Increased N-acetylaspartate in model mouse of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(Impact Factor: 3.21).
02/2012; 35(2):418-25. DOI: 10.1002/jmri.22817
To evaluate the N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) biochemical pathways in the brain of myelin synthesis-deficient (msd) mouse, a model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD).
We performed magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) of the thalamus for msd and wildtype mice with a 7.0 T magnet. NAA and NAAG were independently measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Immunohistochemical analysis using anti-Mbp, Gfap, Ng2, and NeuN antibodies were also performed.
¹H-MRS in msd mice revealed increased total NAA (tNAA, NAAþNAAG), creatine, glutamine, and glutamate and decreased choline (Cho). HPLC analysis revealed increases of both NAA and NAAG in the msd brains. Histologically, the msd brains revealed hypomyelination and astrogliosis. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and neurons were normal in number in the thalamus wherein ¹H-MRS was obtained.
The evidence suggests that the neurochemical derangement in the msd mice may be a primary increase of NAA resulting in a secondary increase of NAAG. Increased tNAA with decreased Cho detectable on ¹H-MRS may be an important marker for PMD, and might be used to distinguish it from more common neurological disorders that have decreased tNAA.
Available from: Toshitaka Nabeshima
- "The measurement of NAA and NAAG by HPLC was performed as described previously (Reynolds et al., 2005;Takanashi et al., 2012). Brain tissue was homogenized with 10 times the volume of 0.1 M perchloric acid. "
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ABSTRACT: A novel N-acetyltransferase, Shati/Nat8l, was identified in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice with methamphetamine (METH) treatment. Previously we reported that suppression of Shati/Nat8l enhanced METH-induced behavioral alterations via dopaminergic neuronal regulation. However, the physiological mechanisms of Shati/Nat8l on the dopaminergic system in the brain are unclear. In this study, we injected adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing Shati/Nat8l into the NAc or dorsal striatum (dS) of mice, to increase Shati/Nat8l expression. Overexpression of Shati/Nat8l in the NAc, but not in the dS, attenuated METH-induced hyperlocomotion, locomotor sensitization, and conditioned place preference in mice. Moreover, the Shati/Nat8l overexpression in the NAc attenuated the elevation of extracellular dopamine levels induced by METH in in vivo microdialysis experiments. These behavioral and neurochemical alterations due to Shati/Nat8l overexpression in the NAc were inhibited by treatment with selective group II metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 and 3 (mGluR2/3) antagonist LY341495. In the AAV vector-injected NAc, the tissue contents of both N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), endogenous mGluR3 agonist, were elevated. The injection of peptidase inhibitor of NAAG or the perfusion of NAAG itself reduced the basal levels of extracellular dopamine in the NAc of naive mice. These results indicate that Shati/Nat8l in the NAc, but not in the dS, plays an important suppressive role in the behavioral responses to METH by controlling the dopaminergic system via activation of group II mGluRs.
Available from: Jeffrey A. Stanley
- "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / j n s that has a point mutation in PLP . In general, however, very little is known about the natural history of patients with PMD, either those with point mutations or gene duplications. "
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether quantitative measure of magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with the inherited leukodystrophy, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) correlates with clinical severity or progression.
In our current work we have analyzed the clinical phenotypes and MRI scans of 51 male patients with PMD and 10 female carriers for whom the PLP1 genotype had been determined. In addition, we developed a 32-point functional disability scoring (FDS) system for PMD, and validated it for inter-rater reliability. Using conventional T1- and T2-weighted MRI images of the whole brain, we measured white matter and total brain volume (WMV and TBV), inter-caudate ratio (ICR), and corpus callosum area.
There was a significant positive correlation of FDS with white matter fraction (WMV/TBV) and corpus callosum area. Also, when applying a median split based on FDS, patients with lower FDS showed reduced white matter fraction and corpus callosum area, and increased ICR compared to patients with relatively higher FDS, regardless of age.
Although this patient population is heterogeneous, with multiple genetic and molecular mechanisms causing PMD, these data imply that white matter atrophy is a major pathological determinant of the clinical disability in most patients. Development of reliable non-invasive quantitative biomarkers of disease activity would be useful not only for following the natural history of the disease, but also raising the potential for evaluating future therapies.
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ABSTRACT: We reported a 5-year-old boy with 18q(-) syndrome who showed typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, and a slightly high but lower than normal signal on T1-weighted imaging of the white matter. MR spectroscopy (MRS) revealed increased concentrations of creatine, myoinositol and choline with a normal N-acetylaspartate one. The cerebral white matter lesions observed on MRI in patients with 18q(-) syndrome have been considered to reflect hypomyelination due to a decrease in myelin basic protein so far, however, MRS suggested reactive astrocytic gliosis and accelerated myelin turnover, which are compatible with recent pathological reports of 18q(-) syndrome.
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