Development and Evaluation of a High-Fidelity Canine Patient Simulator for Veterinary Clinical Training
High-fidelity human patient simulators have been used for decades in medical education to provide opportunities for students to practice technical skills, diagnostic and therapeutic planning, and communication skills in a safe environment. A high-fidelity canine patient simulator (CPS) was developed using components from a human patient simulator and a low-fidelity foam core canine mannequin. Ninety-six veterinary students participated in cardiopulmonary arrest scenarios in groups of three to five students. Afterwards, participants were asked to complete an anonymous online survey describing their experiences. A total of 70 students (73%) completed the survey. All of the students (100%) felt that the simulator session expanded their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge base, and 97% responded that their skills and abilities had improved. Students also expressed positive opinions about the CPS, with 89% agreeing or strongly agreeing that the CPS was realistic and 73% agreeing or strongly agreeing that the scenarios generated emotions similar to real clinical situations. Most participants (98.5%) agreed or strongly agreed that the simulator was an engaging learning experience. Students commonly commented that the simulations allowed them to practice communication and teamwork skills and were more effective than paper-based, problem-oriented learning opportunities and lecture. Students also commented that they wanted more opportunities to participate in simulation exercises. These results suggest that high-fidelity veterinary simulation is an engaging educational methodology that addresses some limitations of other forms of problem-based learning. More studies are needed to quantitatively determine the effectiveness of this novel veterinary educational technology in comparison with more traditional approaches.
Available from: John E Rush
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ABSTRACT: To present a series of evidence-based, consensus guidelines for veterinary CPR in dogs and cats.
Standardized, systematic evaluation of the literature, categorization of relevant articles according to level of evidence and quality, and development of consensus on conclusions for application of the concepts to clinical practice. Questions in five domains were examined: Preparedness and Prevention, Basic Life Support, Advanced Life Support, Monitoring, and Post-Cardiac Arrest Care. Standardized worksheet templates were used for each question, and the results reviewed by the domain members, by the RECOVER committee, and opened for comments by veterinary professionals for 4 weeks. Clinical guidelines were devised from these findings and again reviewed and commented on by the different entities within RECOVER as well as by veterinary professionals.
Academia, referral practice and general practice.
A total of 74 worksheets were prepared to evaluate questions across the five domains. A series of 101 individual clinical guidelines were generated. In addition, a CPR algorithm, resuscitation drug-dosing scheme, and postcardiac arrest care algorithm were developed.
Although many knowledge gaps were identified, specific clinical guidelines for small animal veterinary CPR were generated from this evidence-based process. Future work is needed to objectively evaluate the effects of these new clinical guidelines on CPR outcome, and to address the knowledge gaps identified through this process.
Available from: Walter Brehm
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ABSTRACT: In this study, a newly-developed model for training veterinary students to inject the jugular vein in horses was evaluated as an additional tool to supplement the current method of teaching. The model was first validated by 19 experienced equine veterinarians, who judged the model to be a realistic and valuable tool for learning the technique. Subsequently, it was assessed using 24 students who were divided randomly into two groups. The injection technique was taught conventionally in a classroom lecture and a live demonstration to both groups, but only group 1 received additional training on the new model. All participants filled out self-assessment questionnaires before and after group 1 received training on the model. Finally, the proficiency of both groups was assessed using an objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) on live horses. Students from group 1 showed significantly improved confidence after their additional training on the model and also showed greater confidence when compared to group 2 students. In the OSCE, group 1 had a significantly better score compared to group 2: the median (with inter-quartile range) was 15 (0.7) vs. 11.5 (2.8) points out of 15, respectively. The training model proved to be a useful tool to teach veterinary students how to perform jugular vein injections in horses in a controlled environment, without time limitations or animal welfare concerns. The newly developed training model offers an inexpensive, efficient, animal-sparing way to teach this clinical skill to veterinary students.
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ABSTRACT: We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a posttest comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web-based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive, though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses. Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview.
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