Clinical and radiological findings in Pallister-Killian syndrome

Genetics Service, Department of Paediatric Medicine, KK Hospital, Singapore.
European journal of medical genetics (Impact Factor: 1.47). 02/2012; 55(3):167-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2012.01.019
Source: PubMed


Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a potentially lethal disorder with facial dysmorphism, pigmentary skin anomalies, developmental delay and major visceral anomalies, such as diaphragmatic hernia, anorectal malformation, and congenital heart disease. PKS is causally associated with mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p. A routine chromosome analysis in peripheral lymphocytes usually fails to detect the mosaic state. A prompt diagnosis rests on clinical awareness and a subsequent chromosome or molecular analysis in fibroblasts, buccal mucosal cells, or bone marrow cells. We report here on three infants with PKS. One infant had aortic dilatation, a previously unreported association in PKS. More importantly, all infants showed a recognizable, though mild, pattern of skeletal changes mainly affecting axial bones, including delayed ossification of the vertebral bodies and pubic bones, flared anterior ribs, and broad metaphyses of the long bones, particularly of the femora. These skeletal changes should be considered as a useful diagnostic sign in PKS. Awareness of the axial skeletal alterations can be helpful in prompting clinicians to search for mosaic tetrasomy 12p and perform chromosomal analysis in appropriate tissue types.

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    • "There are very few reported cases in which the isochromosome was diagnosed in peripheral lymphocytes [23]. The detection rate is 0–2% in lymphocytes, 50–100% in fibroblasts, and 100% in amniocytes and bone marrow cells [24]. The genetic confirmation in our infant was obtained postnatally from culturing peripheral blood cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Patient: Male, 0 Final Diagnosis: Pallister-Killian syndrome Symptoms: Decidious tooth • flattened nasal bridge • frontal bossing • grooved palate • low-set ears • mid-facial hypoplasia • nuchal fold thickening • right inquinal testis • shortened upper extremities • undescended left intraabdominal testis • widely spaced nipples Medication: - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology. Congenital defects/diseases. Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare, sporadic, polydysmorphic condition that often has highly distinctive features. The clinical features are highly variable, ranging from mild to severe intellectual disability and birth defects. We here report the first case of PKS diagnosed at our institution in a patient in the second trimester of pregnancy. A pregnant 43-year-old woman presented for genetic counseling secondary to advanced maternal age and an increased risk for Down syndrome. Ultrasound showed increased fetal nuchal fold thickness, short limbs, polyhydramnios, and a small stomach. The ultrasound evaluation was compromised due to the patient's body habitus. The patient subsequently underwent amniocentesis and the karyotype revealed the presence of an isochromosome in the short arm of chromosome 12 consistent with the diagnosis of Pallister-Killian syndrome. Postnatally, the infant showed frontal bossing, a flattened nasal bridge, mid-facial hypoplasia, low-set ears, a right upper deciduous tooth, grooved palate, nuchal fold thickening, widely spaced nipples, left ulnar polydactyly, simian creases, flexion contractures of the right middle finger, shortened upper extremities, undescended left intraabdominal testis, and right inguinal testis. The occurrence of PKS is sporadic in nature, but prenatal diagnosis is possible.
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    ABSTRACT: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS), a rare disorder, is characterized by tissue-limited or tissue-specific mosaicism. The characteristic chromosome abnormality associated with PKS is i(12p), which is seen predominantly in skin fibroblast cultures. Diagnosis of i(12p) has been carried out on buccal smears before and was shown to be an easy and feasible method. All previously published studies used alpha-satellite probes for the diagnosis and as such have several pitfalls. Our approach, using dual-color, locus-specific probes, has high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of i(12p). Using statistical analysis, we have also confirmed that the signal pattern in interphase nuclei is consistent with isochromosome 12p.
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