Article

Hair as a Specimen to Document Tetramethylene Disulfotetramine Exposure

Department of Forensic Toxicology, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Guangfu Xi Road 1347, Shanghai 200063, PR China.
Journal of Forensic Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.16). 02/2012; 57(3):669-73. DOI: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02052.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Tetramethylene disulfotetramine (tetramine) is a rodenticide that has been banned for many years in China. Since 2005, inhabitants of a village in the Henan Province have been suffering from grand mal seizures. To investigate the possibility of tetramine as the cause, we developed a method to determine tetramine in human hair. Sample preparation involved external decontamination, frozen pulverization, and ultrasonication in 2 mL ethyl acetate in the presence of cocaine-d3 as an internal standard. The method exhibited good linearity; calibration curve was linear over a range of 0.1-20 ng/mg hair. The limit of detection for the assay was 0.05 ng/mg hair. Except for one subject (No. 4), all head and pubic hair samples were positive for tetramine. The concentrations of tetramine in pubic hair were significantly higher than those in the same subjects' head hair samples. Because of a long retention in body, segmental head hair analysis cannot provide an accurate exposure history of tetramine in the body.

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    • "Pubic hair samples were not useful in measuring TFV concentrations and varied erratically in this study, with several high outlier values. Similar results have been reported for pubic hair levels of opiates [37], amphetamines [38], benzodiazepines [39], and rodenticidal toxins [40], and may reflect urinary contamination of pubic hair or the slower growth rate of pubic hair. Furthermore, individual PK parameters, including oral clearance as measured by plasma AUC, and Cmax, had modest predictive value on drug levels in hair. "
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