Long-term outcome of extratemporal resection in posttraumatic epilepsy
Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a common cause of medically intractable epilepsy. While much of PTE is extratemporal, little is known about factors associated with good outcomes in extratemporal resections in medically intractable PTE. The authors investigated and characterized the long-term outcome and patient factors associated with outcome in this population. A single-institution retrospective query of all epilepsy surgeries at Regional Epilepsy Center at the University of Washington was performed for a 17-year time span with search terms indicative of trauma or brain injury. The query was limited to adult patients who underwent an extratemporal resection (with or without temporal lobectomy), in whom no other cause of epilepsy could be identified, and for whom minimum 1-year follow-up data were available. Surgical outcomes (in terms of seizure reduction) and clinical data were analyzed and compared. Twenty-one patients met inclusion and exclusion criteria. In long-term follow-up 6 patients (28%) were seizure-free and an additional 6 (28%) had a good outcome of 2 or fewer seizures per year. Another 5 patients (24%) experienced a reduction in seizures, while only 4 (19%) did not attain significant benefit. The presence of focal encephalomalacia on imaging was associated with good or excellent outcomes in 83%. In 8 patients with the combination of encephalomalacia and invasive intracranial EEG, 5 (62.5%) were found to be seizure free. Normal MRI examinations preoperatively were associated with worse outcomes, particularly when combined with multifocal or poorly localized EEG findings. Two patients suffered complications but none were life threatening or disabling. Many patients with extratemporal PTE can achieve good to excellent seizure control with epilepsy surgery. The risks of complications are acceptably low. Patients with focal encephalomalacia on MRI generally do well. Excellent outcomes can be achieved when extratemporal resection is guided by intracranial EEG electrodes defining the extent of resection.