Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome associated with steroid sulfatase deficiency - X-linked recessive ichthyosis: A case report and review of literature

Department of Pediatrics, Kalawati Saran Childrens' Hospital, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, 110001, India.
European Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 1.89). 03/2012; 171(5):847-50. DOI: 10.1007/s00431-012-1712-x
Source: PubMed


Nephrotic syndrome associated with X-linked recessive ichthyosis due to steroid sulfatase deficiency has rarely been reported in English literature. We describe a 4 and a half-year-old boy presenting with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) with an underlying ichthyotic skin present since birth. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. As many of the male members of the family also showed similar skin manifestations, genetic analysis was done on the patient, which revealed deletion of the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene spanning both the 3' as well as the 5'ends. The patient was thus diagnosed with SRNS associated with X-linked recessive ichthyosis. He was started on cyclosporine regimen, and remission was achieved in 5 weeks. We speculate that the deficiency of STS resulting in increased cholesterol sulfate accumulation interferes with the integrity of adherens junctions present between glomerular epithelial cells of the slit diaphragm, and this results in proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome. The nephrotic syndrome remitted with a calcineurin inhibitor medication. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the deficiency of STS is another one in an increasing list of genetic causes of podocytopathy and nephrotic syndrome. Remission of proteinuria in such a case may be achieved with immunosuppressive medication.

8 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we report the case of a 12-year-old male with X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) in association with glomerular sclerosis, and our investigation into the deletion pattern of the STS gene and the flanking regions in DNA samples of family members. We observed no features typical of renal osteodystrophy or rickets, with the exception of short stature, in the three afffected male family members. Audiometry, visual acuity and olfactory sensation were normal. By performing PCR analysis of the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene and flanking regions on our patients, we discovered a complete deletion that involved the entire region from DXS1139 to DXF22S1. Further studies are required to determine whether the STS gene or the co-deleted flanking sequences are the cause of renal disease associated with XLI.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Molecular Medicine Reports
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: X-linked ichthyosis is a relatively common syndromic form of ichthyosis most often due to deletions in the gene encoding the microsomal enzyme, steroid sulfatase, located on the short area of the X chromosome. Syndromic features are mild or unapparent unless contiguous genes are affected. In normal epidermis, cholesterol sulfate is generated by cholesterol sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b), but desulfated in the outer epidermis, together forming a 'cholesterol sulfate cycle' that potently regulates epidermal differentiation, barrier function and desquamation. In XLI, cholesterol sulfate levels my exceed 10% of total lipid mass (≈1% of total weight). Multiple cellular and biochemical processes contribute to the pathogenesis of the barrier abnormality and scaling phenotype in XLI. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Steroid sulfatase (STS) gene disruption causes X-linked ichthyosis (XLI). Interrogating the entire genome through chromosomal microarray (CMA), a test primarily used to screen patients with noncutaneous congenital anomalies, may detect STS deletions incidentally. We sought to determine the variability of skin features associated with STS deletions diagnosed through CMA and to compare these findings with XLI cases reported in the literature and recognized in a dermatology clinic. Male patients with an STS deletion were identified from 23,172 consecutive postnatal blood samples tested with CMA at Mayo Clinic. A comparison group of male patients with biochemically confirmed XLI was ascertained in the dermatology clinic. The available patient medical records, skin histopathology, and photographs were evaluated and a literature search of patients with XLI was conducted. Children whose diagnosis was made incidentally through CMA had milder skin phenotypes, including dryness or eczema, or both, and did not manifest the polygonal or "dirty" scale described as typical of XLI in the literature. The small sample size, limited clinical information, and assessment by nondermatologists in a subset of cases may have influenced the results. STS deletions may cause a milder skin phenotype than the typical presentation of XLI. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Show more