Domestic airborne black carbon and exhaled nitric oxide in children in NYC

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 3.19). 02/2012; 22(3):258-66. DOI: 10.1038/jes.2012.3
Source: PubMed


Differential exposure to combustion by-products and allergens may partially explain the marked disparity in asthma prevalence (3-18%) among New York City neighborhoods. Subclinical changes in airway inflammation can be measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). FeNO could be used to test independent effects of these environmental exposures on airway inflammation. Seven- and eight-year-old children from neighborhoods with lower (range 3-9%, n=119) and higher (range 11-18%, n=121) asthma prevalence participated in an asthma case-control study. During home visits, FeNO was measured, and samples of bed dust (allergens) and air (black carbon; BC) were collected. Neighborhood built-environment characteristics were assessed for the 500 m surrounding participants' homes. Airborne BC concentrations in homes correlated with neighborhood asthma prevalence (P<0.001) and neighborhood densities of truck routes (P<0.001) and buildings burning residual oil (P<0.001). FeNO concentrations were higher among asthmatics with than in those without frequent wheeze (≥4 times/year) (P=0.002). FeNO concentrations correlated with domestic BC among children without seroatopy (P=0.012) and with dust mite allergen among children with seroatopy (P=0.020). The association between airborne BC in homes and both neighborhood asthma prevalence and FeNO suggest that further public health interventions on truck emissions standards and residual oil use are warranted.

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Available from: Luis M Acosta, Jun 20, 2014
    • "n to correlate well with other dilution markers ( Effros et al . , 2003 ) . However , there are also some limitations to our study . Domestic exposure was assessed 7 days after collection of EBC . However , we previously showed a good correlation between outdoor central site BC levels measured the week prior and the week following the home visit ( Cornell et al . , 2012 ) . Even though these central site measurements were only modestly correlated with our weekly domestic measures , another study in NYC found the ratio of indoor to outdoor BC measured in participants ' homes to be about 1 . 0 across seasons ( Jung et al . , 2010 ) . These results suggest a high penetration of BC generated outdoors and a"
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Exposure to airborne black carbon (BC) has been associated with asthma development, respiratory symptoms and decrements in lung function. However, the mechanism through which BC may lead to respiratory symptoms has not been completely elucidated. Oxidative stress has been suggested as a potential mechanism through which BC might lead to adverse health outcomes. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) allows for the non-invasive collection of airway lining fluid containing biomarkers of oxidative stress like 8-isoprostane, a stable by-product of lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we sought to characterize the association between domestic airborne BC concentrations and 8-isoprostane in EBC. Materials and methods: Seven- and eight-year-old children participated in an asthma case-control study in New York City. During home visits, air samples and EBC were collected. Seven day averages of domestic levels of particulate matter <2.5μm (PM2.5), BC and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were measured. Urea and 8-isoprostane were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in EBC. Results: In univariate models, PM2.5 and BC, but not ETS, were significantly associated with increases in 8-isoprostane in the EBC (β=0.006 and β=0.106 respectively, p<0.05 for both). These associations remained statistically significant for both PM2.5 and BC after adjustment for covariates. In a co-pollutant model including PM2.5, BC and ETS, only BC remained a statistically significant predictor of 8-isoprostane (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest the BC fraction of PM might contain exposure relevant to increased oxidative stress in the airways.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Environmental Research
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    • "Carbonaceous particles can play an important role in climate processes (Jacobson 2002; IPCC 2007; Ramanthan and Carmichael 2008) alter cloud properties (Albrecht, 1989), impact air quality and human health. Residents living near major roadways and exposed to vehicle combustion particles including BC may be at increased risk for respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function (Kim et al., 2004; Cornell et al., 2012). Measurements of BC are important in order to understand the major sources and subsequent evolution in the atmosphere. "
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    ABSTRACT: Measurements of PM2.5 black carbon (BC) over an 8–9 year period are used to characterize temporal patterns at sites in New York City (NYC) and Rochester, NY. Annual mean BC at the NYC location ranges from 1.4 to 2.0 μg/m3, whereas mean concentrations at Rochester are approximately a factor of 2–3 lower. BC amounts to 15–20% of PM2.5 mass in NYC compared to 7–10% at Rochester. Seasonal patterns reveal the highest BC concentrations in NYC from November to February versus June to November at Rochester. At both locations, mean weekday (Monday-Friday) BC concentrations are statistically higher compared to weekends (Saturday and Sunday). Weekday BC diurnal profiles exhibit a morning peak between 6–10 AM EST followed by an afternoon minimum, with a secondary peak in the late evening. Sunday BC diurnal profiles show highest concentrations at night, from 8 PM to 2 AM. These patterns are consistent with vehicle counts on nearby roadways and boundary layer dynamics at both locations. Simultaneous measurements of BC at 370 and 880 nm show an enhancement in BC370 relative to the BC880 from October to March. This enhanced signal is most evident at Rochester during late evening and early morning hours (8 PM to 4 AM) on weekends, and is attributed to UV absorbing species (such as wood smoke markers) in the ambient particle mixture. At the NYC site, the levels of Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co) in PM10 are elevated during the heating season due to residual oil combustion. The long term datasets are used to explore the seasonal relationship between BC880 and EC at both sites.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Aerosol and Air Quality Research
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    ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Phthalates are used widely in consumer products. Exposure to several phthalates has been associated with respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function. Associations between children's phthalate exposures and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a biomarker of airway inflammation, have not been examined. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that urinary concentrations of four phthalate metabolites would be positively associated with FeNO, and these associations would be stronger among children with seroatopy or wheeze. METHODS: In an urban ongoing birth cohort, 244 children had phthalate metabolites determined in urine collected on the same day as FeNO measurement. Repeated sampling gathered n=313 observations between ages 4.9-9.1 years. Seroatopy was assessed by specific IgE. Wheeze in the past year was assessed by validated questionnaire. Regression models used generalized estimating equations. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Log-unit increases in urinary concentrations of metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) were associated with a 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5%, 13.1%) and 8.7% (95% CI 1.9%, 16.0%) increase in FeNO, respectively, adjusting for other phthalate metabolites and potential covariates/confounders. There was no association between concentrations of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate or di-n-butyl phthalate and FeNO. There was no significant interaction by seroatopy. The BBzP metabolite association was significantly stronger among children who wheeze (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Independent associations between exposures to DEP and BBzP and FeNO in a cohort of inner-city children were observed. These results suggest that these two ubiquitous phthalates, previously shown to have substantial contributions from inhalation, are positively associated with airway inflammation in children.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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