HIV as an independent risk factor for incident lung cancer

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 5.55). 02/2012; 26(8):1017-25. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328352d1ad
Source: PubMed


It is unclear whether the elevated rate of lung cancer among HIV-infected persons is due to biological effects of HIV, surveillance bias, or excess smoking. We compared the incidence of lung cancer between HIV-infected and demographically similar HIV-uninfected patients, accounting for smoking and stage of lung cancer at diagnosis.
Data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort were linked to data from the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry, resulting in an analytic cohort of 37,294 HIV-infected patients and 75,750 uninfected patients.
We calculated incidence rates of pathologically confirmed lung cancer by dividing numbers of cases by numbers of person-years at risk. We used Poisson regression to determine incidence rate ratios (IRRs), adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking prevalence, previous bacterial pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
The incidence rate of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients was 204 cases per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 167-249] and among uninfected patients was 119 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 110-129). The IRR of lung cancer associated with HIV infection remained significant after multivariable adjustment (IRR 1.7; 95% CI 1.5-1.9). Lung cancer stage at presentation did not differ between HIV-infected and uninfected patients.
In our cohort of demographically similar HIV-infected and uninfected patients, HIV infection was an independent risk factor for lung cancer after controlling for potential confounders including smoking. The similar stage distribution between the two groups indicated that surveillance bias was an unlikely explanation for this finding.

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Available from: David Rimland, Dec 24, 2013
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    • "In our study, malignant neoplasm of the lung was the most frequent diagnosis among the non-AIDS malignancies category. As shown by several studies, the incidence of this malignancy is increased with HIV infection and even more so among patients with AIDS compared to demographically similar populations [32-34]. It has been suggested that immunodeficiency-induced recurrent pneumonia and its associated inflammation may contribute to lung carcinogenesis in HIV infected individuals [35]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background In high-income settings, the spectrum of morbidity and mortality experienced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has switched from predominantly AIDS-related to non-AIDS-related conditions. In the context of universal access to care, we evaluated whether that shift would apply in Brazil, a middle-income country with universal access to treatment, as compared to France. Methods Two hospital-based cohorts of HIV-infected individuals were used for this analysis: the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort in South Western France and the Evandro Chagas Research Institute (IPEC) Cohort of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Severe morbid events (AIDS- and non-AIDS-related) were defined as all clinical diagnoses associated with a hospitalization of ≥48 hours. Trends in the incidence rate of events and their determinants were estimated while adjusting for within-subject correlation using generalized estimating equations models with an auto-regressive correlation structure and robust standard errors. Result Between January 2000 and December 2008, 7812 adult patients were followed for a total of 41,668 person-years (PY) of follow-up. Throughout the study period, 90% of the patients were treated with cART. The annual incidence rate of AIDS and non-AIDS events, and of deaths significantly decreased over the years, from 6.2, 21.1, and 1.9 AIDS, non-AIDS events, and deaths per 100 PY in 2000 to 4.3, 14.9, and 1.5/100 PY in 2008. The annual incidence rates of non-AIDS events surpassed that of AIDS-events during the entire study period. High CD4 cell counts were associated with a lower incidence rate of AIDS and non-AIDS events as well as with lower rates of specific non-AIDS events, such as bacterial, hepatic, viral, neurological, and cardiovascular conditions. Adjusted analysis showed that severe morbidity was associated with lower CD4 counts and higher plasma HIV RNAs but not with setting (IPEC versus Aquitaine). Conclusions As information on severe morbidities for HIV-infected patients remain scarce, data on hospitalizations are valuable to identify priorities for case management and to improve the quality of life of patients with a chronic disease requiring life-long treatment. Immune restoration is highly effective in reducing AIDS and non-AIDS severe morbid events irrespective of the setting.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "Higher smoking rates have been reported for HIV-infected populations. After controlling for potential confounders including smoking, a large cohort study of veterans (with 37,000 HIV-infected patients and 75,000 healthy controls) concluded that HIV was an independent risk factor for incident lung cancer (37). Importantly, cancer incidence in HIV-infected individuals was found to be inversely related to CD4+ T cell counts in blood, which supports the association between immunosuppression and increased cancer risk (38). "
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of the immune system in conferring protection against pathogens like viruses, bacteria, and parasitic worms is well established. In contrast, there is a long-lasting debate on whether cancer prevention is a primary function of the immune system. The concept of immunological surveillance of cancer was developed by Lewis Thomas and Frank Macfarlane Burnet more than 50 years ago. We are still lacking convincing data illustrating immunological eradication of precancerous lesions in vivo. Here, I present eight types of evidence in support of the cancer immunosurveillance hypothesis. First, primary immunodeficiency in mice and humans is associated with increased cancer risk. Second, organ transplant recipients, who are treated with immunosuppressive drugs, are more prone to cancer development. Third, acquired immunodeficiency due to infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) leads to elevated risk of cancer. Fourth, the quantity and quality of the immune cell infiltrate found in human primary tumors represent an independent prognostic factor for patient survival. Fifth, cancer cells harbor mutations in protein-coding genes that are specifically recognized by the adaptive immune system. Sixth, cancer cells selectively accumulate mutations to evade immune destruction ("immunoediting"). Seventh, lymphocytes bearing the NKG2D receptor are able to recognize and eliminate stressed premalignant cells. Eighth, a promising strategy to treat cancer consists in potentiating the naturally occurring immune response of the patient, through blockade of the immune checkpoint molecules CTLA-4, PD-1, or PD-L1. Thus, there are compelling pieces of evidence that a primary function of the immune system is to confer protection against cancer.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Frontiers in Immunology
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    • "Although treatment has led to increased longevity in HIV-infected persons, there may be an increase in morbidity and mortality secondary to non-AIDS related conditions [3-5]. Chronic lung conditions may contribute to morbidity and mortality as conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), [1,6,7] bronchogenic carcinoma, [8] pulmonary hypertension, [9] and pulmonary fibrosis [1] have been reported to be more prevalent in HIV-infected persons. Prior studies have been based largely on medical record review, and little is known about the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, degree of diagnostic testing related to cardiopulmonary disease, and prevalence and incidence of patient-reported diagnoses related to chronic lung disease in HIV-infected persons during the current HAART era. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Several lung diseases are increasingly recognized as comorbidities with HIV; however, few data exist related to the spectrum of respiratory symptoms, diagnostic testing, and diagnoses in the current HIV era. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of HIV on prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease in the current era of effective antiretroviral treatment. Methods A pulmonary-specific questionnaire was administered yearly for three years to participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Adjusted prevalence ratios for respiratory symptoms, testing, or diagnoses and adjusted incidence rate ratios for diagnoses in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected participants were determined. Risk factors for outcomes in HIV-infected individuals were modeled. Results Baseline pulmonary questionnaires were completed by 907 HIV-infected and 989 HIV-uninfected participants in the MACS cohort and by 1405 HIV-infected and 571 HIV-uninfected participants in the WIHS cohort. In MACS, dyspnea, cough, wheezing, sleep apnea, and incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were more common in HIV-infected participants. In WIHS, wheezing and sleep apnea were more common in HIV-infected participants. Smoking (MACS and WIHS) and greater body mass index (WIHS) were associated with more respiratory symptoms and diagnoses. While sputum studies, bronchoscopies, and chest computed tomography scans were more likely to be performed in HIV-infected participants, pulmonary function tests were no more common in HIV-infected individuals. Respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected individuals were associated with history of pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, or use of HAART. A diagnosis of asthma or COPD was associated with previous pneumonia. Conclusions In these two cohorts, HIV is an independent risk factor for several respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases including COPD and sleep apnea. Despite a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, testing for non-infectious respiratory diseases may be underutilized in the HIV-infected population.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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