Global Iodine Status in 2011 and Trends over the Past Decade

Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition, and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 02/2012; 142(4):744-50. DOI: 10.3945/jn.111.149393
Source: PubMed


Salt iodization has been introduced in many countries to control iodine deficiency. Our aim was to assess global and regional iodine status as of 2011 and compare it to previous WHO estimates from 2003 and 2007. Using the network of national focal points of the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders as well as a literature search, we compiled new national data on urinary iodine concentration (UIC) to add to the existing data in the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System Micronutrients Database. The most recent data on UIC, primarily national data in school-age children (SAC), were analyzed. The median UIC was used to classify national iodine status and the UIC distribution to estimate the number of individuals with low iodine intakes by severity categories. Survey data on UIC cover 96.1% of the world's population of SAC, and since 2007, new national data are available for 58 countries, including Canada, Pakistan, the U.K., and the U.S.. At the national level, there has been major progress: from 2003 to 2011, the number of iodine-deficient countries decreased from 54 to 32 and the number of countries with adequate iodine intake increased from 67 to 105. However, globally, 29.8% (95% CI = 29.4, 30.1) of SAC (241 million) are estimated to have insufficient iodine intakes. Sharp regional differences persist; southeast Asia has the largest number of SAC with low iodine intakes (76 million) and there has been little progress in Africa, where 39% (58 million) have inadequate iodine intakes. In summary, although iodine nutrition has been improving since 2003, global progress may be slowing. Intervention programs need to be extended to reach the nearly one-third of the global population that still has inadequate iodine intakes.

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    • "A decrease in I-deficient countries from 110 in 1993 to 32 in 2012 has been reported, due mainly to the use of iodised salt 14 . Andersson et al. (2012) 1 calculated 241 million SAC to be at risk of IDD in 2011, which extrapolates to 1.88 billion people globally and this represents a decrease of 6.4% since 2007. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg-1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg-1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg-1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg-1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d-1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d-1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L-1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d-1 based on consumption of 2 L d-1.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    • "Unfortunately , this is not always achieved and children are susceptible to certain deficiencies. In a majority of these rural landlocked areas micronutrient deficiencies, particularly of iodine, are inevitable and well documented (Andersson et al., 2012; FAO, 2010a; Zimmermann & Andersson, 2012). Hence there is a need to understand the reactions of both the parents at the household level and the school heads in these areas, toward biofortification as a health strategy that directly affects children's school performance. "
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    ABSTRACT: To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data was analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be a valuable for assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Appetite
    • "Over the last decades, salt iodization programmes have been effective in preventing and controlling iodine deficiency disorders. But according to Zimmermann and Andersson (2012), these programmes need to be strengthened and extended to reach nearly one-third of the global population that still has inadequate iodine intakes. At the same time, WHO is promoting the implementation of programmes to reduce population salt intake as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases (e.g. "
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