Slower walking speed is associated with incident knee osteoarthritis-related outcomes

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
Arthritis Care and Research (Impact Factor: 4.71). 07/2012; 64(7):1028-35. DOI: 10.1002/acr.21655
Source: PubMed


To determine whether slower walking speed was associated with an increased risk of incident hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related outcomes.
After providing informed consent, community-dwelling participants in the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project completed 2 home-based interviews and an additional clinic visit for radiographic and physical evaluation. One thousand eight hundred fifty-eight noninstitutionalized residents ages ≥ 45 years living for at least 1 year in 1 of 6 townships in Johnston County, North Carolina, completed the study's questionnaires and clinical examinations at baseline and at followup testing. Walking time was assessed using a manual stopwatch in 2 trials over an 8-foot distance, and walking speed was calculated as the average of both trials. For the hip and knee, we examined 3 outcomes per joint site: radiographic OA (weight-bearing anteroposterior knee radiographs, supine anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of the hip), chronic joint symptoms, and symptomatic OA. Covariates included age, sex, race, education, marital status, body mass index, number of self-reported chronic conditions diagnosed by a health care provider, number of prescriptions, depressive symptoms, self-rated health, number of lower body functional limitations, smoking, and physical activity.
Faster walking speed was consistently associated with a lower incidence of radiographic (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.79-0.97) and symptomatic knee OA (adjusted OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.95); slower walking speed was associated with a greater incidence of these outcomes across a broad range of different clinical and radiographic OA outcomes.
Slower walking speed may be a marker for incident knee OA, but other studies must confirm this finding.

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Available from: Yvonne M Golightly, Sep 05, 2014
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    • ", lateral trunk lean [24] and slower gait speeds [25] in reducing the effect of knee malalignment on the transfer of load. This may have resulted in greater variability in the change in KAA from the unloaded supine position to functional loading during gait in OA subjects . "
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    ABSTRACT: Background End-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) commonly results in knee arthroplasty. Three dimensional (3D) supine imaging is often used for pre-operative planning to optimise post-operative knee adduction angles (KAA). However, supine imaging may not represent loaded knee alignment. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in knee alignment under supine, static and dynamic conditions in healthy subjects and subjects with knee OA. Methods Nine healthy subjects and 15 subjects with end-stage knee OA were recruited. All subjects underwent supine imaging and motion capture during gait. KAAs were calculated from supine images (SUPINE), upright standing (STATIC) and at the first peak ground reaction force during gait (DYNAMIC), and were compared. Results KAAs were significantly higher (more varus) during gait compared with static (loaded and unloaded) in healthy subjects (p < 0.01) but not in subjects with knee OA. There was a good correlation between SUPINE and DYNAMIC for both healthy and OA subjects (R2 > 0.58), with differences in the two relationships; healthy knees had a higher KAA during gait for any given KAA in the supine position, whereas OA knees that were valgus in imaging became more valgus during gait, and the opposite occurred for varus knees. Conclusions Factors that may contribute to the noted differences between healthy and OA subjects include morphological changes in the joint as a result of OA, and gait compensation strategies in people with end-stage OA. Dynamic 3D motion capture provides important information about functional alignment that is not provided by supine imaging or static motion capture. Clinical Relevance Gait analysis may provide useful information to the surgeon during surgical planning of knee arthroplasties.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Knee
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To determine associations between multiple joint symptoms and radiographic osteoarthritis (rOA) and functional outcomes. Method: Complete cross-sectional data for multi-joint symptoms and radiographs, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores, and gait speed were available for 1307 Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project participants (34% men, 32% African American, mean age 66 years). Factor analysis of symptom scores and radiographic grades for the lumbosacral spine, bilateral hands, knees, and hips provided composite scores. Regression models were used to determine associations between composite scores, HAQ, and gait speed, adjusting for age, body mass index, gender, and race. Results: Five rOA factors were identified: (1) IP/CMC factor (carpometacarpal [CMC] and all interphalangeal [IP] joints); (2) MCP factor (metacarpophalangeal joints 2-5); (3) Knee factor (tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints); (4) Spine factor (L1/2 to L5/S1); and (5) Symptom factor. After adjustment, only the Symptom composite was significantly associated with HAQ and gait speed; a 1-standard deviation increase in Symptom score was associated with 9 times higher odds of having poorer function on the HAQ (odds ratio 9.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.80, 12.77), and a clinically significant decline in gait speed (0.06 m/s, 95% CI -0.07, -0.05). Conclusions: A novel Symptom composite score was associated with poorer functional outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation Osteoarthritis (OA) commonly affects multiple joints and is the most common form of arthritis. Symptomatic assessments, which can be easily executed by rehabilitation practitioners, are more closely related to self-reported and performance-based functional status than are less accessible and more costly radiographs. Symptomatic assessments are likely to be more informative for understanding, treating, and potentially preventing functional limitations than radiographic assessments.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Disability and Rehabilitation