Stress and Coping in Women Living with HIV: A Meta-Analytic Review

Department of Psychology, Charles E. Schmidt College of Science, Florida Atlantic University, 2912 College Avenue, Davie, FL, 33314, USA, .
AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 03/2012; 16(8):2144-59. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-012-0166-5
Source: PubMed


To examine effects between stressors and coping mechanisms on behavioral health outcomes a meta-analysis was conducted using forty empirical articles which sampled 7,602 adult women living with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. (M = 36.3 years). Three independent reviewers conducted searches in abstract databases from 1997 to present day. Articles reporting effect sizes amongst psychosocial stressors and coping mechanisms with indices of behavioral/mental health were selected. The meta-analyses revealed that in a time frame characterized by the widespread availability of anti-retroviral medication, poor mental health outcomes were predicted, in a similar manner, by psychosocial stress and HIV/AIDS symptomology. Significant effects were also observed with functional impairment, though to a lesser degree. Coping by avoidance and social isolation predicted more severe mental health outcomes. Spirituality and positive reappraisal predicted greater psychological adaptation than did social support seeking. Despite advancements in anti-retroviral treatment for women, HIV/AIDS symptoms and acute and/or chronic psychosocial stress pose the same threat to behavioral and mental health. In the face of these stressors, positive reframing appears to promote psychological adaptation in a way which may lead to positive health outcomes in women living with HIV/AIDS.

  • Source
    • "Women living with HIV (WLHIV) account for over half of people living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide (UNAIDS, 2013). WLHIV have to cope with both psychosocial and physical stressors that significantly impact the development of psychopathology (Benoit et al., 2014; Brackis-Cott, Mellins, & Block, 2003; Herek, Saha, & Burack, 2013; McIntosh & Rosselli, 2012). Among these stressors, access to health care, treatment, and satisfaction with medical providers are predominant. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · AIDS Care
  • Source
    • "HIVAR-86; No. of Pages 5 stress, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, violence, breakdown of social and work relations, isolation, and treatment adherence problems, among many others [6]. It has been reported that the coping capacity of HIV diagnosis and future life vary depending on the personality, gender and living conditions. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Community based organizations are critical in the scenario of the HIV prevention. Globally, many of these organizations are led by women living with the infection after facing diagnosis and experience different resilience processes. Aim This study aimed to understand the phenomena of resilience and leadership experienced by three women who have led organizations in Cali, Colombia. These cases were selected after being considered emblematic at a local, national and regional level. Materials and methods An exploratory qualitative case study was conducted, with in-depth interviews and content analysis. Results The findings showed four determinants of resilience and leadership: (1) the presence of economic and emotional hardships in childhood that produced experiences of capacity building, (2) the diagnosis, as a vital moment where resilient transitions from the decision to be tested for HIV until acceptance and family and social support to deal with the infection, (3) what the authors have termed the ‘post-diagnosis adulthood’, a vital moment of consolidation of resilient phenomena associated with making life decisions as a partner and the development of a formal education, and (4) the recognition and awareness of their children as a main strength and the transition to leadership to support other individuals and communities affected by HIV. Conclusions The results may be useful to understand and support with financial, human and technical resources different resilient organizational spaces led by women. Community based organizations play a fundamental role in the prevention of new infections and mitigation of the effects on people who are affected by the virus.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · HIV and AIDS Review
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined correlates of depressive symptoms, particularly the role of religious coping (RCOPE), among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study also examined social support as a possible mediator of the proposed association between religious coping and depressive symptoms and the impact of depressive symptomatology on health outcomes such as HIV medication adherence, immune function, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among PLWHA. A convenience sample of 292 PLWHA were recruited from an out-patient infectious disease clinic and AIDS-service organizations in the Southeastern United States. 56.7% reported depressive symptoms. PLWHA with depressive symptomatology reported significantly poorer health outcomes, including poorer HIV medication adherence, lower CD4 cell count, and poorer HRQOL. The odds of being depressed was significantly associated with birth sex (female: OR = 0.43, 95% CI = .23-.80), sexual orientation (gay/bisexual: OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.04-3.65), marital status (single: OR = .52, 95% CI = .27-.99), social support satisfaction (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = .49-.86), and negative RCOPE (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.31). Social support partially mediated the relationship between religious coping and depressive symptoms. High rates of depressive symptoms are present in PLWHA, which negatively impact health outcomes. Religious coping, perceived stress, and social support satisfaction serve an important role in depressive symptomatology among PLWHA. These findings underscore the need for healthcare providers to regularly screen PLWHA for and adequately treat depression and collaborate with mental health providers, social workers, and pastoral care counselors to address PLWHA's mental, social, and spiritual needs and optimize their HIV-related outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Show more