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Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits based on horizontal Cu-SiO2-Si-SiO2-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides

Institute of Microelectronics, A STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 11 Science Park Road, Science Park-II, Singapore 117685, Singapore.
Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.49). 03/2012; 20(6):5867-81. DOI: 10.1364/OE.20.005867
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We report systematic results on the development of horizontal Cu-SiO₂-Si-SiO₂-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguide components operating at 1550-nm telecom wavelengths, including straight waveguides, sharp 90° bends, power splitters, and Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). Owing to the relatively low loss for propagating (~0.3 dB/µm) and for 90° sharply bending (~0.73 dB/turn), various ultracompact power splitters and MZIs are experimentally realized on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform using standard CMOS technology. The demonstrated splitters exhibit a relatively low excess loss and the MZIs exhibit good performance such as high extinction ratio of ~18 dB and low normalized insertion loss of ~1.7 dB. The experimental results of these devices agree well with those predicted from numerical simulations with suitable Cu permittivity data.

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    • "By confining the light beam in subwavelength scale dimensions with a comparatively low propagation loss, they generate a synergetic effect when realized as EPICs on conventional nanoelectronic chips. With the aid of numerous design approaches, a variety of passive and active plasmonic waveguide devices have been developed to guide, modulate, split, and detect light signals [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Graphene is an excellent electronic and photonic material for developing electronic-photonic integrated circuits in Si-based semiconductor devices with ultra wide operational bandwidth. As an extended application, here we propose a broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide, and investigate the optical characteristics numerically at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The optical device is based on the surface plasmon polariton absorption of graphene. By electrically tuning the graphene's refractive index as low as that of a noble metal, the hybrid plasmonic waveguide supports a strongly confined highly lossy hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode, and hence light coupled from an input waveguide experiences significant power attenuation as it propagates along the waveguide. Over the entire C-band from 1.530 to 1.565 μm wavelengths, the on/off extinction ratio is larger than 13.7 dB. This modulator has the potential to play a key role in realizing graphene-Si waveguide-based integrated photonic devices.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Nanotechnology
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    • "In combination with silicon photonics, plasmonics has extended its applications in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). A variety of Si-based hybrid plasmonic components have been developed to date, including waveguides, dividers, couplers, resonators, modulators and detectors [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. Si-based plasmonic waveguide devices are paving a promising way to realize system-level plasmonic integrated circuits both on-chip and intra-chip [10] [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A vertical polarization beam splitter using a hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton (LR-SPP) waveguide is proposed for three-dimensional integration of silicon photonic circuits in a chip. The device is based on a three-port directional coupler that is operated based on mode coupling theory. The hybrid LR-SPP waveguide as the central waveguide in a three-port directional coupler plays a key role in transferring the transverse-magnetic (TM)-polarization mode from the input port to the cross port, which is configured with horizontal and vertical offsets. A 9.7 μm-long vertical polarization splitter with an extinction ratio of 30 dB in the C-band is achieved. The effects of dimensional tolerances are also investigated. The vertical polarization splitter is highly compatible with a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication process based on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of optics
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    • "As reported previously [17], the uncovered MISIM waveguide with the wide Si line has a smaller propagation loss than the covered MISIM waveguide with the narrow Si line. However, the 90 direct bend of the former causes a larger excess loss than the 90 direct bend of the latter, which causes an excess loss of $ 0:73 AE 0:06 dB when t I ¼ 28 nm and w S ¼ 64, 81, 94, or 102 nm [19]. Moreover, the experimental values of L b2 are quite smaller than the calculated values. "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate 90 degrees direct bends of metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal (MISIM) waveguides, which are hybrid plasmonic waveguides with replaceable insulators. First, we fabricate them using fully standard CMOS technology and characterize them. The experimental excess loss of the two consecutive 90 degrees direct bends is 11, 7.4, and 4.5 dB when the width of the Si line of the MISIM waveguide is about 160, 190, and 220 nm, respectively. Second, we analyze the experimental results using the 3-D finite-difference time-domain method. Through the analysis, we investigate possible loss mechanisms of the 90 degrees direct bend, which have not been studied to our knowledge. It has been found that the Si lines should be narrow to reduce the excess losses of the 90 degrees direct bends. However, the wide Si lines are better for ease of fabrication and for small propagation losses. Finally, we demonstrate a modified low-loss 90 degrees direct bend of the MISIM waveguide with a wide Si line.
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