Article

Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of surface water and groundwater in Songnen plain, Northeast China

Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China.
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.53). 03/2012; 46(8):2737-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.02.033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Songnen plain is one of the grain bases in China, as well as one of the three major distribution regions of soda saline-alkali soil in the world. To assess the water quality, surface water and groundwater were sampled and analyzed by fuzzy membership analysis and multivariate statistics. The surface water were gather into class I, IV and V, while groundwater were grouped as class I, II, III and V by fuzzy membership analysis. The water samples were grouped into four categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA. Most water samples distributed in category C1-S1, C2-S2 and C3-S3. Three groups were generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. Four principal components were extracted from principal component analysis. The indicators to water quality assessment were Na, HCO(3), NO(3), Fe, Mn and EC from principal component analysis. We conclude that surface water and shallow groundwater are suitable for irrigation, the reservoir and deep groundwater in upstream are the resources for drinking. The water for drinking should remove of the naturally occurring ions of Fe and Mn. The control of sodium and salinity hazard is required for irrigation. The integrated management of surface water and groundwater for drinking and irrigation is to solve the water issues.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Yilei Yu
  • Source
    • "f the obtained results must be of a high importance . However , Hierarchical Clustering Analysis method ( HCA ) is used to distinguish between water groups that have sim - ilarities in hydrochemical composition . This method joins succes - sively the most similar observations with respect to gravity center ( Davis , 1986 ; Daniele et al . , 2011 ; Zhang et al . , 2012 ) . Indeed , HCA was carried out on 44 individuals ( water samples ) and 9 variables ( EC and 8 major elements ) using Ward method with Euclidean distance ."
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The coastal aquifer system of Chaouia is recognized as one of the most important aquifers in Morocco that is affected by salinization in the coastal fringe. The purpose of this study is to highlight the origin of salinization by sampling and analyzing groundwater from 44 wells for major elements. This study was carried out in May 2011. The results indicate that, in the central and downstream parts, the dominant facies are Mg2+, Na+ and Cl−, while Ca2+ and HCO3− dominate in the upstream zones. Ion exchange processes, under seawater intrusion, control the concentration of ions such as calcium, magnesium and sodium. Moreover, groundwater is oversaturated with respect to carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), and under-saturated with respect to evaporate minerals (gypsum, halite). The contribution of dissolved halite and gypsum in the groundwater mineralization is revealed by their positive correlation between (Na + Cl) and (Ca + SO4), respectively. Furthermore, the comparison of the hydrochemical results to drinking water quality standards by World Health Organization (2008) shows that more than a half of the water sampled is not suitable for drinking purposes, especially with respect to high levels of EC, TDS, Cl− and NO3−. In addition, high mineralization is found to be a consequence of seawater intrusion and anthropogenic activities.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Journal of African Earth Sciences
  • Source
    • "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / j h y d r o l groundwater by applying cluster analysis, e.g., from Europe (Lambrakis et al., 2004), Africa (Belkhiri et al., 2011; Hussein, 2004), and Asia (Zhang et al., 2012; Reghunath et al., 2002). Our study area is the Red River Delta (RRD) in Vietnam, where hydrogeochemical facies, an important diagnostic chemical aspect of groundwater solutions occurring in hydrologic systems, has not been examined adequately by cluster analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality. "

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Hydrology
  • Source
    • "Other studies have used PCA for reasons other than visualisation, such as data clustering. Examples include Koklu et al. (2010), Simeonov et al. (2003), Singh et al. (2004), Alberto et al. (2001) and Zhang et al. (2012). PCA projects data points into a low-dimensional space such that their new low-dimensional representation retains as much of the variance contained within the original, highdimensional , data as possible. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: River quality analysis is an important activity which, in Serbia, has been performed using the Serbian Water Quality Index (SWQI). This is a measure based on a weighted aggregation of 10 water quality parameters. In this work, alternative methods drawing on visualisation approaches used in multi-criterion decision analysis are applied to the problem of evaluating river quality in the Danube. Two methods are considered: one which constructs a graph using the dominance relation combined with a further multi-criterion ranking method, average rank, and the other in which the dimensionality of the data is reduced using PCA for visualisation. Results for data collected in 2010 are analysed and compared with the corresponding SWQI values for the river in that year, and we find that by employing these methods it is possible to reveal more information within the data than is possible by using SWQI alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Water Research
Show more