Hair as a Specimen to Document Tetramethylene Disulfotetramine Exposure
Department of Forensic Toxicology, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Guangfu Xi Road 1347, Shanghai 200063, PR China. Journal of Forensic Sciences
(Impact Factor: 1.16).
02/2012; 57(3):669-73. DOI: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02052.x
Tetramethylene disulfotetramine (tetramine) is a rodenticide that has been banned for many years in China. Since 2005, inhabitants of a village in the Henan Province have been suffering from grand mal seizures. To investigate the possibility of tetramine as the cause, we developed a method to determine tetramine in human hair. Sample preparation involved external decontamination, frozen pulverization, and ultrasonication in 2 mL ethyl acetate in the presence of cocaine-d3 as an internal standard. The method exhibited good linearity; calibration curve was linear over a range of 0.1-20 ng/mg hair. The limit of detection for the assay was 0.05 ng/mg hair. Except for one subject (No. 4), all head and pubic hair samples were positive for tetramine. The concentrations of tetramine in pubic hair were significantly higher than those in the same subjects' head hair samples. Because of a long retention in body, segmental head hair analysis cannot provide an accurate exposure history of tetramine in the body.
Available from: Kristefer Stojanovski
- "Pubic hair samples were not useful in measuring TFV concentrations and varied erratically in this study, with several high outlier values. Similar results have been reported for pubic hair levels of opiates , amphetamines , benzodiazepines , and rodenticidal toxins , and may reflect urinary contamination of pubic hair or the slower growth rate of pubic hair. Furthermore, individual PK parameters, including oral clearance as measured by plasma AUC, and Cmax, had modest predictive value on drug levels in hair. "
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ABSTRACT: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials using tenofovir-based regimens have demonstrated that high levels of adherence are required to evaluate efficacy; the incorporation of objective biomarkers of adherence in trial design has been essential to interpretation, given the inaccuracy of self-report. Antiretroviral measurements in scalp hair have been useful as a marker of long-term exposure in the HIV treatment setting, and hair samples are relatively easy and inexpensive to collect, transport, and store for analysis. To evaluate the relationship between dose and tenofovir concentrations in hair, we examined the dose proportionality of tenofovir in hair in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults.
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ABSTRACT: Bromadiolone and brodifacoum, two common anticoagulant rodenticides, are involved in the majority of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning cases in humans in China. Hair analysis can provide long-term information on drug exposure. A method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of bromadiolone and brodifacoum in human hair.
A 1 mL aliquot of a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8) was added to 20 mg of pulverized hair followed by ultrasonication and liquid-liquid extraction. Liquid chromatography was performed using a C(18) column with a mobile phase gradient of ammonium acetate (10 mM) and methanol. A tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode with a negative electrospray ionization source was employed for detection. Warfarin-d(5) was used as an internal standard for both analytes.
The limits of detection (LODs) for bromadiolone and brodifacoum were 0.010 and 0.025 ng/mg, respectively. The calibration curves for both analytes were linear from 0.025 to 1 ng/mg. The accuracy ranged from 90.3 to 109.3%, and the intra-day and inter-day imprecisions were less than 15%.
The established method was found effective when applied to the analyses of bromadiolone or brodifacoum in five cases, indicating that segmental hair analysis could be useful for clinical and forensic purposes by identifying the time of ingestion. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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