Article

The Status-Signaling Property of Self-Esteem: The Role of Self-Reported Self-Esteem and Perceived Self-Esteem in Personality Judgments

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Abstract

Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of self-esteem. The present studies examined whether self-esteem possesses a status-signaling property such that an individual's level of self-esteem is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: In Study 1, trained judges watched brief videos of 157 participants and rated targets as having higher levels of self-esteem when the targets were believed to possess more positive personality characteristics. Study 2 found that participants (357 targets) were rated as having higher levels of self-esteem when they were given more positive personality evaluations by their friends and family members (1,615 perceivers). Results: Consistent with the proposed status-signaling model, high levels of self-esteem were generally associated with the perception of positive personality characteristics. Conclusions: These findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.

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... Therefore, to extend the validity of self-CIs, we employed social evaluation on top of self-reports as criterion variables and examined the relationship between self-CIs and social evaluation. Previous studies have constantly found that how an individual sees himself or herself may influence how that person is perceived by other people (Hirsch et al., 2004;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). For example, when the socially anxious people were asked to hold negative selfimage in mind before a conversation with a stranger, they were evaluated more negatively by their partners in the quality of conversation than when they held a less negative self-image in mind (Hirsch et al., 2004). ...
... For example, when the socially anxious people were asked to hold negative selfimage in mind before a conversation with a stranger, they were evaluated more negatively by their partners in the quality of conversation than when they held a less negative self-image in mind (Hirsch et al., 2004). Similarly, Zeigler-Hill et al. (2013) reported that individuals with greater self-worth were evaluated more positively by others than were those with less self-worth. These studies may indicate that examining social evaluation contributes to a further understanding of self-image. ...
... The relationship between the independent valence ratings of self-CIs and expert ratings remained significant, β In support of our main hypothesis, our findings revealed that higher the independent valence ratings of self-CIs, participants were evaluated more positively by experts. This is consistent with previous literature that individuals with positive self-perceptions are viewed more favorably by others than those with negative selfperceptions (Taylor et al., 2003;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). Building on previous studies, we demonstrated that the significant relationship between self-image and social evaluation can be revealed through the RC method. ...
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Reverse correlation (RC) method has been recently used to visualize mental representations of self. Previous studies have mainly examined the relationship between psychological aspects measured by self-reports and classification images of self (self-CIs), which are visual proxies of self-image generated through the RC method. In Experiment 1 (N = 118), to extend the validity of self-CIs, we employed social evaluation on top of self-reports as criterion variables and examined the relationship between self-CIs and social evaluation provided by clinical psychologists. Experiment 1 revealed that the valence ratings of self-CIs evaluated by independent raters predicted social evaluation after controlling for the effects of self-reported self-esteem and extraversion. Furthermore, in Experiment 2 (N = 127), we examined whether a computational scoring method – a method to assess self-CIs without employing independent raters – could be applied to evaluate the valence of participants’ self-CIs. Experiment 2 found that the computational scores of self-CIs were comparable to independent valence ratings of self-CIs. We provide evidence that self-CIs can add independent information to self-reports in predicting social evaluation. We also suggest that the computational scoring method can complement the independent rating process of self-CIs. Overall, our findings reveal that self-CIs are a valid and useful tool to examine self-image more profoundly.
... So, individuals with low self-esteem would withdraw from relationship partners who view them more positively than how they see themselves. A third line of reasoning is provided by the self-broadcasting perspective (see Srivastava & Beer, 2005;Yeung & Martin, 2003;Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013), which suggests that individuals display observable cues that "broadcast" their internal self-evaluations to others, which in turn shape the functioning of social relationships. For example, if individuals perceive SELF-ESTEEM AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS 9 themselves as having low competence, these beliefs may be expressed through consistent avoidance of relevant tasks and delegation to others (Taylor & Brown, 1988). ...
... Effect of self-esteem on social relationships. In terms of the prospective effect of selfesteem on social relationships, the present research supports the assumptions of Murray and colleagues' (2000) risk regulation model, the self-broadcasting perspective (Srivastava & Beer, 2005;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013), and the relationship behaviors perspective. As described in the introduction, all of these theoretical perspectives suggest that people's levels of self-esteem have consequences for their social relationships. ...
... Some possibilities include direct eye contact (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013), speaking confidently (Harter, 2006), attentive listening, and supportive elaboration upon feelings shared or memories recalled by relationship partners (Fivush, Haden, & Reese, 2006). ...
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Theorists have long assumed that people's self-esteem and social relationships influence each other. However, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent, creating substantial uncertainty about whether relationships are in fact an influential factor in self-esteem development and vice versa. This meta-analysis synthesizes the available longitudinal data on the prospective effect of social relationships on self-esteem (48 samples including 46,231 participants) and the prospective effect of self-esteem on social relationships (35 samples including 21,995 participants). All effects controlled for prior levels of the outcomes. Results showed that relationships and self-esteem reciprocally predict each other over time with similar effect sizes (β = .08 in both directions). Moderator analyses suggested that the effects held across sample characteristics such as mean age, gender, ethnicity, and time lag between assessments, except for the self-esteem effect on relationships, which was moderated by type of relationship partner (stronger for general relationships than for specific partners) and relationship reporter (stronger for self-reported than for informant-reported relationship characteristics). The findings support assumptions of classic and contemporary theories on the influence of social relationships on self-esteem and on the consequences of self-esteem for the relationship domain. In sum, the findings suggest that the link between people's social relationships and their level of self-esteem is truly reciprocal in all developmental stages across the life span, reflecting a positive feedback loop between the constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... The perception of another person's level of self-esteem appears to be relevant not only for existing relationships but also for the formation of new social bonds, as people may use impressions of an unacquainted other's self-esteem to gauge that person's actual worth (Cameron et al., 2013). For example, prior research has suggested that the ostensible level of a stranger's self-esteem is used to infer the person's standing on other valued traits (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013) and characteristics (e.g., political competence; Zeigler- Hill & Myers, 2009) and to judge the person's desirability as a romantic partner and one's own willingness to engage in relational activities with that person (Zeigler-Hill & Besser, 2014;Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2011). Being favorably evaluated as a potential relationship partner on the basis of perceptions of one's selfesteem may thus help people to avoid social exclusion (e.g., by gaining access to mates), which, from an evolutionary perspective, is considered important for solving adaptive problems (e.g., reproduction) and consequently for survival (e.g., Hill & Buss, 2006). ...
... To select cues, we drew on conceptual definitions of self-esteem (Baumeister et al., 1989;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013), measures of behavioral observation of self-esteem (e.g., Demo, 1985;Helmreich & Stapp, 1974;Metcalfe, 1997;Savin-Williams & Jaquish, 1981), empirical findings linking self-esteem to specific cues (e.g., Barak et al., 1988;Berry, 1991;Langlois et al., 2000;Naumann et al., 2009), and cues typically expressed and perceived in zero-acquaintance situations (e.g., Borkenau & Liebler, 1992). In sum, we selected over 80 cues of physical appearance, nonverbal behavior, vocal, and verbal aspects of perceivable information theoretically and empirically deemed relevant to self-esteem. ...
... One way to obtain an understanding of whether the accuracy correlations we found for self-esteem judgments that were based on individuals' self-introductions were large enough to be meaningful, is to gauge them against the level of accuracy demonstrated for self-esteem judgments by well-acquainted individuals (cf. Demo, 1985;Kilianski, 2008;MacGregor et al., 2013;Vazire, 2010;Watson et al., 2002;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). 6 The level of correspondence between self-ratings and averaged well-known acquaintances' ratings of self-esteem provides an important benchmark that reflects a reasonable maximum threshold for zero-acquaintance average-observer accuracy. ...
Article
Objective: Perceptions of strangers' self-esteem can have wide-ranging interpersonal consequences. Aiming to reconcile inconsistent results from previous research that had predominantly suggested that self-esteem is a trait that can hardly be accurately judged at zero acquaintance, we examined unaquainted others' accuracy in inferring individuals' actual self-esteem. Method: Ninety-nine participants were videotaped in a self-introductory situation, and self-esteem self-reports and reports by well-known informants were obtained as separate accuracy criteria. Forty unacquainted observers judged participants' self-esteem on the basis of these short video sequences (M=23s, SD=7.7). Results: Results showed that both the self- (r=.31, p=.002) and informant-reported self-esteem (r=.21, p=.040) of targets could be inferred by strangers. The degree of accuracy in self-esteem judgments could be explained with lens model analyses: Self- and informant-reported self-esteem predicted nonverbal and vocal friendliness, both of which predicted self-esteem judgments by observers. In addition, observers' accuracy in inferring informant-reported self-esteem was mediated by the utilization of targets' physical attractiveness. Besides using valid behavioral information to infer strangers' self-esteem, observers inappropriately relied on invalid behavioral information reflecting nonverbal, vocal, and verbal self-assuredness. Conclusions: Our findings show that strangers can quite accurately detect individuals' self-reported and informant-reported self-esteem when targets are observed in a public self-presentational situation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Thus, global self-esteem reflects an aggregated summary of one's perceived relational value (Stinson & Holmes, 2010). If self-esteem tracks an individual's relational value, then knowing a social partner's self-esteem might be a quick method of gaging his or her actual relational value (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013b). In other words, people utilize self-esteem as a proxy for relational value, basing their impression of an individual on their impression of that person's self-esteem. ...
... To facilitate the use of this trait proxy, people form judgments of others' self-esteem based on a variety of readily assessable social cues such as appearance (e.g., Naumann, Vazire, rentfrow, & Gosling, 2009), clothing choices (Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2011, and email addresses (Chang-Schneider & Swann, 2010;Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2011). Once people have formed an impression of a target's self-esteem, regardless of that impression's accuracy, people use that information to infer the target's standing on valued personality traits (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013b ), and to infer the mate value of romantically preferred-gender targets (Zeigler-Hill & Besser, 2014;Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2011). Moreover, people use a target's self-esteem to predict their own responses to that target, such as liking for the target (Cameron et al., 2016), romantic attraction (Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2011), and willingness to vote for political candidates (Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2009). ...
... However, for those perceived to have LSE, they are more likely to experience degradation, rejection, and discrimination, which if consistently experienced, would further maintain or reduce their actual self-esteem. Because people demonstrate modest accuracy in detecting other's true self-esteem (i.e., correlations between .20 and .40 between perceivers and targets; Lemay & Dudley, 2011;Macgregor, Fitzsimons, & Holmes, 2013;Naumann et al., 2009;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013b), the application of the self-esteem proxy might lead to unfortunate errors in the judgments of others. Such errors might lead those people branded as LSE to suffer derogation and those branded as HSE to experience admiration and favoritism (see Cameron et al., 2013). ...
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People use impressions of an evaluative target’s self-esteem to infer their possession of socially desirable traits. But will people still use this self-esteem proxy when trait-relevant diagnostic information is available? We test this possibility in two experiments: participants learn that a target person has low or high self-esteem, and then receive diagnostic information about the target’s academic success or failure and positive or negative affectivity (Study 1), or watch a video of the target’s extraverted or introverted behavior (Study 2). In both experiments, participants’ impressions of the target’s traits accurately tracked diagnostic information, but impressions also revealed an independent self-esteem proxy effect. Evidently, the self-esteem proxy is robust and influences person perception even in the presence of vivid individuating information.
... Advocates of the self-broadcasting (SBP) perspective claim that SMT neglects the possibility of a complementary reverse effect: that people's self-esteem affects the extent to which others like them (Swann, Chang-Schneider, & McClarty, 2007; Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). According to SBP, people express their self-evaluations in their social behavior, which others accept as valid. ...
... Yet, selfreports of peer popularity can be unreliable (Brown & Larson, 2009). Studies using other-reports of popularity are therefore needed to test the claim of SBP that self-esteem affects " how that individual is perceived by the social environment " (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013; p. 210). To date, other reports are seldom used, which is why it is unclear whether self-esteem really affects popularity or whether it is just an illusion people have. ...
... The findings suggest that adolescents' self-esteem only affects the extent to which they think they are liked, but not how much they are really liked by their peers. As SBP proposes that selfesteem impacts individuals' actual popularity, the results provide no supporting evidence for SBP (cf. Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). This is in line with a previous study that found no effects of social ...
... Advocates of the self-broadcasting (SBP) perspective claim that SMT neglects the possibility of a complementary reverse effect: that people's self-esteem affects the extent to which others like them (Swann, Chang-Schneider, & McClarty, 2007; Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). According to SBP, people express their self-evaluations in their social behavior, which others accept as valid. ...
... Yet, selfreports of peer popularity can be unreliable (Brown & Larson, 2009). Studies using other-reports of popularity are therefore needed to test the claim of SBP that self-esteem affects " how that individual is perceived by the social environment " (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013; p. 210). To date, other reports are seldom used, which is why it is unclear whether self-esteem really affects popularity or whether it is just an illusion people have. ...
... The findings suggest that adolescents' self-esteem only affects the extent to which they think they are liked, but not how much they are really liked by their peers. As SBP proposes that selfesteem impacts individuals' actual popularity, the results provide no supporting evidence for SBP (cf. Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). This is in line with a previous study that found no effects of social ...
... p > .05; see Table S1 of the supplementary materials), suggesting that personality trait ratings from different sources could act as mutual suppressors under some conditions (Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, & Tracy, 2004;Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). At age 17, again, self-ratings significantly predicted educational achievement, but the unique predictive power of self-ratings was in the opposite direction to the literature (i.e., higher self-rated Conscientiousness predicted lower educational achievement), suggesting a suppression effect. ...
... The only exception was that although the literature consistently shows a positive association between Conscientiousness and educational achievement (Ozer & Benet-Martínez, 2006;Roberts et al., 2007), at both ages, after the significant and positive predictive power of parent-rated Conscientiousness was controlled for, the unique predictive power of self-rated Conscientiousness significantly but negatively predicted educational achievement at age 29. These results suggested that personality trait ratings from different sources could act as mutual suppressors under some conditions (Paulhus et al., 2004;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Objective What is gained by having others report on one’s personality? Research on adult samples has suggested that informant reports are especially informative regarding traits that are highly visible and evaluative (i.e., socially desirable/undesirable instead of neutral), such as Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. This 18‐year longitudinal study aims to demonstrate the unique predictive power of other‐rated personality in adolescence, using life outcomes and personality in adulthood as trait criteria. Method We examined the unique predictive power of self‐ and other‐rated Big Five personality traits at age 12 and 17 on self‐rated life outcomes and personality at age 29 (e.g., educational achievement, work income, depression, moral transgressions, and relationship satisfaction). Participants were 186 German adolescents (53% boys), their parents and friends at age 12, and their mothers and fathers at age 17. Results Other‐ratings showed unique predictive power beyond self‐ratings for all Big Five traits, with the most consistent results for Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Conclusions Results demonstrate the added value of including other‐reports on adolescent personality when predicting future life outcomes and personality, especially for highly visible and evaluative traits. The present study sheds light on the predictive power of self‐ versus other‐rated personality and personality–outcome associations.
... p > .05; see Table S1 of the supplementary materials), suggesting that personality trait ratings from different sources could act as mutual suppressors under some conditions (Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, & Tracy, 2004;Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). At age 17, again, self-ratings significantly predicted educational achievement, but the unique predictive power of self-ratings was in the opposite direction to the literature (i.e., higher self-rated Conscientiousness predicted lower educational achievement), suggesting a suppression effect. ...
... The only exception was that although the literature consistently shows a positive association between Conscientiousness and educational achievement (Ozer & Benet-Martínez, 2006;Roberts et al., 2007), at both ages, after the significant and positive predictive power of parent-rated Conscientiousness was controlled for, the unique predictive power of self-rated Conscientiousness significantly but negatively predicted educational achievement at age 29. These results suggested that personality trait ratings from different sources could act as mutual suppressors under some conditions (Paulhus et al., 2004;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). ...
... de Brunswik's The personality trait self-esteem refers to an individual's subjective evaluation of his or her personal worth (Donnellan, Trzesniewski, & Robins, 2011) and has been shown to influence a variety of important life outcomes in the domains of health, work, and social relationships (e.g., Orth, Robins, & Widaman, 2012). Perceptions of close other individuals' level of self-esteem play an important role in existing social relationships (Cameron, MacGregor, & Kwang, 2013) and research has provided evidence that romantic partners and friends can judge each other's selfesteem quite accurately (e.g., Kilianski, 2008;MacGregor, Fitzsimons, & Holmes, 2013;Vazire, 2010;Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). Selfesteem impressions appear to be relevant not only in existing relationships, but also for the formation of new social bonds, as people may use these impressions to gauge a stranger's actual worth and standing on valued traits and characteristics (e.g., Cameron et al., 2013;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013;Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2011). ...
... Perceptions of close other individuals' level of self-esteem play an important role in existing social relationships (Cameron, MacGregor, & Kwang, 2013) and research has provided evidence that romantic partners and friends can judge each other's selfesteem quite accurately (e.g., Kilianski, 2008;MacGregor, Fitzsimons, & Holmes, 2013;Vazire, 2010;Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). Selfesteem impressions appear to be relevant not only in existing relationships, but also for the formation of new social bonds, as people may use these impressions to gauge a stranger's actual worth and standing on valued traits and characteristics (e.g., Cameron et al., 2013;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013;Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2011). Previous studies (cf. ...
... In addition to the sociometer and perceptual accounts of actual and perceived belonging, a third explanation for the association between self-esteem and belonging is that self-esteem itself might elicit acceptance. From this general perspective, sometimes referred to as self-broadcasting or status signaling, those with higher self-esteem behave in more socially desirable ways, which engenders greater acceptance from others (see Zeigler-Hill et al. 2013). Although trait self-esteem is unrelated to actual acceptance when meeting new people (e.g., Brockner and Lloyd 1986), observers are not so neutral when they believe someone has high or low self-esteem. ...
... Although trait self-esteem is unrelated to actual acceptance when meeting new people (e.g., Brockner and Lloyd 1986), observers are not so neutral when they believe someone has high or low self-esteem. Across numerous studies, when people believe that another person has high self-esteem, either because the researcher described the individual that way or they arrived at that impression on their own, they readily describe that person as possessing more desirable characteristics (e.g., Zeigler-Hill et al. 2013) and as highly likeable (see Stinson et al. 2015). When a person is seen as possessing low self-esteem however, they are viewed as less acceptable and less desirable. ...
... Advocates of the self-broadcasting (SBP) perspective claim that SMT neglects the possibility of a complementary reverse effect: that people's self-esteem affects the extent to which others like them (Swann, Chang-Schneider, & McClarty, 2007;Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). According to SBP, people express their self-evaluations in their social behavior, which others accept as valid. ...
... Yet, selfreports of peer popularity can be unreliable (Brown & Larson, 2009). Studies using other-reports of popularity are therefore needed to test the claim of SBP that self-esteem affects "how that individual is perceived by the social environment" (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013;p. 210). ...
Article
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Although numerous studies have emphasized the role evaluations by others play for people’s self-esteem, the perspective of others and the social diversity of real-life contexts have largely been ignored. In a large-scale longitudinal study, we examined the link between adolescents’ self-esteem and their self- and peer-perceived popularity in socially diverse classrooms. First, we tested the competing directions of effects predicted by sociometer theory (i.e., peer-perceived popularity affects self-esteem, mediated by self-perceived popularity) and the self-broadcasting perspective (i.e., self-esteem affects peer-perceived popularity). Second, we examined differential effects of popularity in the own social group (“us”) versus others (“them”) by using immigrant status groups (i.e., immigrants versus host-nationals). We examined 1,057 13-year-old students in 3 annual waves. Cross-lagged analyses revealed that popularity among peers of the in-group but not among peers of the out-group prospectively predicted self-esteem, which was mediated by self-perceived popularity. Self-esteem in turn prospectively predicted self- but not peer-perceived popularity. In sum, the findings provide support for sociometer theory and a conscious sociometer mechanism but no support for the self-broadcasting perspective. The findings further demonstrate that the sociometer was more responsive to popularity in immigrant status in- than out-groups. In conclusion, the findings underscore the need to consider the perspective of others and their social group memberships to better understand the complexities of the link between self-esteem and popularity.
... Advocates of the self-broadcasting (SBP) perspective claim that SMT neglects the possibility of a complementary reverse effect: that people's self-esteem affects the extent to which others like them (Swann, Chang-Schneider, & McClarty, 2007;Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). According to SBP, people express their self-evaluations in their social behavior, which others accept as valid. ...
... Yet, selfreports of peer popularity can be unreliable (Brown & Larson, 2009). Studies using other-reports of popularity are therefore needed to test the claim of SBP that self-esteem affects "how that individual is perceived by the social environment" (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013;p. 210). ...
... Several theories assume that self-esteem has consequences for social relationships (for a review, see Harris & Orth, 2020). According to the self-broadcasting perspective, individuals show observable cues that broadcast their level of self-acceptance to others, which influences how they are perceived in terms of competence and attractiveness and, ultimately, whether they are successful in initiating and maintaining social relationships (Srivastava & Beer, 2005;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). Self-verification theory proposes that individuals are motivated to be perceived by others in the same way as they perceive themselves (Swann, 2012), and that individuals with low self-esteem withdraw from social relationships when their partner views them more positively than they view themselves. ...
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Debates about the benefits of self-esteem have persisted for decades, both in the scientific literature and in the popular press. Although many researchers and lay people have argued that high self-esteem helps individuals adapt to and succeed in a variety of life domains, there is widespread skepticism about this claim. The present article takes a new look at the voluminous body of research (including several meta-analyses) examining the consequences of self-esteem for several important life domains: relationships, school, work, mental health, physical health, and antisocial behavior. Overall, the findings suggest that self-esteem is beneficial in all these domains, and that these benefits hold across age, gender, and race/ethnicity, and controlling for prior levels of the predicted outcomes and potential third variable confounds. The meta-analytic estimates of self-esteem effects (which average .10 across domains) are comparable in size to estimates for other hypothesized causal factors such as self-efficacy, positive emotionality, attachment security, and growth mindset, and larger than some generally accepted pharmaceutical interventions. Discussion focuses on several issues that are critical for evaluating the findings, including the strength of the evidence for making causal inferences, the magnitude of the effects, the importance of distinguishing between self-esteem and narcissism, and the generalizability of the results. In summary, the present findings support theoretical conceptions of self-esteem as an adaptive trait that has wide-ranging influences on healthy adjustment and adaptation, and suggest that interventions aimed at boosting self-esteem might, if properly designed and implemented, benefit individuals and society as a whole.
... Since gender-atypical traits -such as female-like vocal traits in men (Cartei & Reby, 2012) -may serve as cues for characteristics that are typical of the opposite gender, we hypothesized that men with puberphonia (e.g., weak, thin, effeminate, and immature voices) would be evaluated as less masculine, more feminine, possessing lower self-esteem, and less romantically desirable (Berry, 1992;Feinberg et al., 2008;Hughes et al., 2004). The prediction concerning perceived self-esteem is consistent with previous research showing that a target's ostensible level of self-esteem influences how that individual is perceived on a range of characteristics (e.g., targets with higher levels of self-esteem tend to be perceived as more competent and attractive than those with lower levels of selfesteem; Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). It is important to consider the connections between puberphonia and perceived selfesteem because it has been found to play a pivotal role in the negative halo effects that have been observed for other speech disorders in past studies (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2020a, 2020b. ...
Article
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Puberphonia refers to a vocal disorder that involves the persistence of a high-pitched voice beyond the age at which vocal maturation is expected to have occurred. We considered the romantic signaling function of the voice by examining whether puberphonia impacted the romantic desirability and perceived attractiveness of the target for short-term and long-term relationships ratings that female raters provided for male targets. We also wanted to examine whether perceptions of these targets (e.g., low levels of masculinity, high levels of femininity) would play a role in the association that puberphonia had with perceived romantic desirability and attractiveness for relationships. Participants were 1,732 heterosexual women who listened to an audio recording of a male target reading a neutral passage either before (pre-treatment) or after (post-treatment) receiving voice therapy to correct his puberphonia. Female raters provided their perceptions of the target after listening to the audio recording. The results revealed that compared with post-treatment targets, pre-treatment targets were rated as being lower in their levels of masculinity, self-esteem, extraversion, and emotional stability but higher in their levels of femininity and agreeableness. In addition, participants rated the pre-treatment targets to be less romantically desirable than post-treatment targets. Perceptions of the targets (e.g., masculinity, self-esteem) mediated the association that puberphonia treatment had with romantic desirability and attractiveness for relationships. Results provide further evidence that vocal characteristics such as pitch may serve as important signals in interpersonal interactions and that men with puberphonia were viewed as less romantically desirable than other individuals, in part, because they are perceived as possessing relatively low levels of masculinity and self-esteem.
... The second theory is the Self-Broadcasting Perspective (SBP) (Taylor et al., 2003;Swann et al., 2007;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013), which argues the opposite effect, i.e., that high self-esteem may predict social inclusion, since self-esteem may guide people to interpret social signals in a more favorable manner. Thus, according to the SBP, positive self-evaluation should lead to an increase in popularity. ...
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The objective of this study is to analyze the role that peer support plays in the incidence relationships between sociometric popularity and general self-concept based on sociometer theory. A total of 676 randomly selected secondary school students from the Basque Country (49.6% boys and 50.4% girls) between 12 and 18 years of age ( M = 14.32, DT = 1.36) participated voluntarily. All of them completed a sociometric questionnaire (SOCIOMET), the Family and Friends Support Questionnaire (AFA-R), and the Dimensional Self-concept Questionnaire (AUDIM-33). Several models of structural equations were tested. The results indicate that sociometric popularity is linked to self-concept through the perceived social support of peers. These results are discussed within the framework of positive psychology and its practical implications in the school context.
... The mediational results that emerged for perceived self-esteem and perceived intelligence were even stronger than those for perceived extraversion. The results for perceived self-esteem are consistent with the status-signaling model of self-esteem (Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013;Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2009 which proposes that an individual's perceived level of self-esteem may shape how that individual is perceived with regard to other qualities. The status-signaling model of self-esteem was derived from similar status-signaling models that were developed for nonhuman species. ...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research concerning the negative perceptions of stuttering by considering the perceived leadership ability of targets who stuttered compared with targets who did not stutter. We were also interested in the possibility that negative perceptions of the targets (i.e., low levels of self-esteem, intelligence, dominance-based status motivation, and prestige-based status motivation) would mediate the association between stuttering and a lack of perceived leadership ability as well as the possibility that manipulating the ostensible self-esteem level of the target would further moderate these associations. The results for 838 Israeli community members revealed a negative association between stuttering and perceived leadership ability that was mediated by the perceived self-esteem level and dominance-based status motivation of the target. Further, the associations between stuttering and perceptions of leadership ability were moderated by the ostensible self-esteem level of the target. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for understanding the negative halo that surrounds stuttering.
... Self-esteem measure. After reading the description, participants were asked to give their impression of the target's self-esteem, described as "feeling good about oneself and having a solid sense of one's self-worth" (e.g., Rosenberg, 1959;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2012). Participants responded on an 8-point bipolar scale (1= Low self-esteem, 8 = High self-esteem). ...
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Although casual sex is increasingly socially acceptable, negative stereotypes toward women pursuing casual sex appear to remain pervasive. Specifically, a common trope in media (e.g., television, film) is that such women have low self-esteem. Despite robust work on prejudice against women who engage in casual sex, little empirical work investigates the lay theories individuals hold about such women. Across six experiments with US participants (N = 1,469), we find that both men and women stereotype women (but not men) who have casual sex as having low self-esteem. This stereotype is held explicitly and semi-implicitly, not driven by individual differences in religiosity, conservatism, or sexism, is mediated by inferences that women having casual sex are unsatisfied with their mating strategy, yet persists when these women are explicitly described as choosing to have casual sex. Finally, it appears unfounded; across experiments, these same participants’ sexual behavior is uncorrelated with their own self-esteem.
... Thus, providers engaged in some projection of their own selfesteem when they rated their friends' self-esteem. However, there is also some evidence to suggest that people's perceptions of others' self-esteem, whether accurate or not, are more predictive of their behavior towards that person than is that person's self-reported self-esteem (Lakey et al., 2002;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013) or other individuating characteristics (Cameron, Stinson, Hoplock, Hole, & Schellenberg, 2016). ...
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Delivering responsive support to others is challenging. We hypothesize that this challenge is especially great when support recipients are overly pessimistic and resistant to others’ attempts to regulate their mood, as is the case with low self-esteem people (LSEs). Across four studies, we show that LSE recipients perceive support as less responsive than high self-esteem (HSE) recipients do both on a daily basis (Study 1), and for past events (Study 2). Providers confirm that they tend to give less responsive support to LSEs even when they perceive them to be equally distressed as HSEs (Study 3), and that they find it more difficult to support a hypothetical LSE person than a HSE person in the same circumstances (Study 4).
... The mediational results that emerged for perceived self-esteem and perceived intelligence were even stronger than those for perceived extraversion. The results for perceived self-esteem are consistent with the status-signaling model of self-esteem (Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013;Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2009 which proposes that an individual's perceived level of self-esteem may shape how that individual is perceived with regard to other qualities. The status-signaling model of self-esteem was derived from similar status-signaling models that were developed for nonhuman species. ...
Article
Stuttering is a disorder in oral communication that is often accompanied by negative stereotypes and social stigma. The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether opposite-sex perceivers rated the romantic desirability of targets who stuttered differently than targets who did not stutter. We were also interested in examining whether perceptions of the target (i.e., extraversion, emotional stability, self-esteem, and intelligence) would mediate the associations between stuttering and romantic desirability in a zero-acquaintance situation. Results showed that targets who stuttered were perceived to be less romantically desirable than targets who did not stutter. Further, the negative association between stuttering and romantic desirability was mediated by the perceived extraversion, self-esteem, and intelligence of the targets. Discussion will focus on the implications of these results for the understanding of the negative halo effect for stuttering.
... On the other hand, consumers high in conscientiousness may not necessarily strive to store their self-worth through status-enhancing luxury consumption. This result supports the argument that self-esteem is positively related with conscientiousness but negatively with neuroticism (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). Of note is the fact that conscientiousness was positively related with need for arousal. ...
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Purpose The current study aims to develop a comprehensive hierarchical model of traits and needs to provide a theoretical understanding of personality determinants of luxury-services consumption. Design/methodology/approach The sample comprised 415 single-event buyers of premium seats in sports stadiums. The causal relationships of hierarchically ordered four traits – elemental, compound, situational and surface – were examined. Findings Extraversion was found to be an important trait for needs for material resources and status, while conscientiousness and openness were important predictors of need for arousal. Furthermore, needs for material resources, status and uniqueness were found to be important for self-value consciousness. Self-value consciousness was found to be an important predictor of purchase intention. Originality/value The study integrates fragmented luxury services research on individual differences. The findings about the personality determinants would provide relatively consistent predictions behind luxury-services consumption potentially applicable to diverse luxury markets.
... This can happen because of the selfbroadcasting function of self-esteem: others tend to accept the self-evaluations expressed in people's social behavior as valid and reliable sources of information. Thus, increases in self-esteem lead to increases in a person's popularity as judged by others (Zeigler-Hill et al. 2013). These positive initial impressions could enable narcissists to obtain overly favorable hireability ratings despite lacking adequate qualifications and despite their many negative characteristics. ...
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Close your eyes and imagine an ideal leader. What would that image look like? What kind of characteristics come to mind? Dominance, confidence, high self-esteem, and extraversion are characteristics that are most commonly associated with people’s image of a leader. Interestingly, narcissistic individuals fit this leader image fairly well, which might explain why they tend to emerge as leaders in groups. However, merely rising to a leadership position is not enough – it matters whether narcissists are effective as leaders. Importantly, in addition to their leader-like characteristics, narcissists possess a host of negative characteristics, such as lack of empathy, exploitativeness, arrogance, inability to deal with criticism, and aggressive tendencies. It is because of these characteristics that the behavior of narcissistic leaders can have negative ramifications for their subordinates, their organizations, or even society at large. In this chapter, we argue that in order to determine whether and when narcissistic leaders are a positive or negative force for those they lead it is imperative to consider contextual factors such as time in leadership position, contextual uncertainty, type of industry, leader’s visibility and ethical climate in the organization, and characteristics of the followers.
... low) levels of self-worth. In line with this theory, research suggests that people not only form fairly accurate impressions of others' levels of self-esteem (Robinson & Cameron, 2012;Kilianski, 2008;Lemay & Dudley, 2011;Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2012;MacGregor et al., 2013), but also use these impressions as a guide for how those others should be regarded (e.g., Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2011) and treated (e.g., Lemay & Dudley, 2011;MacGregor et al., 2013;MacGregor & Holmes, 2011). Unfortunately, people perceived to have low self-esteem are evaluated more harshly and treated more cautiously than their high self-esteem counterparts. ...
Article
Interpersonal rejection activates connectedness goals that are either prioritized or suppressed. We explored whether rejection from a low (vs. high) self-esteem partner influences this process. In study 1 (N = 205) participants exhibited less accessibility to connection-related thoughts following rejection from a low (vs. high) self-esteem partner. Using a dyadic conflict interaction, study 2 (N = 102 couples) revealed that participants engaged in more connection-inhibiting behavior during conflict with a low (vs. high) self-esteem partner. Study 3 (N = 115) used a daily diary design and found that participants reported greater mental exhaustion on days they felt more (vs. less) rejected by a low self-esteem roommate. These effects emerged despite evidence from both self-report (studies 2 and 3) and independent coding (study 1) that rejection from a low self-esteem other was not more painful than rejection from a high self-esteem other. In sum, people appear to use impressions of others' self-esteem to determine whether connectedness goals are suppressed following rejection.
... It is even possible that narcissists manipulate signals associated with self-esteem in order to take advantage of the status-signalling properties of self-esteem (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). Narcissists may present themselves in ways that convey higher self-esteem because higher self-esteem is socially valued and suggests higher status. ...
Article
Objective We examine why people form positive first impressions of grandiose narcissists, even though they can identify others’ narcissism. We test whether this occurs because narcissists are perceived to have especially high self‐esteem, which is socially valued. Method Across four studies, undergraduate perceivers viewed photographs of targets (for whom narcissism and self‐esteem were known) and rated perceptions of their narcissism, self‐esteem, and how much they liked them. Results Perceivers rated more narcissistic targets to be higher in self‐esteem (even compared to targets with equally high self‐esteem) and liked them more. Perceptions of self‐esteem, moreover, mediated the effect of target narcissism on liking (Study 1). This effect disappeared when targets’ narcissism was made salient, suggesting that trait narcissism is not inherently attractive (Study 2). Finally, path models reveal a negative effect of perceptions of narcissism on liking that is suppressed by a positive effect of perceptions of self‐esteem on liking (Study 3a), even for ratings of people's online dating profiles (Study 3b). Conclusion Positive initial impressions of narcissists may be driven by inflated perceptions that they have high self‐esteem. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The most prevalent measure of self-esteem is the 10-item Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), which assesses "feelings of self-acceptance, self-respect, and generally positive self-evaluation" (Rosenberg, Schooler, & Schoenbach, 1989, p. 1008. The reliability and validity of the scale received support in many studies (e.g., Donnellan, Ackerman, & Brecheen, 2016;Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). ...
... A pesar de que la personalidad y la autoestima representan dos de los constructos más estudiados en psicología (Mruk, 2017;Rhodewalt & Tragakis, 2003), la naturaleza teórica de su relación persiste como un tema de debate actual Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). Numerosos estudios han explorado este vínculo en distintos contextos como Alemania (Luan et al., 2018;Michaelides et al., 2016), Argentina (Helueni & Enrique, 2015), Brasil (Paiva, Pimente, & Moura, 2017;Schaffhuser, Wagner, Lüdtke, & Allemand, 2014), Bélgica (Rassart, Luyckx, Moons, & Weets, 2014), China (Luk & Bond, 1993;Shi, Liu, Yang, & Wang, 2015;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2015), Eslovaquia (Zitny & Halama, 2011), Estados Unidos (Hair & Graziano, 2003;Shackelford & Michalski, 2011), Estonia (Kaare, Mõttus, & Konstabel, 2009), Filipinas (Chen, Widjaja, & Yen, 2015), Grecia (Tsigilis & Srebauite, 2015), Inglaterra (Hills, Francis, & Jennings, 2006), Indonesia (Chen et al., 2015), Israel (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2015), Japón (Shikishima et al., 2018), Malasia (Keng Cheng & Law, 2015), Noruega (Halvorsen & Heyerdahl, 2006;von Soest, Wagner, Hansen, & Gerstorf, 2017), Portugal (Neto & Mullet, 2004), Suecia (Lawenius & Veisson, 1996), Taiwan (Chen et al., 2015), Tailandia (Chen et al., 2015), o Turquía (Koruklu, 2015). ...
Article
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El modelo de los cinco factores es uno de los principales enfoques para el estudio de la personalidad. Tras su surgimiento, entre los aspectos más relevantes a analizar ha sido su relación con la autoestima, en tanto ésta constituye un aspecto central del modelo. Esta relación cuenta con numerosos aportes empíricos pero sigue señalándose la necesidad de realizar estudios que ayuden a comprender su naturaleza teórica. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir a estas investigaciones, analizando las relaciones entre factores de personalidad y la autoestima. La muestra estuvo constituida por 576 estudiantes universitarios de entre 18-35 años de edad. De acuerdo con los resultados, la autoestima se asocia negativamente a neuroticismo y positivamente, a la extraversión, responsabilidad, amabilidad, apertura y a los factores de segundo orden estabilidad y plasticidad. Concluimos la importancia de seguir investigando para comprender mejor el lugar de la autoestima dentro del modelo y la teoría de los cinco factores.
... SE was unrelated to domain-general interpersonal adjustment. This null result is inconsistent with both the social signaling hypothesis (Zeigler-Hill & Besser, 2013) and the hubris hypothesis (Hoorens et al., 2012). People who maintain unrealistically positive self-views do not generally stir unequivocal approval or disapproval, respectively. ...
Article
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This article advances the debate about costs and benefits of self-enhancement (the tendency to maintain unrealistically positive self-views) with a comprehensive meta-analytic review (299 samples, N=126,916). The review considers relations between self-enhancement and personal adjustment (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, depression), and between self-enhancement and interpersonal adjustment (informant-reports of domain-general social valuation, agency, communion). Self-enhancement was positively related to personal adjustment, and this relation was robust across sex, age, cohort, and culture. Important from a causal perspective, self-enhancement had a positive longitudinal effect on personal adjustment. The relation between self-enhancement and interpersonal adjustment was nuanced. Self-enhancement was positively related to domain-general social valuation at zero, but not long, acquaintance. Communal self-enhancement was positively linked to informant-judgments of communion, whereas agentic self-enhancement was linked positively to agency but negatively to communion. Overall, the results suggest that self-enhancement is beneficial for personal adjustment, but a mixed blessing for interpersonal adjustment.
... For example, the statustracking property of self-esteem does not address how an individual's level of self-esteem may impact how he or she is perceived by another person. This is the focus of the status-signaling model of self-esteem (Zeigler-Hill et al. 2013) which focuses on the possibility that an individual's self-esteem level may affect how that individual is perceived by other people in his or her social environment. For example, self-esteem may influence how one is perceived on various dimensions (e.g., romantic desirability, social dominance) such that individuals who convey high levels of self-esteem may generally be viewed more positively than those who express low self-esteem. ...
... Implicit self-esteem did not affect the observed effects of narcissism or EI, but turned out to be a relatively strong predictor of popularity in itself. The main effect of implicit self-esteem is interesting as it might suggest that the size of signature is indeed a valid measure of implicit self-esteem (Rudman et al., 2007;Stapel & Blanton, 2004;Zweigenhaft, 1977;Zweigenhaft & Marlowe, 1973), and also that implicit self-esteem might have statussignaling function, which would be in line with a self-broadcasting function of (Swann, Chang-Schneider, & McClarty, 2007;Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013). ...
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This research investigated effects of narcissism and emotional intelligence (EI) on popularity in social networks. In a longitudinal field study we examined the dynamics of popularity in 15 peer groups in two waves (N=273). We measured narcissism, ability EI, explicit and implicit self-esteem. In addition, we measured popularity at zero acquaintance and three months later. We analyzed the data using inferential network analysis (temporal exponential random graph modeling, TERGM) accounting for self-organizing network forces. People high in narcissism were popular, but increased less in popularity over time than people lower in narcissism. In contrast, emotionally intelligent people increased more in popularity over time than less emotionally intelligent people. The effects held when we controlled for explicit and implicit self-esteem. These results suggest that narcissism is rather disadvantageous and that EI is rather advantageous for long-term popularity.
... This also appears to be true. People use a variety of social cues to infer others' selfesteem, including appearance (Naumann et al. 2009), and the possession of socially valued traits (Zeigler-Hill et al. 2013). However, the accuracy of these observations may be questionable. ...
Chapter
Sociometer theory contends that the self-esteem system is an evolved regulatory system aimed at helping people form and maintain high-quality social bonds that were and are essential for human survival. The motivational heart of the self-esteem system is the fundamental need to belong, which is a drive to form lasting and satisfying interpersonal attachments. We suggest that the self-esteem system accomplishes this essential task, in part, by providing answers to four pressing interpersonal dilemmas, each of which centers around relational value: (a) What is my relational value? (b) Should I believe social feedback about my relational value? (c) If my relational value is threatened, should I pursue connection or self-protection? (d) How can I judge the relational value of others before committing to a long-term bond? The self-esteem system helps to resolve these interpersonal dilemmas by monitoring the social world for cues that are relevant to each question and then signaling a response. In turn, the signals produced by the self-esteem system in response to each dilemma provoke motivation and behavior that service the need to belong. Thus, we suggest that the self-esteem system is a multifaceted drive system shaped by evolution to provide humans with the necessary tools to successfully navigate their social worlds.
... Self-esteem is related to rational judgment of oneself and is most basic element underlying positive self-concept (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2013). Empirical findings suggest an overall positive linkage between self-esteem and job performance (Brown, 2014).. Employees surviving with low self-esteem pass through stress turmoil even after achieving targets whereas those with better sense of self-worth experience positive selfrelevant thoughts (Wood et al., 2005). ...
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How to maintain productivity from employees is one of the most crucial questions for organizations competing in current aggressive environment. The paper empirically investigates core self-evaluation (CSE) traits as potential predictors of job performance. By incorporating the anticipated emotions (guilt and gratitude), appropriate conditions necessary to direct high CSE towards performance are unveiled. Data is collected from 87 full time collection employees and 21 mangers of a local bank through two separate questionnaires. Results show a positive and significant relationship between CSE and job performance. Moreover, anticipated gratitude has the power to moderates this linkage along varying degrees of CSE while anticipated guilt is only moderating at lower level of CSE. The conclusions are elaborated in terms of their contribution and directions.
... While most theories assume a dominant direction of effects from the context on the individual, some theories propose the opposite or mutual relationships. For instance, status-signaling theory claims that high selfesteem breeds liking by others (Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2012) and family theories assume development in families to be reciprocal (Kuczynski, 2003). Second, scholars highlight the need to integrate developmental processes in the study of acculturation, because immigrant adolescents face, like all adolescents, the challenges of their developmental period (Oppedal, 2006; Sam, 2006). ...
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Diese Dissertation untersucht individuelle Unterschiede in der Adaptation von Jugendlichen und fokussiert auf jugendliche Immigranten. Sie postuliert ein übergreifendes Rahmenmodell, das entwicklungs-, akkulturations-, und intergruppenpsychologische Ansätze integriert, um ein umfassendes Verständnis der Adaptationsprozesse zu erlangen. Von diesem Rahmenmodell werden zwei Forschungsfragen abgeleitet. Die erste Frage lautet, wie ist das Zusammenspiel von Entwicklungs- und Akkulturationsaufgaben? Die zweite Frage lautet, wie ist das Zusammen-spiel dieser Aufgaben mit den Beziehungen zu der Familie und den Gleichaltrigen? Die Dissertation basiert auf drei empirischen Studien, die längsschnittliche Daten von Schülern mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund verwendeten. Studie 1 zeigte, dass eine gut funktionierende Familie und die Beteiligung an der Herkunfts- und Aufnahmekultur Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen und ethnische Identität vorhersagten. Studie 2 ergab, dass soziometrische Beliebtheit in der In- aber nicht der Outgroup Selbstwert von Jugendlichen vorhersagte, was durch selbstwahrgenommene Beliebtheit mediiert wurde. Studie 3 zeigte, dass soziometrische Beliebtheit bei Klassenkameraden ohne, aber nicht bei solchen mit, Migrationshintergrund ein geringes persönliches Diskriminationserleben in jugendlichen Migranten vorhersagte. Zusammenfassend hat diese Dissertation das Rahmenmodell erfolgreich angewendet, in dem sie gezeigt hat, dass positive Beziehungen mit der Familie und Gleichaltrigen Ressourcen für das Bewältigen von Entwicklungs- und Akkulturations-aufgaben darstellten, die miteinander verwoben waren. Die wesentliche Implikation ist, dass jede der beiden Kulturen und sozialen Gruppen eine Quelle unterschiedlicher Risiken und Ressourcen ist, die alle wichtige Aspekte der Adaptation sind. Diese Dissertation ist ein wichtiger Schritt in Richtung eines kontextualisierten und integrativen Verständnisses der Adaptation von Jugendlichen in einer modernen Gesellschaft.
... Responses were made on scales that ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The TIPI has been used to describe the personality features of targets in previous studies (e.g., Zeigler-Hill, Besser, Myers, Southard, & Malkin, 2013;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2015). ...
Article
The present study attempted to expand what is known about how the personality traits of servers are associated with their job performance ratings and the tips they receive from customers. Personality traits were measured in 259 restaurant servers who were evaluated by their actual customers. Conscientiousness was associated with the average job performance ratings of servers. Extraversion was found to moderate the association that job performance had with the tips that servers received such that tipping behavior was associated with job performance for servers with high levels of extraversion but this association did not emerge for servers with low levels of extraversion. These findings are discussed in the context of understanding the connection between personality traits and job-related outcomes.
Article
Individuals with low self-esteem (LSE) may be devalued, whereas individuals with high self-esteem (HSE) are typically praised in Western society. People readily infer traits based on impressions of self-esteem. Across two studies, we address whether impressions of a hypothetical target person’s self-esteem influence judgments beyond the target’s personality. Results revealed that the target’s self-esteem influenced impressions of personality not only of the target, but of their mother and best friend. Moreover, when the target was portrayed as having LSE compared to HSE, participants made more pessimistic estimates of imagined future experiences with the target, even when the controllability of events varied. Overall, impressions of a target’s self-esteem spread beyond the target, influencing perceptions of their close associates and future events.
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The three goals of this chapter are to introduce readers to construct of narcissism, to review the literature on the evolutionary origins of narcissism, and to review the literature on narcissism and emotions. Narcissism will be discussed as both a personality trait that is comprised by grandiose and vulnerable expressions, as well as a personality disorder characterized by extreme levels of narcissistic personality combined with impairment. Some discussion throughout will be devoted to whether grandiose and vulnerable expressions of narcissism should be conceptualized as relatively stable and separable traits versus oscillating narcissistic states. Evolutionary topics discussed will include the heritability of narcissism, the genetic foundations (or lack thereof) of narcissism, evolutionarily grounded strategies, including mating and survival strategies, that may have facilitated sexual and natural selection of narcissistic traits, as well as critiques of existing theory in this literature. The emotion section will focus on the emotional experiences of narcissists, paying particular attention to how these experiences contrast depending on whether narcissism is more grandiose or vulnerable. Attempts will be made throughout the chapter to identify connections between the conceptual, evolutionary, and emotion literatures.
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The study aims to determine the level of acceptance and identify the factors influencing the relationships of self-esteem and depression with Facebook addiction. In a cross-sectional study on a sample of 350 students, we tested the existence and strength of this relationship using the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire, face to face interview method was created to collect data. The main outcome of this study found that 52% of students are addicted to Facebook and 48% of students are not addicted to Facebook. In logistic regression models, females are 2.352 times more likely to Facebook addicted than the respondents who are male. The findings of the study provide empirical evidence for the effect of Facebook addiction on students' lower self-esteem and severe depression status differ statistically from no Facebook addicted students. Lower self-esteem was positively associated with Facebook addiction. Facebook addiction was positively related to depression and those who have suffered severe depression are frequently more Facebook addicted. Study findings also demonstrate that academic performance (CGPA) is a negative effect with Facebook addiction even after adjusting for other variables. Concededly say that the recommendations presented in this research may help to eradicate Facebook addiction.
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(Accepted at Psychological Science) Although casual sex is increasingly socially acceptable, negative stereotypes toward women pursuing casual sex appear to remain pervasive. Specifically, a common trope in media (e.g., television, film) is that such women have low self-esteem. Despite robust work on prejudice against women who engage in casual sex, little empirical work investigates the lay theories individuals hold about such women. Across six experiments with US participants (N = 1,469), we find that both men and women stereotype women (but not men) who have casual sex as having low self-esteem. This stereotype is held explicitly and semi-implicitly, not driven by individual differences in religiosity, conservatism, or sexism, is mediated by inferences that women having casual sex are unsatisfied with their mating strategy, yet persists when these women are explicitly described as choosing to have casual sex. Finally, it appears unfounded; across experiments, these same participants’ sexual behavior is uncorrelated with their own self-esteem.
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This study investigated the causal relationship between dysfunctional parenting and peer attachment, as well as the longitudinal mediating role of self-esteem, in early adolescence. Moreover, this study examined whether there were sex differences in these longitudinal relationships. This study used three-wave longitudinal data—measured at the fifth grade of elementary school, the sixth grade of elementary school, and the first grade of middle school—of 1,831 adolescents (935 boys and 896 girls; mean age = 10.98 ± 0.17 years at the first wave) who participated in the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. Autoregressive cross-lagged modeling analysis revealed the following: regardless of adolescents’ sex, the negative effects of dysfunctional parenting on self-esteem and the positive effects of self-esteem on peer attachment were all significant over time, while the levels of dysfunctional parenting, self-esteem, and peer attachment all remained stable over the three-year period. Furthermore, self-esteem partially mediated the longitudinal relationship between dysfunctional parenting and peer attachment for girls, whereas self-esteem completely mediated the relationship for boys. The results suggest the needs for lifelong parental education—provided from elementary school to parenthood—and for parents’ and teachers’ continued attention to peer relationships in early adolescence. Further, tailored interventions should consider the degree of vulnerability of dysfunctional parenting by adolescents’ sex and promote their self-esteem.
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MINDSET to narzędzie mierzące siedem kluczowych obszarów nastawienia i sposobu myślenia, które wspierają skuteczne działanie w pracy, oraz trzech obszarów utrudniających pracownikom osiąganie wyznaczonych celów. Skale te znajdują zastosowanie w diagnozie zarówno indywidualnej, jak i grupowej. Ich wykorzystanie w diagnozie zespołu lub całej organizacji pozwala zidentyfikować te przekonania pracowników, które stanowią przeszkodę w budowaniu ich zaangażowania w pracę i rozwijania pożądanych kompetencji.
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Goal. In the research, it was tried to determine the effect of the trait-based emotional intelligence scores on self-esteem evaluations, and it was attempted to determine how this effect evolved according to the gender factor. Method. In the study 175 students were partisipte and 171 questionnary were analyzed. To measure emotional intelligence, NHS Emotional Intelligence Scale was used and The Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale was used to measure self-esteem. Correlations, regression analysis, t-test and ANCOVA methods were used to determine the relationship and / or effect between two conceptual structures. Findings. As a result of the research, it was understood that emotional intelligence had no effect on the self-esteem. Because the relations of concepts were not statistically significant (R2 = 0.00). Effect also did not occur at the female and male levels of the variable gender factor. Results. The argument that emotional intelligence, which is the basic hypothesis of the research, is effective on self-esteem scores has not been proved statistically. In the hierarchical regression analysis, which is based on the level of the gender factor, there was no relationship or effect.
Article
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Goal. In the research, it was tried to determine the effect of the trait-based emotional intelligence scores on self-esteem evaluations, and it was attempted to determine how this effect evolved according to the gender factor. Method. In the study 175 students were partisipte and 171 questionnary were analyzed. To measure emotional intelligence, NHS Emotional Intelligence Scale was used and The Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale was used to measure self-esteem. Correlations, regression analysis, t-test and ANCOVA methods were used to determine the relationship and / or effect between two conceptual structures. Findings. As a result of the research, it was understood that emotional intelligence had no effect on the self-esteem. Because the relations of concepts were not statistically significant (R2 = 0.00). Effect also did not occur at the female and male levels of the variable gender factor. Results. The argument that emotional intelligence, which is the basic hypothesis of the research, is effective on self-esteem scores has not been proved statistically. In the hierarchical regression analysis, which is based on the level of the gender factor, there was no relationship or effect.
Article
Self-esteem promises to serve as the nexus of social experiences ranging from social acceptance, interpersonal traits, interpersonal behavior, relationship quality, and relationship stability. Yet previous researchers have questioned the utility of self-esteem for understanding relational outcomes. To examine the importance of self-esteem for understanding interpersonal experiences, we conducted systematic meta-analyses on the association between trait self-esteem and five types of interpersonal indicators. To ensure our results were not due to self-esteem biases in perception, we focused our meta-analyses to 196 samples totaling 121,300 participants wherein researchers assessed interpersonal indicators via outsider reports. Results revealed that the association between self-esteem and the majority of objective interpersonal indicators was small to moderate, lowest for specific and distal outcomes, and moderated by social risk. Importantly, a subset of longitudinal studies suggests that self-esteem predicts later interpersonal experience. Our results should encourage researchers to further explore the link between self-esteem and one’s interpersonal world.
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Seeking social support from close others often instantiates effective support transactions that foster coping with negative events. However, people often do not solicit the support they require. The present research expands on this phenomenon by examining how perceptions of providers’ self-esteem influences support recipients’ willingness to seek help in times of need. Across five correlational, experimental, and dyadic investigations, we found that people were less willing to seek support from providers who they perceived to be lower (vs. higher) in self-esteem. Moreover, this effect was mediated by perceptions of efficacy in all studies, revealing that perceptions of providers’ self-worth affect the extent that recipients view them as capable and thus are willing to turn to them for help.
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The aim of this project was to illuminate a relation between dimensions of agency and communion and general positive self-esteem, depending on whether one‘s individual or collective identity is salient. Based on the existing literature and the model of agent and recipient (Wojciszke i Baryła, 2006), it was hypothesized that self-evaluation on agency dimension will determine one‘s level of individual self-esteem, whereas collective self-evaluation on communion dimension will determine one‘s level of collective self-esteem. Results of four studies provide initial confirmation for the postulated model. In Study 1 on Polish sample it was shown, that individual self-esteem correlates most strongly with one‘s self-perception as competent, but collective self-esteem orrelates mostly with perception of Poles as moral and sociable. Results of Study 2 confirmed that these patterns are present among both Poles (low status group) and Americans (high status group). In Study 3 it was demonstrated that only priming of agency increases a level of individual self-esteem, but priming of only communion dimension increases a level of collective self-esteem. Results of Study 4 revealed that instigating a perspective of collective agent, by recalling collective threat, increases an importance of agency dimension in determining one‘s level of collective self-esteem. Theoretical, methodological, and practical significance of the results is discussed.
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Previous research has revealed an intimate connection between alcohol use and aggression. However, it is also clear that alcohol use has a stronger association with aggression for some individuals than it does for others. As a result, researchers have become interested in examining how individual differences may influence the association between alcohol use and aggression. The purpose of the present work is to provide a review of the literature that focuses on the separate connections that self-esteem has with alcohol use and aggression as well as provide some ideas about the role that self-esteem may play in the link between alcohol use and aggression. We review the most prominent explanations for the links that self-esteem has been found to have with alcohol use and aggression (e.g., the vulnerability model which argues that alcohol use is a consequence of low self-esteem). Recent advancements in the self-esteem literature concerning distinctions between secure and fragile forms of self-esteem are discussed in terms of their potential implications for understanding the links that self-esteem has with alcohol use and aggression. Finally, we speculate about the possible role that fragile high self-esteem may play in the connection between alcohol use and aggression.
Article
People’s perceptions of others’ self-esteem correspond with others’ explicit self-esteem. We test whether implicit self-esteem also affects perceptions of self-esteem at zero and non-zero acquaintance. Targets completed measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem, had photographs taken, and completed self-related interviews. Unacquainted perceivers rated targets’ self-esteem after viewing varying degrees of information about targets (Study 1) or pre-selected high and low implicit self-esteem targets (Studies 2 and 3). When perceivers viewed photographs, only target explicit self-esteem predicted self-esteem ratings. However, when perceivers read targets’ interview transcripts, both target explicit and implicit self-esteem predicted self-esteem ratings. When targets described sensitive information, their apparent comfort and self-certainty were associated with ratings of their self-esteem. These cues, moreover, were valid indicators of implicit self-esteem.
Chapter
Der Selbstwert bezeichnet die generell positive oder negative Bewertung des Selbst in unterschiedlicher Ausprägung. Der ideale Selbstwert ist durch einen hohen, aber sicheren Selbstwert charakterisiert und beinhaltet eine stabile positive Bewertung des Selbst und eine ganzheitliche Selbstakzeptanz. Aktuelle Forschung zeigt, dass er in optimaler Ausprägung mit positiven Konsequenzen wie persönlichem Erfolg und Wohlbefinden einhergeht. Auch ein hoch ausgeprägtes Selbstvertrauen, d. h. das Vertrauen in die eigenen Kompetenzen und Fähigkeiten, verschiedenste Handlungen effektiv auszuführen, wird in der psychologischen Forschung als Ressource angesehen. Konzeptionell gesehen sind sich Selbstvertrauen und Selbstwert sehr ähnlich und unterscheiden sich nur in einzelnen Facetten. Ein Zusammenhang besteht darin, dass ein hoher Selbstwert mit einem hohen Selbstvertrauen einhergeht. Beide Konstrukte können in ihrer optimalen Ausprägung als handlungsleitende Werte angesehen werden.
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Reactions to trait self-enhancers were investigated in 2 longitudinal studies of person.perception in discussion groups. Groups of 4-6 participants met 7 times for 20 rain. After Meetings 1 and 7, group members rated their perceptions of one another. In Study 1, trait self-enhancement was indexed by measures of narcissism and self-deceptive enhancement. At the first meeting, self-enhancers made positive impressions: They were seen as agreeable, well adjusted, and competent. After 7 weeks, however, they were rated negatively and gave self-evaluations discrepant with peer evaluations they received. In Study 2, an independent sample of observers (close acquaintances) enabled a pretest index of discrepancy self-enhancement: It predicted the same deteriorating pattern of interpersonal perceptions as the other three trait measures. Nonetheless, all self-enhancement measures correlated positively with self-esteem.
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Many qualitatively different mechanisms for regulating self-esteem have been described in the literature. These include, for example, reduction of cognitive dissonance, self-affirmation, and social comparison. The work reviewed here demonstrates that despite their differences, these mechanisms may be substitutable for one another. For example, a threat to self via cognitive dissonance can affect attempts to maintain self-esteem via social comparison. This implies that these mechanisms are serving the same, unitary goal of maintaining self-esteem. Thus, there is surprising generality or flexibility in the processes used to maintain self-esteem. Substitution of one mechanism for another may depend on the transfer of affect. The issue of substitutability across domains is briefly discussed.
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In the lizard Psammodromus algirus, larger and older males show orange nuptial coloration on most of the head and are dominant over smaller and younger, albeit sexually mature, males which do not show such extensive nuptial coloration. This raises the question of why young, small males delay the development of nuptial coloration until a later breeding season. We tested the hypothesis of social costs by manipulating the color of the head of small males. The results of agonistic interactions suggested that small males may pay a cost in terms of being punished by large males. Small males with heads painted orange were still recognized as small by other small males, suggesting that they would not gain in social status relative to normal, dull, small males. We also manipulated the coloration of large males. Small males showed a similar response toward all large males, independent of coloration. This suggests that in short-distance communication, males used other cues, such as body size and behavior, when judging fighting ability. In staged experiments without male competition, female acceptance of matings was influenced by male body size but not by coloration because large males were more successful in obtaining matings than were small males, and within each age/size category there was no difference in mating success between experimental and control males.
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This research investigated the extent to which self-fulfilling prophecies and self-verification occurred among 108 teachers and 1,692 students in 108 sixth-grade public school math classrooms. Results demonstrated three main findings. Self-fulfilling prophecies and self-verification occurred simultaneously in a context where perceivers and targets had highly valid information on which to base their initial perceptions. The availability of highly valid information led perceivers and targets to develop initially similar perceptions before mutual influence took place. High similarity between perceivers’ and targets’ initial perceptions had no effect on the power of self-verification but weakened the effect of self-fulfilling prophecies for some targets. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for extended and close relationships and how the nature of people’s perceptions may influence the power of self-fulfilling prophecies and self-verification.
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a b s t r a c t Narcissism is considered to be a pathological form of self-love but the extent to which narcissists actually like themselves is unclear. The present study utilized the bogus pipeline technique in order to examine how narcissists actually feel about themselves. Participants were 71 women who completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem before responding to a self-esteem measure under either bogus pipeline or control conditions. Women with high levels of narcissism reported lower levels of self-esteem in the bogus pipeline condition than the control condition. This suggests that women with high levels of narcis-sism may not actually feel as good about themselves as they often claim.
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The interpersonal content and cohesion of secure and fragile forms of self-esteem were examined across three studies using undergraduate participants. Each study focused on a single marker of fragile self-esteem: unstable self-esteem (N = 327), low implicit self-esteem (N = 288), or contingent self-esteem (N = 347). Across these three markers, self-esteem fragility was found to be strongly associated with the interpersonal styles of men but not women. Men with fragile high self-esteem were characterized by a blend of dominance and hostility, whereas other individuals with high self-esteem were characterized by a blend of dominance and nurturance. The interpersonal styles associated with true and uncertain forms of low self-esteem were diverse and ranged from hostility to nurturance. These findings suggest that secure and fragile forms of self-esteem possess significant interpersonal content and are distinguishable with regard to their interpersonal styles. Implications for the interpersonal nature of fragile self-esteem are discussed.
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The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self- esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.
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Scales were developed to assess 10 specific facet traits within the broad Big Five personality domains from the item pool of the Big Five Inventory (BFI). In two independent samples, the BFI facet scales dem-onstrated substantial (a) reliability, (b) convergence with self-reports on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and peer-reports on the BFI, and (c) discriminant validity. These brief scales offer new oppor-tunities for researchers who wish to assess specific personality characteristics within an overarching Big Five framework. for serving as judges for the correlate-matching task.
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Four studies examined the construct validity of two global self-esteem measures. In Studies 1 through 3, the Single-Item Self-Esteem Scale (SISE) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) showed strong convergent validity for men and women, for different ethnic groups, and for both college students and community members. The SISE and the RSE had nearly identical correlations with a wide range of criterion measures, including domain-specific self-evaluations, self-evaluative biases, social desirability, personality, psychological and physical health, peer ratings of group behavior, academic outcomes, and demographic variables. Study 4 showed that the SISE had only moderate convergent validity in a sample of children. Overall, the findings support the reliability and validity of the SISE and suggest it can provide a practical alternative to the RSE in adult samples. More generally, the findings contribute to the research literature by further elaborating the nomological network of global self-esteem.
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Suppressor situations occur when the addition of a new predictor improves the validity of a predictor variable already in the equation. A common allegation is that suppressor effects rarely replicate and have little substantive import. We present substantive examples from two established research domains to counter this skepticism. In the first domain, we show how measures of guilt and shame act consistently as mutual suppressors: Adding shame into a regression equation increases the negative association between guilt and aggression, whereas adding guilt increases the positive association between shame and aggression. In the second domain, we show how the effects of self-esteem and narcissism operate consistently as mutual suppressors: That is, adding narcissism into a regression equation increases the negative association between self-esteem and antisocial behavior, whereas adding self-esteem increases the positive association between narcissism and antisocial behavior. Discussion addresses the different implications for suppressors in theoretical and variable selection applications.
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Nearly three decades after the original description of fighting-ability and status-signaling hypotheses, and after several reviews, the role of color displays in intrasexual signaling remains controversial. Nevertheless, we can now safely state that, at least for several species, there exists a true signaling of fighting ability and social status. This may be particularly relevant for species in which many unfamiliar individuals interact, so that individual recognition is unlikely. Signaling between but not within age and sex classes should not be regarded as true status signaling. Most descriptions of status signaling refer to species displaying melanin-based plumage coloration, but carotenoid and structural color displays can also signal status. Fighting ability is normally signaled by the size of the trait, and there are only a few examples in which color quality is of importance. I identify cases where the relationship between fighting ability and plumage badges may reverse.
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Organisms use signals of quality to communicate information about aspects of their relative phenotypic and genetic constitution. Badges of status are a subset of signals of quality that reveal information about an individual's size and dominance. In general, signals of quality require high and differential costs to remain honest (that is, prevent low-quality cheaters from exploiting any fitness benefits associated with communicating high quality). The theoretically required costs for badges of status remain controversial because the development (or 'production') of such signals often seems to be relatively cost-free. One important hypothesis is that such signals impose social (or 'maintenance') costs incurred through repeated agonistic interactions with other individuals. However, convincing empirical evidence for social costs remains elusive. Here we report social costs in a previously undescribed badge of status: the highly variable black facial patterns of female paper wasps, Polistes dominulus. Facial patterns strongly predict body size and social dominance. Moreover, in staged contests between pairs of unfamiliar wasps, subordinate wasps with experimentally altered facial features ('cheaters') received considerably more aggression from the dominant than did sham controls, indicating that facial patterns are signals and that dishonest signalling imposes social costs.
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Evolutionary theory suggests that the universal recognition of nonverbal expressions of emotions functions to enhance fitness. Specifically, emotion expressions may send survival-relevant messages to other social group members, who have the capacity to automatically interpret these signals. In the present research, we used 3 different implicit association methodologies to test whether the nonverbal expression of pride sends a functional, automatically perceived signal about a social group member's increased social status. Results suggest that the pride expression strongly signals high status, and this association cannot be accounted for by positive valence or artifacts of the expression such as expanded size due to outstretched arms. These findings suggest that the pride expression may function to uniquely communicate the high status of those who show it. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for social functions of emotion expressions and the automatic communication of status.
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Prior research shows that perceivers can judge some traits better than others in first impressions of targets. However, questions remain about which traits perceivers naturally do infer. Here, the authors develop an account of the "agreeableness asymmetry": Although perceivers show little ability to accurately gauge target agreeableness in first impressions, they find that agreeableness is generally the most commonly inferred disposition among the Big Five dimensions of personality (agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability). Using open-ended impressions based on photographs, videos, and face-to-face encounters, three studies show agreeableness as the most prevalently judged of the Big Five, although it is also poorly judged in both absolute and relative terms. The authors use interpersonal power to reveal an underlying mechanism. Manipulating the power of perceivers relative to targets substantially shifts impression content, suggesting that habitual interaction and relational concerns may partially explain perceiver's chronic interest in assessing agreeableness despite their limited ability to do so.
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We develop an evolutionary model that predicts that characters selected to signal individual identity will have properties differing from those expected for indicator signals of quality. Traits signaling identity should be highly variable, often display polymodal distributions, not be condition dependent (i.e., be cheap to produce and/or maintain), not be associated with fitness differences, exhibit independent assortment of component characters, and often occur as fixed phenotypes with a high degree of genetic determination. We illustrate the existence of traits with precisely these attributes in the ornamental, conspicuously variable, and sexually dimorphic breeding plumages of ruff sandpipers Philomachus pugnax and red-billed queleas Quelea quelea. Although ruffs lek and queleas are monogamous, both species breed in high-density aggregations with high rates of social interactions (e.g., aggression and territory defense). Under these socioecological conditions, individual recognition based on visual cues may be unusually important. In contrast to these species, we also review plumage characteristics in house finches Carpodacus mexicanus, a nonterritorial, dispersed-breeding species in which plumage ornamentation is thought to signal quality. In keeping with expectations for quality signals, house finch plumage is relatively less variable, unimodally distributed, condition dependent, correlated with fitness measures, has positively correlated component characters, and is a plastic, environmentally determined trait. We briefly discuss signals of identity in other animals.
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It is suggested that characters which develop through mate preference confer handicaps on the selected individuals in their survival. These handicaps are of use to the selecting sex since they test the quality of the mate. The size of characters selected in this way serve as marks of quality. The understanding that a handicap, which tests for quality, can evolve as a consequence of its advantage to the individual, may provide an explanation for many puzzling evolutionary problems. Such an interpretation may provide an alternative to other hypotheses which assumed complicated selective mechanisms, such as group selection or kin selection, which do not act directly on the individual.
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Five studies tested hypotheses derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem according to which the self-esteem system monitors others' reactions and alerts the individual to the possibility of social exclusion. Study 1 showed that the effects of events on participants' state self-esteem paralleled their assumptions about whether such events would lead others to accept or reject them. In Study 2, participants' ratings of how included they felt in a real social situation correlated highly with their self-esteem feelings. In Studies 3 and 4, social exclusion caused decreases in self-esteem when respondents were excluded from a group for personal reasons, but not when exclusion was random, but this effect was not mediated by self-presentation. Study 5 showed that trait self-esteem correlated highly with the degree to which respondents generally felt included versus excluded by other people. Overall, results provided converging evidence for the sociometer model.
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In this article, I present a theoretical perspective on the nature of "optimal" self-esteem. One of my major goals is to show that optimal and high self-esteem are different from each other. High self-esteem can be fragile or secure depending upon the extent to which it is defensive or genuine, contingent or true, unstable or stable, and discrepant or congruent with implicit (nonconscious)feelings of self-worth. Optimal self-esteem is characterized by qualities associated with genuine, true, stable, and congruent (with implicit self-esteem) high self-esteem. A second major goal is to present a conceptualization of the construct of authenticity. I propose that authenticity as an individual difference construct may be particularly important in delineating the adaptive features of optimal self-esteem. Authenticity can be characterized as the unobstructed operation of one's true, or core, self in one's daily enterprise. I argue that authenticity has 4 components: awareness, unbiased processing, action, and relational. Initial data pertaining to these components are highly encouraging. Finally, I discuss some implications of the fragile versus secure high self-esteem distinction for narcissism, defensive processing models, and cross-cultural self-esteem perspectives.
Book
Why have males in many species evolved more conspicuous ornaments and signals such as bright colours, enlarged fins, and feather plumes, as well as larger horns and other weapons than females? Darwin's explanation for such secondary sex traits, the theory of sexual selection, became his scientifically perhaps most controversial idea. It suggests that the traits are favoured by competition over mates. After a long period of relative quiescence, theoretical and empirical research on sexual selection has erupted during the last decades. This book describes the theory and its recent development, reviews models, methods, and empirical tests, and identifies many remaining open problems. Among the topics discussed are the selection and evolution of mating preferences; relations between sexual selection, species recognition, and speciation; constraints on sexual selection; the selection of secondary sex differences in body size, weapons, and in visual, acoustic, and chemical signals. The rapidly growing study of sexual selection in plants is also reviewed. Other chapters deal with alternative mating tactics, and with the relationships among sexual selection, parental roles, and mating systems. The present review of this very active research field will be of interest to students, teachers, and research workers in behavioural and evolutionary ecology, animal behaviour, plant reproductive ecology, and other areas of evolutionary biology where sexual selection is a potential selection factor. In spite of much exciting progress, some of the main questions in the theory of sexual selection yet remain to be answered.
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The implicit theory of self-esteem proposes that individuals with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem will generally be viewed more positively than those with lower levels of self-esteem. The present studies examined whether the perceived self-esteem levels of the 2008 presidential candidates would influence the willingness of individuals to consider voting for these candidates. Across two studies, participants were generally more willing to consider voting for candidates who were perceived as possessing higher levels of self-esteem. The most interesting exception to this general pattern was that male democrats and female republicans were actually more willing to consider voting for Hillary Clinton when they believed she possessed lower levels of self-esteem. Results will be discussed in the context of the implicit theory of self-esteem.
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Previous studies have found that narcissistic individuals are often viewed negatively by those who know them well. The present study sought to extend these previous findings by examining whether normal and pathological aspects of narcissism were associated with perceiver ratings of narcissistic characteristics and aggression. This was accomplished by having each of our undergraduate participants (288 targets) recruit friends or family members to complete ratings of the target who recruited them (1,296 perceivers). Results revealed that perceived entitlement was strongly associated with perceived aggression. Further, self-reported levels of pathological narcissism moderated these results such that vulnerable narcissism exacerbated the association between perceived entitlement and aggression, whereas grandiose narcissism mitigated the association. The discussion will focus on the implications of these results for understanding the various features of narcissism.
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Most psychotherapy research uses a one-with-many design, in which each therapist (the one) treats multiple clients (the many), which raises the challenge of nonindependent data. We present a statistical model for analyzing data from studies that use a one-with-many design. This model addresses the problems associated with nonindependence and can address theoretically relevant questions. To illustrate this model, we analyzed data in which 65 therapists and their 227 clients rated their therapeutic alliance. The primary finding was that both therapist and client alliance ratings were largely relational (i.e., specific to the unique therapist–client combination). There was little consensus among clients treated by the same therapist about the quality of the therapeutic alliance, although some therapists reported forming stronger alliances than other therapists. There was substantial dyadic reciprocity, indicating that if a therapist reported an especially good alliance with a particular client (better than with his or her other clients), then that client was also likely to report an especially good alliance (better than those reported by the therapist’s other clients). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
During aggressive interactions, animals may signal their competitive ability by various ornaments referred to as badges of status. The use of a single badge predicting dominance rank occurs in many vertebrate species. However, animals often display multiple ornaments that may convey information about either different or the same aspects of the signaller's quality, or alternatively, may serve as signal amplifiers. We observed the fighting behaviour of male house sparrows in two captive flocks to investigate whether they may use multiple cues in status signalling during aggressive interactions. Beside the status-signalling bib, male sparrows possess a conspicuous white wingbar that they often display upon aggressive encounters. We tested whether bib size and the wingbar's conspicuousness (i.e. its achromatic contrast with the neighbouring dark feathers) or its area predicted success in various aspects of fighting. We found that bib size strongly predicted overall fighting success (i.e. proportion of fights won) and defence success (i.e. proportion of successful defences out of all attacks received). Wingbar conspicuousness was positively related to defence success after controlling for the effect of bib size in multivariate analyses. Furthermore, displaying the wings also tended to improve the birds’ success in defence but not in attack. Wingbar area was unrelated to any measured aspect of fighting ability. We suggest that bib size and wingbar conspicuousness may convey multiple messages on fighting abilities, specifically on overall aggressiveness and defending potential, respectively. Alternatively, wingbars may serve as amplifiers for the wing displays of aggressive motivation. Thus, male sparrows may use multiple cues in assessing the competitive ability of opponents during social interactions.
Article
A variety of factors inn uences the formation of hierarchical structures, and can include an altered aggressive state, an ability to physically dominate, and previous agonistic experience. Using male Orconectes rusticus, we tested the duration of the winner effect by varying the time between a winning encounter and a subsequent encounter by a 20, 40 or 60-minute interval. Varying the time between the two ghts signi cantly altered the probabilities of initiating ght behaviour and of winning a ght. A cray sh with a 20-minute delay between its winning experience and its subsequent ght was signi cantly less likely to initiate ght behaviour and signii cantly more likely to win its next ght than was an animal whose next ght was delayed for 40 or 60 minutes. We then investigated whether the dynamics of this winner effect were inn uenced by perception of odour signals during agonistic interactions by blocking the chemo-and mechanoreceptors on the antennae and antennules to prevent reception of relevant cues communicating social status. Individuals ghting an opponent with this loss of sensory information were signii cantly more likely to initiate a ght, but then escalated at a slower rate to a higher ght intensity level. In addition, individuals had a decreased chance of winning an agonistic bout against an opponent deprived of sensory input from the antennae and antennules.
Article
The present study examined the interpersonal content of various self-esteem instruments in order to determine the interpersonal similarity of these measures. This was accomplished by measuring self-esteem and interpersonal style across seven samples (N=1422). Each of the self-esteem instruments possessed significant interpersonal content and demonstrated interpersonal cohesion to the extent that all of the measures were located in either the Assured-Dominant or Gregarious-Extraverted regions of the interpersonal circumplex. These findings suggest that the self-esteem instruments included in the present study possess similar interpersonal content but that differences between these measures may exert subtle influences on how self-esteem is conceptualized in interpersonal contexts. Implications for the measurement and conceptualization of self-esteem will be discussed.
Article
This article examines the measurement of short-lived (i.e., state) changes in self-esteem. A new scale is introduced that is sensitive to manipulations designed to temporarily alter self-esteem, and 5 studies are presented that support the scale's validity. The State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES) consists of 20 items modified from the widely used Janis-Field Feelings of Inadequacy Scale (Janis & Field, 1959). Psychometric analyses revealed that the SSES has 3 correlated factors: performance, social, and appearance self-esteem. Effects of naturally occurring and laboratory failure and of clinical treatment on SSES scores were examined; it was concluded that the SSES is sensitive to these sorts of manipulations. The scale has many potential uses, which include serving as a valid manipulation check index, measuring clinical change in self-esteem, and untangling the confounded relation between mood and self-esteem.
Article
The authors hypothesized that both narcissism and high self-esteem are associated with positive self-views but each is associated with positivity in different domains of the self. Narcissists perceive themselves as better than average on traits reflecting an agentic orientation (e.g., intellectual skills, extraversion) but not on those reflecting a communal orientation (e.g., agreeableness, morality).In contrast, high-self-esteem individuals perceive themselves as better than average both on agentic and communal traits. Three studies confirmed the hypothesis. In Study 1, narcissists rated themselves as extraverted and open to experience but not as more agreeable or emotionally stable. High-self-esteem individuals rated themselves highly on all of these traits except openness. In Study 2, narcissists (but not high-self-esteem individuals) rated themselves as better than their romantic partners. In Study 3, narcissists rated themselves as more intelligent, but not more moral, than the average person. In contrast, high-self-esteem individuals viewed themselves as more moral and more intelligent.
Article
In this article, I present a theoretical perspective on the nature of "optimal" self-esteem. One of my major goals is to show that optimal and high self-esteem are different from each other. High self-esteem can be fragile or secure depending upon the extent to which it is defensive or genuine, contingent or true, unstable or stable, and discrepant or congruent with implicit (nonconscious) feelings of self-worth. Optimal self-esteem is characterized by qualities associated with genuine, true, stable, and congruent (with implicit self-esteem) high self-esteem. A second major goal is to present a conceptualization of the construct of authenticity. I propose that authenticity as an individual difference construct may be particularly important in delineating the adaptive features of optimal self-esteem. Authenticity can be characterized as the unobstructed operation of one's true, or core, self in one's daily enterprise. I argue that authenticity has 4 components: awareness, unbiased processing, action, and relational. Initial data pertaining to these components are highly encouraging. Finally, I discuss some implications of the fragile versus secure high self-esteem distinction for narcissism, defensive processing models, and cross-cultural self-esteem perspectives.
Article
An experimental study examined the effect of the amount of available information on interjudge consensus and self–other agreement (accuracy) in personality judgment. Three hundred sixty perceiver-subjects (180 F and 180 M) each watched one of 6 targets (3 F and 3 M) on videotape for 5–10, 15–20, or 25–30 min. Accuracy was significantly greater in the longest than in the shortest observation condition. Within this overall difference, the linear effect of information on accuracy was strong (and significant) only for the most visible of the traits that were judged, including those relevant to extraversion. A fairly high level of consensus was achieved after the shortest period of observation and did not increase with longer observation for any kind of trait. Among a separate group of acquaintances who had known the targets for an average of 14 months, both accuracy and consensus was much higher than our perceiver-subjects achieved after 30 min. Further analyses showed that, with more information, consensus was more highly associated with accuracy, even though the level of consensus did not change.
Article
When time is limited, researchers may be faced with the choice of using an extremely brief measure of the Big-Five personality dimensions or using no measure at all. To meet the need for a very brief measure, 5 and 10-item inventories were developed and evaluated. Although somewhat inferior to standard multi-item instruments, the instruments reached adequate levels in terms of: (a) convergence with widely used Big-Five measures in self, observer, and peer reports, (b) test–retest reliability, (c) patterns of predicted external correlates, and (d) convergence between self and observer ratings. On the basis of these tests, a 10-item measure of the Big-Five dimensions is offered for situations where very short measures are needed, personality is not the primary topic of interest, or researchers can tolerate the somewhat diminished psychometric properties associated with very brief measures.
Article
Previous studies have found that narcissistic individuals are often viewed negatively by those who know them well. The present study sought to extend these previous findings by examining whether normal and pathological aspects of narcissism were associated with perceiver ratings of narcissistic characteristics and aggression. This was accomplished by having each of our participants (288 targets) recruit friends or family members to complete ratings of the target who recruited them (1,296 perceivers). Results revealed that perceived entitlement was strongly associated with perceived aggression. Further, self-reported levels of pathological narcissism moderated these results such that vulnerable narcissism exacerbated the association between perceived entitlement and aggression whereas grandiose narcissism mitigated the association. Discussion will focus on the implications of these results for understanding the various features of narcissism.