Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits based on horizontal Cu-SiO2-Si-SiO2-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides

Institute of Microelectronics, A STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 11 Science Park Road, Science Park-II, Singapore 117685, Singapore.
Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.49). 03/2012; 20(6):5867-81. DOI: 10.1364/OE.20.005867
Source: PubMed


We report systematic results on the development of horizontal Cu-SiO₂-Si-SiO₂-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguide components operating at 1550-nm telecom wavelengths, including straight waveguides, sharp 90° bends, power splitters, and Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). Owing to the relatively low loss for propagating (~0.3 dB/µm) and for 90° sharply bending (~0.73 dB/turn), various ultracompact power splitters and MZIs are experimentally realized on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform using standard CMOS technology. The demonstrated splitters exhibit a relatively low excess loss and the MZIs exhibit good performance such as high extinction ratio of ~18 dB and low normalized insertion loss of ~1.7 dB. The experimental results of these devices agree well with those predicted from numerical simulations with suitable Cu permittivity data.

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    • "By confining the light beam in subwavelength scale dimensions with a comparatively low propagation loss, they generate a synergetic effect when realized as EPICs on conventional nanoelectronic chips. With the aid of numerous design approaches, a variety of passive and active plasmonic waveguide devices have been developed to guide, modulate, split, and detect light signals [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]. "
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    • "In combination with silicon photonics, plasmonics has extended its applications in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). A variety of Si-based hybrid plasmonic components have been developed to date, including waveguides, dividers, couplers, resonators, modulators and detectors [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. Si-based plasmonic waveguide devices are paving a promising way to realize system-level plasmonic integrated circuits both on-chip and intra-chip [10] [11]. "
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    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of optics
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    • "As reported previously [17], the uncovered MISIM waveguide with the wide Si line has a smaller propagation loss than the covered MISIM waveguide with the narrow Si line. However, the 90 direct bend of the former causes a larger excess loss than the 90 direct bend of the latter, which causes an excess loss of $ 0:73 AE 0:06 dB when t I ¼ 28 nm and w S ¼ 64, 81, 94, or 102 nm [19]. Moreover, the experimental values of L b2 are quite smaller than the calculated values. "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate 90 degrees direct bends of metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal (MISIM) waveguides, which are hybrid plasmonic waveguides with replaceable insulators. First, we fabricate them using fully standard CMOS technology and characterize them. The experimental excess loss of the two consecutive 90 degrees direct bends is 11, 7.4, and 4.5 dB when the width of the Si line of the MISIM waveguide is about 160, 190, and 220 nm, respectively. Second, we analyze the experimental results using the 3-D finite-difference time-domain method. Through the analysis, we investigate possible loss mechanisms of the 90 degrees direct bend, which have not been studied to our knowledge. It has been found that the Si lines should be narrow to reduce the excess losses of the 90 degrees direct bends. However, the wide Si lines are better for ease of fabrication and for small propagation losses. Finally, we demonstrate a modified low-loss 90 degrees direct bend of the MISIM waveguide with a wide Si line.
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