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Abstract

The aim of this research is to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Human System Audit transformational leadership short-scale (HSA-TFL-ES). It is based on the concept of Bass developed in 1985. The HSA-TFL is a part of the wider Human System Audit frame. We analyzed the HSA-TFL-ES in five different samples with a total number of 1,718 workers at five sectors. Exploratory Factor Analysis corroborated a single factor in all samples that accounted for 66% to 73% of variance. The internal consistency in all samples was good ( α = .92 - .95). Evidence was found for the convergent validity of the HSA-TFL-ES and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. These results suggested that the HSA-TFL short-scale is a psychometrically sound measure of this construct and can be used for a combined and first overall measurement.
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... In Philippines, we found no study on TFL validation. The HSA-TFL short-scale, that is based on Bass' (1985) TFL concept answers the above-mentioned requirements (Carless, 1998;Felfe, 2006;Quijano, Navarro, Yepes, Berger, & Romeo, 2008) for short screening instruments with its practical advantages for the implementation of intervention showing consistently good psychometric characteristics for samples in diverse sectors (Berger, Romeo, Guardia, Yepes, & Soria, 2012). The 8-item HSA-TFL short-scale was developed in the frame of the Human Systems Audit (HSA) (Quijano et al. 2008), first in Spanish, then translated into English, Portuguese, Polish (Berger et al., 2011) and German (Kolbe, 2009) confirming always a one-dimensional factor structure (Berger et al., 2012). ...
... The HSA-TFL short-scale, that is based on Bass' (1985) TFL concept answers the above-mentioned requirements (Carless, 1998;Felfe, 2006;Quijano, Navarro, Yepes, Berger, & Romeo, 2008) for short screening instruments with its practical advantages for the implementation of intervention showing consistently good psychometric characteristics for samples in diverse sectors (Berger, Romeo, Guardia, Yepes, & Soria, 2012). The 8-item HSA-TFL short-scale was developed in the frame of the Human Systems Audit (HSA) (Quijano et al. 2008), first in Spanish, then translated into English, Portuguese, Polish (Berger et al., 2011) and German (Kolbe, 2009) confirming always a one-dimensional factor structure (Berger et al., 2012). It evaluates employees' perceptions of their direct supervisors' TFL. ...
... It evaluates employees' perceptions of their direct supervisors' TFL. Based on these previous findings concerning the factor structure of the HSA-TFL short-scale and psychometric properties (Berger et al., 2011(Berger et al., , 2012 we expect: ...
Article
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The the aims of this study are to analyze the psychometric properties of the Philippine (N=308) and German (N=200) version of the Human System Audit Transformational Leadership Short-scale (HSA-TFL Short-scale) and to identify whether transformational profiles are similar or different in Germany and Philippines. In todays’ global environment the number of multinationals in organizations increases and straighter trade relations between countries. This produces the companies’ need for short leadership instruments that are scientifically designed, quick to apply and in a global environment of reliable use. Factor structure, convergent and criterion validity as well as transformational profiles were analyzed for Germany and Philippines, important economies in their regional’s economic block, that faced a considerable growth on their relations. Results indicate that HSA-TFL Short is a reliable instrument (α = .90) with a one-factor structure and good convergent validity for both countries. Criterion validity was different in both countries and sensible to the cultural context. The transformational profiles, using the MLQ-5X, showed differences for both countries. The study provides empirical evidence for the validity of the HSA-TFL Short-scale.
... Bass (1985Bass ( , 1987Bass ( , 1998 suggested that transformational leaders evoke respect, trust, and loyalty from their followers. Transformational leaders emphasize the needs of their followers, encouraging leadership skills development, and empowering participation in decision-making (Bass, 1985;Bass & Avolio, 1995Bass & Riggio, 2006;Berger, Romeo, Guardia, Yepes, & Soria, 2012). Studies have shown that teams piloted by a transformational leader have higher levels of job performance and satisfaction as compared to those governed by other leadership styles (Bass, Avolio, & Atwater, 1996;Bass, Avolio, Jung, & Berson, 2003;Bass & Riggio, 2006;Hemsworth, Muterera, & Baregheh, 2013). ...
... Leadership instrument. The MLQ-5X is universally recognized as a valid, reliable measure of transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant or laissez-faire leadership style (Antonakis et al., 2003;Avolio, Bass, & Jung, 1999;Berger et al., 2012;Kanste, Kaariainen, & Kyngas, 2009;Muenjohn & Armstrong, 2008). Total item reliability for each leadership factor scale measured by the MLQ-5X spans from a Cronbach's alpha of .74 to .94 (Bass & Avolio, 1995, 2000. ...
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Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have invaded practically every aspect of life. This inescapable technological revolution has resulted in an exponential growth in the use of ICTs at home and at the workplace. Technology-induced anxiety, otherwise known as technostress, is a harmful phenomenon, suggested to be caused by the use of ICTs. Within organizations, technostress not only inhibits workplace productivity, reduces performance, weakens employee commitment, and decreases job satisfaction, but also increases the reported frequency of absenteeism, burnout, and job turnover. The consequences of technostress are widespread and costly and can have a severe impact not only on companies and their afflicted workforce but also to the global economy. Technostress costs United States companies more than $300 billion per year attributable to lost productivity and increased absenteeism, workplace accidents, and employee turnover. Technostress is the cause for over 275 million lost workdays each year. Incorporating a multiple linear regression analysis, this study evaluated whether leadership style, utilizing the Full-Range Leadership theory (FRLT) and demographic factors including age, gender, education, and industry experience, influenced the observed, self-perceived level of technostress of information technology managers between the ages of 18 to 65 working in the United States. Results from the survey of 129 information technology managers concluded that a statistically significant relationship exists between transactional and laissez-faire leaders and technostress.
... Sample items are "I have control over the scheduling of my work." Support from supervisor and coworkers (hereafter labeled as "support") was assessed using an eightitem Human System Audit Transformational Leadership Short Scale (Berger et al., 2012) and a three-item scale on coworker support (Ducharme and Martin, 2000). Sample items are "My supervisor develops ways of motivating us" and "I feel that I can talk to my coworkers about personal difficulties." ...
Article
Purpose With a growing number of older workers in the labor force, cultivating an age-friendly working environment becomes increasingly important. Inspired by the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, this study aims to investigate whether the negative effects of perceived age discrimination (PAD) on work-related outcomes would be explained by job resources and demands. Design/methodology/approach A total of 333 Hong Kong Chinese employees aged 40 and above ( M = 46.62, SD = 6.21; 60% female) completed an online survey that covered measures on workplace age discrimination, job resources and demands, work engagement, intention to stay and work strain. Findings PAD at work was associated with reduced job resources and increased job demands. The results of the mediation analyses showed support from supervisor and coworkers could account for the effects of PAD on work engagement and intention to stay, whereas emotional demand or workload could explain the effects of PAD on work engagement and work strain. Practical implications The findings of this research unveil the underlying mechanisms between age discrimination and work-related outcomes through job resources and job demands. Cultivating a supportive organizational climate toward older employees and offering awareness-based training programs are necessary to mitigate age biases in the workplace. Originality/value Building on the JD-R model, this study revealed the possible mechanism underlying the negative effects of PAD. Perceptions of age discrimination decrease older workers' job resources and increase their job demands, subsequently lower their work engagement and intention to stay and increase their work strain.
... The scale consists of eight items (e.g., "My leader promotes the use of intelligence a means of overcoming obstacles") that measure TFL using a five-point Likert scale (from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Previous research has provided empirical evidence for the construct validity of this measure (Berger et al., , 2012 in diverse languages. Cronbach's alpha for the eight items for the German sample was α = 0.93. ...
Article
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Following the call of recent reviews on leadership and well-being, the purpose of this study is to examine how and when two contrasting leadership styles, transformational leadership (TFL) and passive-avoidant leadership (PAL), are related to employees’ anxiety and thereby either promote or inhibit employees’ well-being. Using the prominent job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, we propose that the relationship between leadership behavior and anxiety is mediated by organizational job demands, namely, role ambiguity (RA), and job resources, namely, team climate for learning (TCL), as well as moderated by autonomy as important job characteristic. A sample of 501 knowledge workers, working in teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization, answered an online survey. We tested moderated multiple mediation models using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results demonstrated that the relationships between TFL as well as PAL on the one hand and anxiety on the other hand were fully mediated by RA and TCL. Job autonomy moderated the quality of the leadership–job demand relationship for TFL and PAL. This paper contributes to understanding the complex relationship between leadership and followers’ well-being taking into account a combination of mediating and moderating job demands and resources. This is the first study that examines the effects of TFL and PAL on well-being taking into account the job demand RA and team processes and autonomy as resources.
... Leadership Style (Q12) -The percepton of team leadership is assessed using the scale developed by Yerger et al. (2012.. The eight items capture the members' percepton of their team leader. ...
Technical Report
In this report, a large part of the results of the GEDII project are combined. As such it is the outcome of a collective, prolonged effort that merges diverse scientific expertise and skills. The present report contains the findings of the cross-country survey regarding gender diversity in R&D teams across Europe and its link to performance indicators carried as part of the GEDII project. The empirical evidence is based upon 1,357 complete questionnaire submissions across 159 teams in the following 17 countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. Most teams were recruited from Spain (approximately 500 individual responses) and Sweden (approximately 300 responses) followed by Germany, the UK, the Netherlands (about 100 individual responses each). The fieldwork was conducted between March 2017 and January 2018. Despite concerted efforts, response from the private sector was negligible. R&D teams reaching a sufficiently high response rate threshold were included in the analysis of the diversity-performance link. Web of Science publications as well as patents were collected for all members of the participating groups. Bibliometric indicators including such size-dependent indicators as the Field Adjusted Performance (FAP) and Percentile Model (PModel) were calculated in order to compare performance of research groups across scientific fields. Patent indicators counted the number of patents per team. Gendered processes within teams were captured through the Gender Diversity Index (GDI), a composite indicator developed in another part of this project. The GDI measures the representation and attrition of women and men within teams along seven dimensions of diversity, such as education, age, marital status, care responsibilities, team tenure, seniority and contract type. The GDI provides a score bound between 0 and 1, where 1 signals a more inclusive team. Our preliminary analysis shows that inclusive teams as defined by the Gender Diversity Index do not affect research performance. Regarding gender differences, the models also indicate that there are not statistically significant effect of the share of women on performance – defined as both productivity and impact.
... The members' questionnaire included questions on the respondents' characteristics, the organisation of work, team leadership (Berger et al. 2012), gender stereotypes (Miller and Borgida 2016), a short version of the Team Climate Inventory (Kivimaki and Elovainio 1999) and performance measures such as volume of publications and patents. The team contact person was also asked for general information about the team such as the number of women and men, the size of the organisation, policies within the organisation and area of work. ...
Technical Report
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A core objective of the GEDII project is to provide empirical evidence on the potential link between gender diversity within teams and research performance/innovation. This report builds upon a previous report (Humbert and Guenther 2017), which provided preliminary considerations and results in efforts to build the Gender Diversity Index. The Gender Diversity Index is a composite indicator that is applicable at team level and provides a summary measure of gendered processes. A composite indicator is obtained when individual indicators are compiled in a single measure on the basis of a multi-dimensional concept. For the Gender Diversity Index, this means aggregating several team level gender diversity measures into a coherent conceptual and statistical whole.
... Most research on transformational leadership relied on the MLQ (Bass and Avolio, 1995). Yet its dimensionality has been questioned (Bycio et al., 1995), and Berger et al. (2012) showed that transformational leadership can be measured as a unidimensional construct. Thus, we used the German version of the HSA-TFL short-scale (8 items, Cronbach's α = 0.93). ...
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The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). 408 members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modelling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations (p < .05). Although transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals (p < .05), this seems not to contribute to team effectiveness. The data provided by the leaders was used to assess common source bias, which did not affect the interpretability of the results. Limitations include cross-sectional data and a lower than expected variance of task uncertainty across different job types. This paper contributes to understanding how knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty and confirms the importance of group development in this context. This is the first study to examine the effects of transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence.
... However, there are several instruments and sets of processes and outcome indicators that evaluate particular attributes and consequences of 'Transforming care'. Table 4 Aiken & Patrician, 2000;Chaboyer et al., 2010, Lee & Upenieks, 2008Melnyk et al., 2008;Berger et al., 2012). As a comprehensive instrument has not been developed ( Burston et al., 2015), these six tools can be combined to measure the presence of the concept. ...
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