which is found preferentially in dairy
products, meat, and in cheese, milks
and yogurt that have undergone heat
CLA has been shown to have properties
above and beyond those of linoleic acid.
It has shown potential as a powerful
anticarcinogen74,75 and exhibits potent
antioxidant activity.76 Studies have suggested that CLA may be cytotoxic to human cancer
cells in vivo.77
CLA has a wide range of biological effects.78 It has potent antioxidant activity and has
shown potential as an anticarcinogen. CLA has been shown to have significant anti-
inflammatory properties79 and to inhibit inflammatory mediators such as PGE2, IL-6, and
TNF-alpha,80,81 and also acts as a COX-2 inhibitor.82,83
Studies in animals and humans indicate that CLA supplementation decreases body fat and
increases lean muscle mass. The increase in lean muscle mass is most pronounced in
individuals who are exercising regularly.
CLA appears to reduce the ability of fat cells to take up fats from the bloodstream; it also
inhibits the formation of new fat cells. CLA also helps cells burn fat at a higher rate, while
fueling and preserving muscle, leading to a reduction in fat and an increase in lean muscle
Numerous physiological effects in relation to body-weight control have been attributed to
CLA in animals. In different animal models, CLA has been shown to reduce body fat and to
increase lean body mass.84,85 But CLA has marked effects in humans as well and has
been found to decrease body fat mass and support muscle mass in overweight humans.
For example, a study published in the International Journal of Obesity found that those
who were given CLA for a four week period had significant decreases in abdominal fat.90
As well, a recent study concluded that long term CLA supplementation not only helps to
decrease body fat but also helps to maintain weight loss in the long term. A recent long
term study found that a mixture of the two CLA isomers significantly lowered body fat mass
in overweight humans at both 1 and 2 years.9192 It likely does this by affecting various
enzymes involved in lipid formation and to a lesser extent enhancing fat breakdown.93, 94, 95 Page 7 of 21
As well, CLA seems to have significant effects on weight regain, as it reduces fat uptake
into adipocytes by decreasing the formation of fat and but not affecting fat breakdown. It
likely does this by affecting various enzymes involved in lipid formation rather than
enhancing fat breakdown, known as lipolysis.96,97,98
Thus there is an overall increase in fat breakdown since the two processes are usually in
dynamic equilibrium with as much fat being produced as is broken down. Decreasing fat
formation changes the dynamics to one of overall increased fat breakdown and
subsequently a decrease in overall body fat.
Of equal importance, for those wishing to maximize lean body mass, is the possible anti-
catabolic effects of CLA.99,100
The most recent study in a series of studies of the effects of CLA confirmed and expanded
on the findings of the previous studies: CLA reduces body fat mass in specific regions of
the body, especially the abdominal area in both men and women, and maintains or
increases lean body mass.101
Adding to CLA’s effects on body composition, another recent study found that CLA
supplementation even increased fat oxidation and energy expenditure during sleep.102
The bottom line is that the essential fatty acids, and some non essential fatty acids such as
CLA, have significant effects on body composition, training, recovery, and can also
increase overall health and well being. Page 8 of 21
Essential Fatty Acids Plus
EFA+ is an enhanced ess ential fatty acid
formula containing optimum levels of the
essential fatty acids as well as several
other additive and synergistic ingredients.
The complex, scientifically based
formulation provides much more than
other essential fatty acid products.
Be side s the es sential fatty acids, EFA+
also contains numerous other ingredients
that provide other benefits including
weight and fat los s, and improvements in
body composition.
EFA+ An Essential Fatty Acid Formulat
EFA+ An Essential Fatty Acid Formulat
, and
, and
, and
More Page 9 of 21
Ingredients in EFA+
I formulated EFA+ to be a balanced combination of essential fatty acids (EFAs), and other
ingredients that work additively and synergistically to maximize the beneficial effects of the
essential fatty acids on health, inflammation and body composition.
As far as the essential fatty acids, EFA+ consists largely of the omega 3 family of essential
fatty acids, so as to even out the omega 6/omega 3 ratio to one that is closer to the ratio
that man has consumed for most of his existence. Bringing the ratio into line enhances
cellular function, decreases inflammation, and improves body composition, health and
EFA+ contains pharmaceutical grade fish oil with higher levels of EPA and DHA. It’s
important to include these longer carbon chain omega 3s for two reasons. First of all as
first of all the formation of EPA and DHA from ALA is limited and secondly while fish is one
method of getting these oils, most sources recommend that fish consumption be limited to
two to three servings weekly because so many fish are tainted with mercury, PCBs and
other contaminants.
High-quality, purified fish oil, as found in EFA+ are contaminant free and present a viable
alternative to frequent consumption of fish.
But there are many more active ingredients in EFA+ that enhance its effects. For example,
the co-factors zinc, magnesium, Vitamins. C, B3 and B6 must be present for the benefits of
the essential fatty acids to be realized.
Some of the added vitamins and minerals, besides optimizing the use of the essential fatty
acids, also have other beneficial properties related to the effects of the essential fatty
acids. For example vitamins B3 and B6 have significant antioxidant properties and also
beneficial effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Magnesium and zinc are also
heart friendly and have beneficial effects on the immune, cardiovascular and
neuromuscular systems.
EFA+ also contains several lipotropic factors and other ingredients, including conjugated
linoleic acid, L-carnitine, methionine, serine, choline and inositol that optimize the
utilization, transport and metabolism of fat, working to decrease body fat, normalize serum
lipids including cholesterol, enhance energy levels, and fight inflammation in the body.
The antioxidants present in EFA+ serve several purposes. First of all they help preserve
the natural state of the EFAs by protecting them from oxidative damage and becoming
rancid while in the capsule so that what you get are all the good effects that EFA+ has to
offer and none of the bad.
That’s one of the reasons why EFA+ combines several antioxidants, including vitamin A,
vitamin C, vitamin E, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), alpha lipoic acid, and
glutathione, with fish oil and other sources of essential fatty acids.103, 104 Page 10 of 21
As well, the association of antioxidants with the omega-3 essential fatty acids, such as the
fish oil and other ingredients found in EFA+, act in concert to enhance the beneficial
effects of the essential fatty acids on inflammation and on the immune and cardiovascular
On top of all this the antioxidants counteract some of the adverse effects that these
essential fatty acids might have. For example, although it’s been shown that fish oil
increases oxidation of LDL cholesterol, the “bad” cholesterol in the body that’s been
implicated in cardiovascular disease, it has also been shown that the use of antioxidants
counteracts this negative effect of fish oil.107,108
Omega-3, 6 and 9 Oils
EFA+ contains omega 3, 6 and 9 fatty acids, including EPA and DHA, the longer chain
fatty acids found mostly in fish oil. The plant based oils are mechanically pressed under
low heat, light and oxygen-free environment ensuring the extremely high quality of the
formula. As well, pharmaceutical grade fish oil is used in the formulation. The formula is
mercury free and free of harmful trans fatty acids.
The emphasis in EFA+ is on the omega 3 essential fatty acids and on GLA, an important
omega 6 fatty acid, but EFA+ also contains omega 6 linoleic acid as part of flax seed oil
and oleic acid, an omega-9 fatty acid, which is also present as a natural constituent of flax
seed oil.
Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Gamma linolenic acid (GLA)
Both CLA and GLA have health and body composition effects and are included in EFA+.
The use of EPA with GLA (as in EFA+) decreases some of the possible inflammatory
effects of using GLA supplements. That’s because GLA can be a precursor for arachidonic
acid (AA, a “bad” type of prostaglandin that increases platelet aggregation and
inflammation) and the addition of EPA reduces AA accumulation in some cells and tissues
secondary to GLA supplementation.109
Choline, Phosphatidylcholine, Phosphatidylserine, Serine and
Choline, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and serine are involved in phospholipid
metabolism and augment the effects of the EFAs on cell wall structure and integrity, as
well as molecular signaling properties.110 These ingredients are needed for cell membrane
integrity and to facilitate the movement of signaling compounds between cells and the
movement of fats in and out of cells.111 They have significant effects on nerve cell
membranes, and are required for nerve growth and function.112 Page 11 of 21
Policosanols are a blend of compounds isolated from natural plant waxes. Policosanol
contains several long chain fatty alcohols, including octacosanol, hexacosanol and
triacontanol. Animal and in-vitro research has shown that these compounds may support
the cardiovascular system and inhibit lipid peroxidation as well as support macrophage
Policosanol helps lower cholesterol levels by slowing the body's own production of
cholesterol in the liver, as well as reducing the risk of blood clots and enhancing
circulation. Some studies have shown that policosanol, like some EFAs can significantly
reduce both total cholesterol and LDL (bad) cholesterol.113,114,115,116
As well, policosanol, due mainly to the abundant octacosanol, has several other beneficial
effects including increasing muscle endurance, increasing the efficiency of blood flow, and
helping to stabilize cell membranes.117,118,119 Octacosanol may also be useful for
improving athletic performance as suggested by some studies.120,121
Alpha Lipoic Acid
Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) has potent antioxidant properties intrinsically and secondary to its
ability to increase levels of intra-cellular glutathione, and its ability to recycle other
antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione.122,123,124,125,126 ALA and
glutathione have been shown to have significant effects in decreasing mercury toxicity in
the body.127
Alpha lipoic acid also has significant anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to
inhibit IL-1, a proinflammatory cytokine and also inhibit the synthesis of PGE2 by inhibiting
COX-2 activity.
ALA’s ability to decrease both the pro-inflammatory cytokines128129 and secondary cortisol
elevations, along with similar effects from CLA, simulates the anti-inflammatory effects of
the present class of NSAIDS such as Celebrex, Advil, Aleve, etc. As well, EFA+ contains
fish oil with substantial amounts of DHA and EPA, which has also been shown to have
effects similar to the anti-inflammatory prescription and OTC drugs.130
ALA has been shown to inhibit cross-linking among proteins, a process that contributes to
the aging process in the body and especially in collagen-heavy tissues such as skin.
Alpha-lipoic acid activates a collagen-regulating factor known as AP-1 that turns on
enzymes that digest glycation-damaged collagen and thus make the skin more supple and
youthful looking.
Besides having potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, ALA also has significant
anabolic effects secondary to its beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and growth
hormone and IGF-I secretion, all factors involved in maintaining, repairing and
regenerating musculoskeletal tissues.131,132,133,134 Page 12 of 21
ALA is also useful in reversing mitochondrial dysfunction, especially in aging
The many benefits of EFA+ include:
Effects on body composition – improved metabolism, enhanced weight and fat loss
and retention of muscle mass.
Increased insulin sensitivity.
Decreased inflammation in the body thus providing cardiovascular, neural,
musculoskeletal, and hormonal (including testosterone and growth hormone) health
Improved serum lipid (cholesterol, triglycerides) profile including cholesterol levels.
Improved immune system functioning.
Improved mental health.
Anti-aging effects.
Bottom Line
The bottom line is that EFA+ is a multi-purpose formulation designed to provide the full
gamut of all the essential fatty acids and supporting ingredients that are so important in
optimizing your metabolism, enhancing weight loss, body composition, and the anabolic
and fat burning effects of exercise, boosting your immune system and decreasing counter
productive inflammation in the body secondary to exercise, aging and various diseases. Page 13 of 21
EFA+ Nutritional Panel Page 14 of 21
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... The human body can synthesize many of these fatty acids, except essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): linoleic acid (LA) and the α-linolenic acid (ALA). The human body cannot make these essential fatty acids from scratch but must get them from food 68 . Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is found in vegetable oils and nuts (especially walnuts), flax seeds and flaxseed oil, leafy vegetables, and some animal fat, especially in grass-fed animals. ...
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Avocado is one of the world's most economically significant tropical fruit crops. In recent years, there has been a lot of interest in avocado as a natural functional food in due to its excellent nutritional value and several health advantages. Avocados are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin E and vitamin B6, alpha-carotene, sterols, fiber, protein, magnesium and potassium. Fatty acids play crucial structural and functional roles in biological systems and are a significant source of energy. The essential polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and the α-linolenic acid cannot be synthesize by human body hence must be obtained from food. This study reviewed the fatty acid composition of avocado. Peer-reviewed articles were retrieved from and 0.07-10.95% respectively. Hass, Quintal, Fortuna and Margarida avocado cultivars were found to contain docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 amino acid which is mainly obtained from fish. The type of fatty acids and their percentage composition in the avocados differed depending on the cultivar, plant part, ripening stage, geographical location and sample processing method. Results from this study have confirmed that avocado is a rich source of essential fatty acid. Further research on methods of enhancing fatty acid content is necessary. It is also necessary to determine the bioactivities of the fatty acids present in avocado.
... For instance, bile acid is an amphiphilic molecule with strong surface activity (Yang et al., 2020), which can emulsify fat into chylomicrons to increase the contact area between lipase and fat, and facilitates fat digestion and reduces autologous fat catabolism (Velazquez-Villegas et al., 2018;Hu et al., 2019). Alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid are essential fatty acids that animals cannot be synthesized by the body and must come from food (Di Pasquale, 2009;Martin et al., 2016). These results indicate that seasonal differences in these pathways may mainly be due to the differences in nutrient intakes. ...
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Shift of ingestive behavior is an important strategy for animals to adapt to change of the environment. We knew that shifts in animal dietary habits lead to changes in the structure of the gut microbiota, but we are not sure about if changes in the composition and function of the gut microbiota respond to changes in the nutrient intake or food items. To investigate how animal feeding strategies affect nutrient intakes and thus alter the composition and digestion function of gut microbiota, we selected a group of wild primate group for the study. We quantified their diet and macronutrients intake in four seasons of a year, and instant fecal samples were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and metagenomics. These results demonstrated that the main reason that causes seasonal shifts of gut microbiota is the macronutrient variation induced by seasonal dietary differences. Gut microbes can help to compensate for insufficient macronutrients intake of the host through microbial metabolic functions. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the causes of seasonal variation in host-microbial variation in wild primates.
... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) that can reduce blood cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels [59]. Linoleic acid (C18:2n6) is an essential fatty acid that the human body cannot synthesize by itself [60]. Our results in this study showed that diets supplemented with mulberry leaf could increase the content of oleic acid (C18:1n9n) and linoleic acid (C18:2n6). ...
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This study was conducted to examine the effect of a mulberry leaf total mixed ration (TMR) diet on growth performance, apparent digestibility, meat quality and the expression of related meat-quality genes (ADSL, H-FABP) in crossbred black goats. Forty-four Guizhou crossbred black goats (Nubian black goat ♂ × Guizhou black goat ♀), weighing 33.43 ± 0.55 kg, were chosen. The goats were randomly divided into four groups, with 11 test replicates in each group. Group I was the control group and fed with the traditional feeding method of roughage and concentrate supplement without adding mulberry leaf. Group II was fed with a 40% mulberry leaf pellet TMR diet. Group III was fed with a freshly processed 40% mulberry leaf TMR diet. Group IV was fed with a 40% mulberry leaf fermented total mixed rations (FTMR) diet. The results showed that the average daily gain (ADG) of group II was significantly higher than that of group I and III (p < 0.05). The apparent digestibility of group II of ether extract (EE) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was significantly higher than that of group I (p < 0.05), and the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) was significantly higher than that of group I (p < 0.01). Compared with group I, meat in group II had lower meat color lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values (p < 0.01) in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum. The shear force of group II was significantly lower than that of group I (p < 0.05). The total fatty acids (TFA) of group II was significantly higher than that of groups I and III (p < 0.05), but the total saturated fatty acids (SFA) of group II was significantly lower that than of group I (p < 0.01). Subsequently, the Unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of group II were significantly higher than those in group I (p < 0.01). The contents of total amino acids (TAA), total essential amino acids (EAA), total non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and total of major fresh-tasting amino acids (DAA) of groups II, III and IV were significantly higher than those of group I (p < 0.05), as well as the contents of IMP (p < 0.01). The expression of the H-FABP gene in the arm triceps of group II was significantly higher than that of groups I, III and IV (p < 0.05). The expression of the ADSL gene in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum and biceps femoris of group II was significantly higher than that of group I (p < 0.05). Collectively, the results of the current study indicated that the mulberry leaf TMR diet improved the growth performance, apparent digestibility and expression of related meat-quality master genes (ADSL, H-FABP) in crossbred black goats, which promoted the deposition of intramuscular fat (IMF) and inosinic acid (IMP) and improved the composition of fatty acids and amino acids in the muscles.
... Several alternative options for treating major depressive and mood disorders have been posited, among which polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have attracted the attention of clinicians and researchers. PUFAs are a group of fatty acids considered essential because they cannot be synthesized by the human organism; thus, they are acquired through diet [9]. Tese molecules have a double carbon bond on the atom from the methyl end carbon (omega carbon) of the acyl chain and, for this reason, are defned as polyunsaturated; depending on the location of the double bond, they are categorized as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids [10]. ...
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Background: Insufficient effectiveness and a difficult tolerability profile of antidepressant drugs for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) have been reported, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been posited as reliable therapeutic alternatives. The present study investigated the efficacy of omega-3 PUFAs as monotherapy for MDD. Methods: Two well-trained reviewers independently looked at the most significant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from the PubMed database regarding PUFAs' employment in MDD compared to placebo; "major depressive disorder" and "omega-3 fatty acids," or "omega-6 fatty acids," or "polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)," or "n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids," or "eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)," or "docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)" were used as the medical subject keywords. Results: Of the initial 96 potential RCTs based on titles and abstracts, 82 studies did not meet the inclusion criteria and were excluded. Six studies were excluded from the remaining 14 after full text revision. Eight RCTs met all the inclusion/exclusion criteria without reporting clear evidence of PUFAs' effectiveness in the treatment of MDD. Conclusion: At present, there is no opportunity to recommend the use of omega-3 PUFAs monotherapy for the treatment of MDD, although their supplementation may be useful in some specific populations.
... All fatty acids have important roles in the human body, and thus human diet must include foods containing fatty acids [134]. Macrofungi contain a wide variety of fatty acids, but the biggest percentage are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and specifically linoleic acid, which is an important essential ω-6 fatty acid that cannot be synthesized in the body [135]. ...
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Vast quantities of side streams produced worldwide by the agricultural and food industry present an environmental challenge and an opportunity for waste upcycling in the frame of the circular bioeconomy. Fungi are capable of transforming lignocellulosic residues and wastes into a variety of added-value compounds with applications in functional food products, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, enzymes, proteins, and the emerging sector of nutraceuticals. The liquid state culture of fungi is an efficient and potentially scalable and reproducible biotechnological tool that allows the optimized production of fungal metabolites. Particularly, the utilization of agro-industrial by-products, residues, and wastes as a substrate for the liquid culture of macrofungi is suggested as an attainable solution in the management of these streams, contributing to climate change mitigation. This review presents recently published literature in the field of liquid state cultures of macrofungi using agro-industrial side streams, the different substrates, methods, and factors affecting their growth and metabolite production, as well as their applications, focusing on the variety of natural valuable compounds produced.
... The inclusion of unsaturated fatty acids such as n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids in seed oils. Some other important fatty acids includes linoleic (LA, 18:2, n-6), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, n-6), and alpha-linolenic (ALA, 18:3, n-3) (Di Pasquale, 2009). The phytochemical compounds in seed oils (phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenols, tocochromanols, and galactolipids) contribute to antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities (Fidelis et al., 2019). ...
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The application of ultrasonic assisted extraction to extract seed oils for multifaceted food applications is discussed in this study. Seed oils, which are notable sources of health‐promoting characteristics and reservoirs of fatty acids and phytochemicals, are being targeted for effective extraction. Conventional techniques of oil extraction, including mechanical pressing and rendering, have limitations such as low extraction rate, high energy consumption, and low yield. In this context, ultrasonic assisted extraction is green and fast oil extraction technology with a greater extraction rate and low energy consumption. Ultrasound assisted oil extraction is mostly used technique since it is environmentally friendly and can be easily integrated with other extraction processes. Ultrasound‐aided extraction uses less solvent than traditional extraction methods. In this process, cavitation bubbles form in the solvent and burst, causing changes in pressure and temperature that expedite the mass transfer of solutes into solvent. The miscella, including the solvent and oil mixture, is then desolventized using evaporators, followed by steam‐stripping to remove the extracted oil. The current review paper discusses the characteristics of ultrasonic extractions for efficient oil extraction (extraction duration, ultrasound frequency, temperature, solvent employed, and ultrasound type). The conventional and non‐conventional oil extraction methods from sources have been examined in this article, in addition to the ultrasound assisted extraction. Along with traditional and advanced oil extraction techniques, the use of ultrasonication in conjunction with other cutting‐edge techniques is covered in this article. Practical applications Ultrasound assisted oil extraction extracts oil from vegetables, oilseeds, and nuts by using a suitable carrier. The key parameters influencing ultrasound aided extraction of oilseed include particle shape and size, moisture content of seed, amount of solvent, and extraction time/temperature. The ultimate extraction yield is influenced by the extraction time, operating frequency, operational temperature, solvent type, and proportion, and ultrasonicator design. This technique consumes less energy and requires less maintenance. It is quite efficient and reliable. On this basis, ultrasound aided extraction may be utilized commercially to increase oil extraction rate from oil seeds.
... These essential fatty acids are classified into omega-6 (n-6) or omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, or PUFAs. Linoleic acid, the parent n-6 fatty acid, is metabolised to produce arachidonic acid (AA), while the parent omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), is metabolised to form docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [79]. Phospholipids in the brain have been shown to contain high quantities of long-chain PUFAs, which is an indication of their importance for healthy nervous system function. ...
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One of the most recognisable features of ageing is a decline in brain health and cognitive dysfunction, which is associated with perturbations to regular lipid homeostasis. Although ageing is the largest risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, a loss in cognitive function is commonly observed in adults over the age of 65. Despite the prevalence of normal age-related cognitive decline, there is a lack of effective methods to improve the health of the ageing brain. In light of this, exercise has shown promise for positively influencing neurocognitive health and associated lipid profiles. This review summarises age-related changes in several lipid classes that are found in the brain, including fatty acyls, glycerolipids, phospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, and explores the consequences of age-associated pathological cognitive decline on these li-pid classes. Evidence of the positive effects of exercise on the affected lipid profiles are also discussed to highlight the potential for exercise to be used therapeutically to mitigate age-related changes to lipid metabolism and prevent cognitive decline in later life.
Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain the health of blood vessels and prevent the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Free saturated fatty acids (FAs) induce EC damage and increase the risk of CVD by promoting arteriosclerosis. Conversely, polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic acid, are thought to suppress EC damage induced during the early stages of CVD. This review describes the effects of multiple dietary FAs on EC disorders involved in the development of CVD. The roles of FAs in atherosclerosis and CVD were analyzed by evaluating articles published in PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Saturated FAs were found to induce EC damage by reducing the production and action of EC-derived nitric oxide. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and the renin-angiotensin system were found to be involved in EC disorder. Furthermore, n-3 PUFAs were found to reduce EC dysfunction and prevent the development of EC disorder. These results indicate that FAs may affect EC failure induced during the early stages of CVD and reduce the risk of developing the disease.
Omega-3 and omega-6 groups of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are non-interconvertible and metabolically and functionally different, with key opposing metabolic activities in human physiology. The PUFA content of the cell membrane is mostly determined by dietary intake. They are a component of the cellular membrane, improving its fluidity and PUFAs must be released from the membrane by phospholipases in order for signal transmission to occur. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids exert their anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting lipogenesis and increasing the production of resolvins and protectins. n-3 PUFAs mediate some of these effects by antagonizing n-6 PUFA-induced proinflammatory prostaglandin E formation. Today’s industrialized societies with Westernized diet styles have higher overall energy intake, and n-6 PUFAs, but lower energy expenditure. Omega-3 PUFA attenuates ER stress and increases mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation and mitochondrial uncoupling. There is competition between omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 for desaturation enzymes. The unbalanced omega 6/omega 3 ratio in favor of omega 6 PUFAs contributes to the prevalence of atherosclerosis, obesity, and diabetes. n-3 PUFAs are considered to be more protective against inflammation compared with omega 6 PUFA, suggesting the importance of maintaining an ideal balance.
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La utilización de ácidos grasos, esenciales (AGE) en el tratamiento de heridas, a pesar de ser extensamente difundido en el Brasil, todavía causa controversias. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar las evidencias científicas disponibles para la utilización de los AGE en el tratamiento de heridas. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, realizado a través de una revisión sistemática de la literatura, en las bases de datos de la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud y de la PubMed, de 1970 a 2006. Inicialmente fueron identificadas 503 referencias. Después de las pruebas de relevancia I y II fueron incluidos en el análisis 11 artículos, que muestran evidencias de recomendación nivel II y III para el uso de los AGE en quemaduras, mediastinitis, entre otras. La mayoría de los estudios todavía se refieren, al uso en animales. Publicaciones relevantes aún son escasas.
Intakes of partially hydrogenated fish oil and animal fats have declined and those of palm, soybean, sunflower, and rapeseed oils have increased in northern Europe in the past 30 y. Soybean and rapeseed oils are currently the most plentiful liquid vegetable oils and both have desirable ratios of n−6 to n−3 fatty acids. However, soybean and rapeseed oils are commonly partially hydrogenated for use in commercial frying to decrease susceptibility to oxidative degradation. This process leads to selective losses of α-linolenic acid (18:3n−3). Intake of linoleic acid (18:2n−6) has risen in many northern European countries. In the United Kingdom, intakes have increased from ≈10 g/d in the late 1970s to ≈15 g/d in the 1990s. The intake of α-linolenic acid is estimated to be ≈1–2 g/d but varies with the type of culinary oil used. There are few reliable estimates of the intake of long-chain n−3 fatty acids, but those are generally ≈0.1–0.5 g/d. The increased use of intensive, cereal-based livestock production systems has resulted in a lower proportion of n−3 fatty acids in meat compared with traditional extensive production systems. Overall, there has been a shift in the balance between n−6 and n−3 fatty acids over the past 30 y. This shift is reflected in the declining concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid and rising concentrations of linoleic acid in breast milk.
We review the experimental evaluations of several widely marketed nonprescription compounds claimed to be memory enhancers and treatments for age-related memory decline. We generally limit our review to double-blind placebo-controlled studies. The compounds examined are phos-phatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC), citicoline, piracetam, vinpocetine, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), and antiox-idants (particularly vitamin E). In animals, PS has been shown to attenuate many neuronal effects of aging, and to restore normal memory on a variety of tasks. Preliminary findings with humans, though, are limited. For older adults with probable Alzheimer's disease, a single study failed to demonstrate positive effects of PS on memory performance. For older adults with moderate cognitive impairment, PS has produced consistently modest increases in recall of word lists. Positive effects have not been as consistently reported for other memory tests. There is one report of consistent benefits across a number of memory tests for a subset of normal adults who performed more poorly than their peers at baseline. The choline compounds PC and citicoline are thought to promote synthesis and transmission of neurotransmitters important to memory. PC has not proven effective for improving memory in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. The issue remains open for older adults without serious degenerative neural disease. Research on citicoline is practically nonexistent, but one study reported a robust improvement in story recall for a small sample of normally aging older adults who scored lower than their peers in baseline testing. Animal studies suggest that piracetam may improve neuronal efficiency, facilitate activity in neurotransmitter systems, and combat the age-related decrease in receptors on the neuronal membrane. However, for patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, as well as for adults with age-associated memory impairment, there is no clear-cut support for a mnemonic benefit of piracetam. Vinpocetine increases blood circulation and metabolism in the brain. Animal studies have shown that vinpocetine can reduce the loss of neurons due to decreased blood flow. In three studies of older adults with memory problems associated with poor brain circulation or dementia-related disease, vinpocetine produced significantly more improvement than a placebo in performance on global cognitive tests reflecting attention, concentration, and memory. Effects on episodic memory per se have been tested minimally, if at all. ALC participates in cellular energy production, a process especially important in neurons, and in removal of toxic accumulation of fatty acids. Animal studies show that ALC reverses the age-related decline in the number of neuron membrane receptors. Studies of patients with probable Alzheimer's disease have reported nominal advantages over a range of memory tests for ALC-treated patients relative to placebo groups. Significant differences have been reported rarely, however. Whether ALC would have mnemonic benefits for aging adults without brain disease is untested as far as we know. Antioxidants help neutralize tissue-damaging free radicals, which become more prevalent as organisms age. It is hypothesized that increasing antioxidant levels in the organism might retard or reverse the damaging effects of free radicals on neurons. Thus far, however, studies have found that vitamin E does not significantly slow down memory decline for Alzheimer's patients and does not produce significant memory benefits among early Parkinson's patients. Neither did a combination of vitamins E and C significantly improve college students' performance on several cognitive tasks. In sum, for most of the “brain-specific” nutrients we review, some mildly suggestive effects have been found in preliminary controlled studies using standard psychometric memory assessments or more general tests designed to reveal cognitive impairment. We suggest that future evaluations of the possible memory benefits of these supplements might fruitfully focus on memory processes rather than on memory tests per se. © 2002, Association for Psychological Science. All rights reserved.
Biological membranes (plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, etc.) are composed primarily of phospholipids and proteins. Phospholipids are structural components; their physicochemical properties allow them to aggregate in aqueous environments to form lamellar bilayers, that are characteristic of biological membranes. This ability of phospholipids to spontaneously form noncovalently bound aggregates that can act as diffusion barriers (membranes) depends on the chemical composition of a given phospholipid mixture, and other biologically important membrane properties, like surface potential or microviscosity, are affected by this composition. It thus seems obvious that changes in membrane composition of mammalian cells ought to affect their ability to grow and even survive. However, the problem has not been studied much and we have no understanding of how phospholipids might contribute to regulation of cellular growth and rate of division. This chapter reviews evidence showing that various phospholipids are essential to cellular survival and growth. The special role of phosphatidylcholine in survival of cholinergic neurons, and changes in phospholipid turnover during the cell cycle are also briefly discussed.
Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is catalysed by cyclo-oxygenase (COX), as is arachidonic acid, and is a competitive inhibitor of arachidonate metabolism. Objectives We examined the effect of EPA on prostaglandin (PG) D-2 generation in the cultured human mast cells with IgE-anti-IgE challenge incubation. Methods Cultured human mast cells were incubated with EPA (1 mu mol/L) for 20 h, then challenged with anti-IgE incubation after treatment with IgE. At the same time, COX inhibitors were tested to identify COX-1 and COX-2 activity. PGD(2) synthetic activity was also assayed in a cell-free homogenate of cultured mast cells with COX inhibitors and EPA. Histamine in the culture medium and in cells was assayed with the HPLC-fluorescent method. PGD(2) and PCD3 were assayed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the stable isotope dilution method. Results Although EPA incubation did not affect histamine release by cultured human mast cells in response to IgE-anti-IgE challenge incubation, it did decrease PGD(2) generation by inhibiting the COX-2 pathway. In contrast, in the cell-free homogenate of cultured human mast cells, EPA inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2 activities. Conclusions Pre-incubation with EPA primarily affects the COX-2 pathway in cultured human mast cells and reduces PGD(2) generation;nn in responce to IgE-anti-IgE challenge incubation. These findings suggest that COX-1 and COX-2 have different substrate flow systems in mast cells. They also suggest that endogenous EPA diet supplementation would reduce PGD(2) production and could serve as an anti-inflammatory substrate in human mast cells.
Background: Oils enriched in gammalinolenic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, reduce joint pain and swelling in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The cytokines interleukin-l beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha appear to contribute directly to joint tissue damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Agents designed to interfere with the actions of interleukin-l beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are being used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: We examined the influence of gammalinolenic acid added to cells in vitro and administered orally in vivo on interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from activated human peripheral blood monocytes. secretion of both cytokines was reduced by gammalinolenic acid. Administration of safflower oil as a polyunsaturated fatty acid control devoid of gammalinolenic acid did not change secretion of either cytokine, Conclusion: Suppression of IL-beta and TNF-alpha secretion by activated cells may be one mechanism whereby gammalinolenic acid suppresses synovitis patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
A combination of nutritional supplements including free-form amino acids, octacosanol, gamma oryzanol, vitamins, digestive aids, glandulars, and plant porphyrins was administered to 13 male college athletes who were not supplemented. Measurements of muscle girth and estimates of body fat were determined before and after the 8-week period. A significant decrease (P < 0.001) in body fat percentage was observed in the supplemented group (-3.4% compared to +0.25% for controls). Increases in muscle girth measurements for biceps, forearms, thighs, calves, and chests were significant (P < 0.005) for the supplemented group when compared to controls and presupplementation values. Although the experimental design precludes assignment of these results solely to the supplements, postulated mechanisms and the results suggest further research is warranted.