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Cyprus as a degraded landscape or resilient environment in the wake of colonial intrusion

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Abstract

Concerns about global warming, degradation of fragile ecosystems, and environmental and societal collapse have increased interest for lessons and/or solutions for today's environmental issues. Popular writers have turned to a classic degradation thesis of deforestation and presumed desertification within the Eastern Mediterranean as a cautionary tale of how past societies have committed ecological suicide. However, degradation and/or collapse is far more complex than the thesis permits, and uncritical adoption of such simplified stories encourages continued use of inaccurate assumptions about human-environment interaction. In Cyprus, such a degradation story materialized 150 y ago, and its promoters aimed to impress on readers their responsibility to reverse past environmental mistakes. Both the British Colonial authorities (1878-1960) and the post-Independence Cypriot government used it to justify their environmental policies. Unfortunately, this thesis was formed around several misunderstandings about Cypriot environments and society: (i) judgment of degradation without appropriate consideration of the difference between degradation and change; (ii) oversimplified representation of ruling powers and those people ruled; and (iii) denigration of the shepherd lifestyle and its presumed environmental impact. A multimethod approach using archival and field research offers a more nuanced understanding of the complexity of human-environment interaction, the underappreciated environmental and societal resilience of areas classified as degraded, and the importance of placing events within changing socioeconomic and political contexts. This study of natural resource management and environmental resilience illustrates that the practices that the colonial government viewed as unsustainable likely were sustainable. Full text can be found at http://www.pnas.org/content/109/10/3670.full.pdf

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... Cyprus was a part of the British Empire until 1960 when it gained its independence. The British past of the island is responsible for many institutional structures including legislation which have shaped nature conservation in the long term (Harris, 2012). Currently it is a divided island state, the result of an armed conflict in 1974 and entered the EU in 2004 (in its entirety). ...
... However, and despite the recent 'common' path, there is a very different route followed by these two islands regarding the historical context of nature conservation. In Cyprus the British legacy has left its mark in terms of legislation and organizational context with a clear regulating framework for forest management, hunting and grazing (Harris, 2012). Being an island state means that there is a direct involvement, of Government agencies to secure external funding for nature conservation, owning mainly to more flexibility and faster decision-making. ...
... Although Crete has a larger number of grazing animals, the UAA is much higher (584,300 ha) than in Cyprus (111,930 ha). In Cyprus, grazing reduction in several areas of the island is a result of the British legacy of conservation, even by force, which is also reflected in the condition of island's forests (e.g. on Troodos mountains) (Harris, 2012). This is not the case with the Psilorites or Lefka Ori mountains in Crete, where although grazing pattern have changed in recent years, the effect of grazing on the island is indisputable (Papanastasis, 2012). ...
Article
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We developed a framework to compare the similarities and differences in nature conservation between two highly biodiverse Mediterranean islands; Cyprus and Crete. We relied on a) literature review for the factors which have shaped the state of conservation affairs on the islands (e.g. institutional context) and b) the use of indicators to capture conservation effort (e.g. protected areas extent) as well as the main pressures on the islands (e.g. climate change). Entry to the European Union has improved environmental policy and legislation with both islands involved in several conservation projects. In Cyprus, an overall favourable habitat conservation status is reported compared to Crete and the role of formal education in environmental protection and awareness is more significant. Among the threats examined, fire seems to be important and projected to increase under climate change in both islands. Crete has a larger number of grazing animals but the available areas for stock raising are five times higher than those in Cyprus. Tourism is more intense in Crete but land development is more acute in Cyprus. Climate change is expected to be more severe for Cyprus. Despite the islands’ biotic and landscape affinities and the common threats they face, what seems to be making a difference in nature conservation is a) governance structure, b) the way/extent that these threats are manifested c) adaptive capacity to future threats, in particular climate change. Cyprus seem to be facing more intense threats but is also placed better in terms of institutional context to deal with these threats.
... Effective climatic inputs are most likely to be high-recurrence perturbations, such as excessive rains or floods, and more persistent, decadal anomalies (such as severe droughts) that serve as triggering mechanisms, impacting a stressed or de-graded environment to unleash more catastrophic forms of hydrological behavior or slope failure (44)(45)(46). Climatic variables can also precondition the environment by accelerating degradation, or disastrous floods may provoke outbreaks of epidemic disease. Population decline or the disintegration of economic networks may reinforce environmental feedbacks, compromising food production as well as access to external information, food supplies, markets, and raw materials. ...
... Mediterranean people regard monte bajo not as "waste" but as land in reserve, which is used for local pastoralism and wood gathering, but can be converted to more productive orchards when markets improve (46). Early forestry experts from higher latitudes were disturbed by the open nature of Mediterranean woodlands, even though they were looking at oldgrowth formations (44,45). Deforestation is therefore not a simple process that can be equated with human degradation, and reforestation with invasive or ornamental trees does not qualify as recovery. ...
... If the number of case studies is expanded to include others from this Special Feature, it adds only two examples of collapse [Greenland, the Maya (58,59)], but four instances in which resilience allowed fundamental change without simplification or breakdown (the prehistoric Levant, Iceland, Cyprus, Colonial Mexico (44,(60)(61)(62)]. Reviewing subsistence crises in western Europe after approximately 1200 CE identifies food riots, peasant revolts, and wars of religion, but no radical sociopolitical transformations until the French Revolution. ...
... Effective climatic inputs are most likely to be high-recurrence perturbations, such as excessive rains or floods, and more persistent, decadal anomalies (such as severe droughts) that serve as triggering mechanisms, impacting a stressed or de-graded environment to unleash more catastrophic forms of hydrological behavior or slope failure (44)(45)(46). Climatic variables can also precondition the environment by accelerating degradation, or disastrous floods may provoke outbreaks of epidemic disease. Population decline or the disintegration of economic networks may reinforce environmental feedbacks, compromising food production as well as access to external information, food supplies, markets, and raw materials. ...
... Mediterranean people regard monte bajo not as "waste" but as land in reserve, which is used for local pastoralism and wood gathering, but can be converted to more productive orchards when markets improve (46). Early forestry experts from higher latitudes were disturbed by the open nature of Mediterranean woodlands, even though they were looking at oldgrowth formations (44,45). Deforestation is therefore not a simple process that can be equated with human degradation, and reforestation with invasive or ornamental trees does not qualify as recovery. ...
... If the number of case studies is expanded to include others from this Special Feature, it adds only two examples of collapse [Greenland, the Maya (58,59)], but four instances in which resilience allowed fundamental change without simplification or breakdown (the prehistoric Levant, Iceland, Cyprus, Colonial Mexico (44,(60)(61)(62)]. Reviewing subsistence crises in western Europe after approximately 1200 CE identifies food riots, peasant revolts, and wars of religion, but no radical sociopolitical transformations until the French Revolution. ...
Article
Historical collapse of ancient states poses intriguing social-ecological questions, as well as potential applications to global change and contemporary strategies for sustainability. Five Old World case studies are developed to identify interactive inputs, triggers, and feedbacks in devolution. Collapse is multicausal and rarely abrupt. Political simplification undermines traditional structures of authority to favor militarization, whereas disintegration is preconditioned or triggered by acute stress (insecurity, environmental or economic crises, famine), with breakdown accompanied or followed by demographic decline. Undue attention to stressors risks underestimating the intricate interplay of environmental, political, and sociocultural resilience in limiting the damages of collapse or in facilitating reconstruction. The conceptual model emphasizes resilience, as well as the historical roles of leaders, elites, and ideology. However, a historical model cannot simply be applied to contemporary problems of sustainability without adjustment for cumulative information and increasing possibilities for popular participation. Between the 14th and 18th centuries, Western Europe responded to environmental crises by innovation and intensification; such modernization was decentralized, protracted, flexible, and broadly based. Much of the current alarmist literature that claims to draw from historical experience is poorly focused, simplistic, and unhelpful. It fails to appreciate that resilience and readaptation depend on identified options, improved understanding, cultural solidarity, enlightened leadership, and opportunities for participation and fresh ideas.
... Overall, goats have an important multifunctional role in marginal habitats and have always been considered a useful and specialized ruminant browsing Mediterranean forest rangelands [3]. However, in the case of low forage availability and overgrazing, they could also be viewed as a problem for forest regeneration [4,5]. They have a very efficient selective foraging behavior and the ability to thrive better in harsh environments. ...
... The spring diet was the one that differed the most from the other seasons (from 0.05 to 0.12) ( Table 6). 4 Means with different capital letters (A-C) in the same row indicate significant differences (p < 0.05). ...
Article
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Mediterranean forest rangelands offer an important feed source for goats. Concerns about grazing strategies and management schemes in order to ensure the rangeland sustainability of Southern Mediterranean forest have revived interest in the foraging behavior of goats. This study was conducted to investigate the seasonal changes of feeding behavior of grazing goats in the Southern Mediterranean forest rangeland of Northern Morocco during two consecutive years beginning in 2016. The direct observation method was used to compare diet composition, intake rate, and diet selectivity of goats during three seasons (spring, summer, and fall). Bite mass of each plant species selected by goats was estimated using hand-plucked simulation. The optimal foraging theory was used as a tool to explain the goats foraging decisions. Bite mass range was extremely wide and varied seasonally. The goats’ diet was largely composed of Cistus spp., Lavandula stoechas, Quercus spp., and Myrtus communis. The result shows that the smaller the bite mass, the higher the biting rate, leading to increased short term intake rates. The selection of various plant species during fall and summer enlarged the diet diversity of goats. As expected, goats preferred trees and some shrubs despite their low availability. Consequently, the most available species is not necessarily the most positively selected. Particular high and positive selection of Quercus suber was observed over seasons. The outcomes confirm the high adaptability and ability of goats to select a woody species across seasons. Knowledge about forage availability and the feeding behavior of goats could be used as the first guide for rangeland managers to ensure herd and forest sustainability.
... Papacostas 2001 andRackham 2017). The emphasis on the relationship between deforestation and erosion in mountainous areas, which has been so instrumental in colouring the thoughts and theories of geographers and ecologists working in arid lands, links to this idea (Grove and Rackham 2001;Harris 2012;Davis 2016). An additional reason is simply that the forests are largely restricted to the cooler, moister hills that dominate a large part of the island (Delipetrou et al. 2008;Rackham 2017). ...
... As for the British commentary on the state of Cyprus's forests (Harris 2012), the state of the marshlands was also blamed on the previous administration of the Ottomans, albeit indirectly. Indeed, the link between forest degradation, erosion, and the resultant siltation and creation of fens has been noted by Grove and Rackham (2001) to be a part of the ruined landscape theory of the Mediterranean. ...
Chapter
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Throughout history the values and meanings attached to habitats and species in particular places have seen considerable change. Such shifts in perspective are of particular relevance to the biology of invasions, with human attention and values often determining both the initial movement of species around the world, and the decision that subsequent independent spread should be considered damaging to the environment. This chapter examines such a case for the Akrotiri peninsula, Cyprus, where a particular colonial story about the degraded state of the environment, and the need to combat malaria, led to the introduction of various Australian trees for sanitation and other purposes. Today, some of these non-native species are considered invasive, and are having impacts on valued wetland habitats on the peninsula. We use archival research to investigate the changes in policy towards these habitats and the non-native species that affect them, and field research to describe the ecological context. Our study illustrates the complex interactions between ideas, practical aims, and values that lie behind the planned and invaded habitats at Akrotiri.
... Land use changes and associated impacts differ significantly depending on the size of the island and therefore demographics, as well as its popularity as tourist destination . Therefore, to date there is no consensus on the trends of changes since islands seems to respond/behave individualistically Harris 2012). Recent land uses are associated with temporal and spatial shifts in land-use systems with polarization of land-use intensity, particularly on small/medium size islands (Tzanopoulos and Vogiatzakis 2011;Balzan et al. 2018). ...
... Forest ecosystems are currently being degraded under the impact of many anthropogenic factors, the main one is overgrazing [24-25-26-27] which harms the natural regeneration of forests. It is considered the major factor of change and land degradation, affecting both soil and ecosystem components [25][26][27][28]. ...
Article
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Overgrazing constitutes the major constraint threatening the sustainability of the forest ecosystems in the Ifrane National Park. The operations of regeneration and afforestation impose to close areas to grazing over one period exceeding ten years, generally lead to the opposition of the local population to the programs of reconstitution of the forest ecosystems. To solve these problems, a text of compensation for closed perimeters of afforestation or regeneration to the grazing was established in 2002. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the role of the compensation mechanism described as a payment tool for forest ecosystem restoration programs. For this purpose, an analysis of quantitative and qualitative indicators, based on individual and semi-structure interviews, before and after the introduction of the compensation mechanism is used. The GIS mapping approach is also used to visualize some results spatially. Based on results, this mechanism contributed to conserving the forest ecosystem and enhancing rural livelihoods at the level of Ifrane National Park, resulting in the regression of the forest infractions with a rate of 48%. On the socio-economic level, this mechanism contributed to initiate a climate of trust resulting in the collaboration of the population with the foresters and, to carry out many projects of community interest generated socio-economic benefits relevant for the users.
... Land use changes and associated impacts differ significantly depending on the size of the island and therefore demographics, as well as its popularity as tourist destination . Therefore, to date there is no consensus on the trends of changes since islands seems to respond/behave individualistically Harris 2012). Recent land uses are associated with temporal and spatial shifts in landuse systems with polarization of land-use intensity, particularly on small/medium size islands (Tzanopoulos and Vogiatzakis 2011;Balzan et al. 2018). ...
Technical Report
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Balzan MV, Hassoun AER, Aroua N, Baldy V, Bou Dagher M, Branquinho C, Dutay J-C, El Bour M, Médail F, Mojtahid M, Morán-Ordóñez A, Roggero PP, Rossi Heras S, Schatz B, Vogiatzakis IN, Zaimes GN, Ziveri P 2020 Ecosystems. In: Climate and Environmental Change in the Mediterranean Basin – Current Situation and Risks for the Future. First Mediterranean Assessment Report [Cramer W, Guiot J, Marini K (eds.)] Union for the Mediterranean, Plan Bleu, UNEP/MAP, Marseille, France, pp. 323-468.
... As described by Dziba et al. [44], the high elasticity of goats' diet could be explained by their great ability to switch from one vegetation strata to another. Generally, goats have been considered as opportunistic grazers in forest pasture and marginal land [45,46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behaviour of indigenous goats and the selection drivers of different plant species in a Mediterranean forest rangeland. To achieve this goal, the seasonal variations in terms of forage availability and quality of ingested plant species were studied during three grazing seasons. In the same period, eight indigenous goats of Beni Arouss breed were selected to explore the seasonal changes in their browsing behaviour. Forage quality was determined by the hand-plucking technique. The results showed a wide seasonal variation in forage availability and quality, and feeding behaviour. Woody species were more selected independently of the season (p < 0.001). The crude protein content varied from 53.3 g/kg of dry mater (DM) for Erica arborea in summer to 197 g/kg DM for Calicotome villosa in autumn (p < 0.001). Despite the high condensed tannins content in selected shrubs, they were highly consumed. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) had recorded the highest contents in herbaceous during spring. Shrubs and trees contain the lowest levels of IVOMD (<500 g/kg) and ME (<7.2 MJ/kg) during autumn and summer. It is concluded that seasonal changes in forage availability and quality did not necessarily affect the indigenous goats’ preference. These findings could help goat herders to develop feeding and grazing systems while increasing the performance of goats in the Mediterranean silvopastoral system.
... Land use changes and associated impacts differ significantly depending on the size of the island and therefore demographics, as well as its popularity as tourist destination . Therefore, to date there is no consensus on the trends of changes since islands seems to respond/behave individualistically Harris 2012). Recent land uses are associated with temporal and spatial shifts in land-use systems with polarization of land-use intensity, particularly on small/medium size islands (Tzanopoulos and Vogiatzakis 2011;Balzan et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
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Despite covering only 0.82% of the ocean’s surface, the Mediterranean Sea supports up to 18% of all known marine species, with 21% being listed as vulnerable and 11% as endangered. The acceler- ated spread of tropical non-indigenous species is leading to the “tropicalization” of Mediterranean fauna and flora as a result of warming and extreme heat waves since the 1990s. The acidification rate in the Mediterranean waters has ranged between 0.055 and 0.156 pH units since the pre-industrial period, affecting the marine trophic chain, from its primary producers (i.e., coccolithophores and fo- raminifera) to corals and coralline red algae. Projections for high emission scenarios show that endemic assemblages will be modified with numerous species becoming extinct in the mid 21st century and changes to the natural habitats of commercially valuable species, which would have many repercussions on marine ecosystem services such as tourism, fisheries, climate regulation, and ultimately on human health. Adaptation strategies to reduce environmental change impacts need effective mitigation policies and actions. They require anticipatory planning to enable them to tackle problems while they are still manageable. Given the diversity of each Mediterranean sub-basin, wider monitoring coverage is needed to strengthen our knowledge about the different adaptation processes that characterize and best suit each geographical zone. Adaptation implies the implementation of more sustainable fishing practices as well as reducing pollution from agricultural activity, sustainable tourism or developing more effective waste management. Marine protected areas can potentially have an insurance role if they are established in locations not particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification and climate change.
... Land use changes and associated impacts differ significantly depending on the size of the island and therefore demographics, as well as its popularity as tourist destination . Therefore, to date there is no consensus on the trends of changes since islands seems to respond/behave individualistically Harris 2012). Recent land uses are associated with temporal and spatial shifts in land-use systems with polarization of land-use intensity, particularly on small/medium size islands (Tzanopoulos and Vogiatzakis 2011;Balzan et al. 2018). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Mediterranean Ecosystem report on Climate and Global changes. Balzan MV, Hassoun AER, Aroua N, Baldy V, Bou Dagher M, Branquinho C, Dutay J-C, El Bour M, Médail F, Mojtahid M, Morán-Ordóñez A, Roggero PP, Rossi Heras S, Schatz B, Vogiatzakis IN, Zaimes GN, Ziveri P 2020 Ecosystems. In: Climate and Environmental Change in the Mediterranean Basin – Current Situation and Risks for the Future. First Mediterranean Assessment Report [Cramer W, Guiot J, Marini K (eds.)] Union for the Mediterranean, Plan Bleu, UNEP/MAP, Marseille, France, 151pp, in press
... Land use changes and associated impacts differ significantly depending on the size of the island and therefore demographics, as well as its popularity as tourist destination . Therefore, to date there is no consensus on the trends of changes since islands seems to respond/behave individualistically Harris 2012). Recent land uses are associated with temporal and spatial shifts in land-use systems with polarization of land-use intensity, particularly on small/medium size islands (Tzanopoulos and Vogiatzakis 2011;Balzan et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Marine ecosystems: Despite covering only 0.82% of the ocean’s surface, the Mediterranean Sea supports up to 18% of all known marine species, with 21% being listed as vulnerable and 11% as endangered. The accelerated spread of tropical non-indigenous species is leading to the “tropicalization” of Mediterranean fauna and flora as a result of warming and extreme heat waves since the 1990s. The acidification rate in the Mediterranean waters has ranged between 0.055 and 0.156 pH units since the pre-industrial period, affecting the marine trophic chain, from its primary producers (i.e., coccolithophores and foraminifera) to corals and coralline red algae. Projections for high emission scenarios show that endemic assemblages will be modified with numerous species becoming extinct in the mid 21st century and changes to the natural habitats of commercially valuable species, which would have many repercussions on marine ecosystem services such as tourism, fisheries, climate regulation, and ultimately on human health. Adaptation strategies to reduce environmental change impacts need effective mitigation policies and actions. They require anticipatory planning to enable them to tackle problems while they are still manageable. Given the diversity of each Mediterranean sub-basin, wider monitoring coverage is needed to strengthen our knowledge about the different adaptation processes that characterize and best suit each geographical zone. Adaptation implies the implementation of more sustainable fishing practices as well as reducing pollution from agricultural activity, sustainable tourism or developing more effective waste management. Marine protected areas can potentially have an insurance role if they are established in locations not particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification and climate change. Coastal ecosystems: The coastal zone, i.e. the area in which the interaction between marine systems and the land dominate ecological and resource systems, is a hotspot of risks, especially in the south-eastern Mediterranean region. Alterations to coastal ecosystems (lagoons, deltas, salt marshes, etc.) due to climate change and human activities affect the flow of nutrients to the sea, the magnitude, timing and composition of potentially harmful/toxic plankton blooms. They also significantly increase the number and frequency of jellyfish outbreaks, and could have negative impacts on fisheries. 1.2 to 5% of seagrass meadows in the Mediterranean Sea, which represent 5 to 17% of the worldwide seagrass habitat, are lost each year. Among them, almost half of the surveyed Posidonia oceanica sites have suffered net density losses of over 20% in 10 years. As for fish, non-indigenous species and climate change cause local extinction. Projected temperature increases combined with a decrease in nutrient replenishment and ocean acidification, are expected to cause changes in plankton communities, negative impacts on fish, corals, seagrass meadows and propagation of non-indigenous species. Projected sea level rise will impact coastal wetlands deltas and lagoons. Extensive urbanization added to climate change is also expected to threaten coastal ecosystems, human health and well-being. A nexus approach is required when trying to establish adaptation methods for the entire Mediterranean, while taking into account ecosystem-based management, synergies and conflicts, integrating local knowledge and institutions. Suitable adaptation policies include reducing pollution runoff, both from agriculture and industry and waste management, and policies to limit or prevent acidification. Conservation planning and management should focus on cross-cutting approaches and building resilience between structural and functional connectivities of various fields. Terrestrial ecosystems: Biodiversity changes in the Mediterranean over the past 40 years have occurred more quickly and been more significant than in other regions of the world. Urbanization and the loss of grasslands are key factors of ecosystem degradation across the region. Since 1990, agricultural abandonment has led to a general increase in forest areas in the northern Mediterranean, while in the southern Mediterranean, ecosystems are still at risk of fragmentation or disappearance due to human pressure from clearing and cultivation, overexploitation of firewood and overgrazing. Drylands have significant biodiversity value, with many of the plants and animals highly adapted to water-limited conditions. They are undergoing an overall increase in response to climate change and extensive land abandonment. 48% of Mediterranean wetlands were lost between 1970 and 2013, with 36% of wetland-dependent animals in the Mediterranean threatened with extinction. Because of the reduction in river flows, 40% of fish species in Mediterranean rivers are endangered. Projections for the 21st century indicate drier climate and increased human pressure, with negative impacts on terrestrial biodiversity, forest productivity, burned areas, freshwater ecosystems and agrosystems. Future projections indicate that burnt areas can increase across the region by up to 40% in a 1.5°C warming scenario and up to 100% from current levels for 3°C warming at the end of the century. Mediterranean drylands will become drier and their extent is expected to increase across the region. Projections suggest decreased hydrological connectivity, increased concentration of pollutants during droughts, changes in biological communities as a result of harsher environmental conditions, and a decrease in biological processes such as nutrient uptake, primary production, and decomposition. Promotion of ‘climate-wise connectivity’ through permeability of the landscape matrix, dispersal corridors and habitat networks are key to facilitating upward the migration of lowland species to mountains in order to adapt to new climate change conditions. Promotion of mixedspecies forest stands and sylvicultural practices such as thinning, and management of understory can promote the adaption of Mediterranean forests to climate change. Promotion of the spatial heterogeneity of the landscape matrix can help reduce fire impacts. The preservation of the natural flow variability of Mediterranean rivers and streams and wide riparian areas, along with reductions in water demand are key to the adaptation of freshwater ecosystems to future climate change.
... In the volcanic island of Cyprus, current landscapes and biodiversity patterns have been deeply impacted by human pressure, probably dating as far back as 10,500 BC (Harris, 2012;Zazzo et al., 2015). With present flora comprised mostly of alien plants rather than indigenous species, the island's ecosystems, particularly narrow-endemics, are facing profound changes (Kadis and Georghiou, 2010;M edail, 2017). ...
Article
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Fungi historically placed in the iconic genera of Boletus, Leccinum and Xerocomus have been the subject of major taxonomic revisions in recent years. Yet, despite all advancements in systematics, boletoid fungi in insular ecosystems remain little explored and our knowledge of their diversity, distribution and abundance in Mediterranean ecoregions is far from complete. To shed light on this blind spot, the findings of a ten-year study from the island of Cyprus were analysed, integrating phylogenetic, ecological, morphological , phenological and chorological data. An unexpected diversity of Boletaceae fungi is unveiled, with twenty-five species phylogenetically confirmed to be present on the island, thirteen of them previously unreported. Sequencing of the ITS rDNA region, reveals crypticism within the Butyriboletus fechtneri, Caloboletus radicans, Rubroboletus lupinus and Rheubarbariboletus armeniacus species-complexes and infrageneric relationships are discussed. A strong link between boletoid fungi and Mediterranean oaks of the ilicoid group (Quercus alnifolia, Quercus coccifera subsp. calliprinos) is illustrated, with nineteen species (76%) overall found to be strictly or broadly associated with evergreen oaks. In stark contrast, the semi-deciduous Quercus infectoria subsp. veneris appears to be an unfavorable host for boletoid fungi, with just a single associated species so far. Phenological and chorological records indicate that most species on the island are rare, highly localized and fruit during very brief spells several years apart, mainly in response to increased annual, late summer or early autumn precipitation. The conservation status of these high-profile fungi is hence discussed, particularly in view of alarming climate changes, forecasted to have a dramatic impact on Mediterranean ecosystems in the years to come.
... The Anthropocene forces students to reassess not only the role of tourism in global environmental change but also how we understand present day physical geographies, including those of MENA, given that much of the landscape and biodiversity has been strongly shaped by humans and now that even the very forces that help shape the landscape (Gössling & Hall 2006;Hall 2016), such as climate, are subject to anthropogenic change (see Hall,Chapter 16,this volume). The extreme diversity in space and time of both environments and human societies makes the structure and dynamics of coupled natural and human systems difficult to interpret (Harris 2012), especially when baseline conditions are difficult to assess (Tzedakis 2007). In the Middle East, the succession of peoples and societies that waxed and waned over several millennia has had great impacts on biota and ecosystems everywhere in the region (Blondel 2006;Grove & Rackham 2003). ...
Chapter
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The Routledge Handbook on Tourism in the Middle East and North Africa examines the importance of tourism as a historical, economic, social, environmental, religious and political force in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). It highlights the ecological and resource challenges related to water, desert environments, climate change and oil. It provides an in-depth analysis of the geopolitical conditions that have long determined the patterns of tourism demand and supply throughout the region and how these play out in the everyday lives of residents and destinations as they attempt to grow tourism or ignore it entirely. While cultural heritage remains the primary tourism asset for the region as a whole, many new types of tourisms are emerging, especially in the Arabian Gulf region, where hyper-development is closely associated with the increasingly prominent role of luxury real estate and shopping, retail, medical tourism, cruises and transit tourism. The growing phenomenon of an expatriate workforce, and how its segregation from the citizenry creates a dual socioeconomic system in several countries, is unmatched by other regions of the world. Many indigenous people of MENA keep themselves apart from other dominant groups in the region, although these social boundaries are becoming increasingly blurred as tourism, being one socioeconomic force for change, has inspired many nomadic peoples to settle into towns and villages and rely more on tourists for their livelihoods. All of these issues and more shape the foundations of this book. This Handbook is the first of its kind to examine tourism from a broad regional and inclusive perspective, surveying a broad range of social, cultural, heritage, ecological and political matters in a single volume. With a wide range of contributors, many of whom are natives of the Middle East and North Africa, this Handbook is a vital resource for students and scholars interested in Tourism, Middle East Studies and Geography. Dallen J. Timothy is Professor of Community Resources and Development and Senior Sustainability Scientist at Arizona State University. He also holds visiting professorships and research associateships in China, Spain and South Africa. His research interests include cultural heritage-based tourism, religious tourism, peripheral regions, heritage cuisines and geopolitics.
... In Mediterranean countries, goats have always been considered harmful for forest and silvopastoral areas (Harris, 2012;Lovreglio, Meddour-Sahar, & Leone, 2014). In the case of northern Morocco, Taiqui (1997) reported that different natural ecosystems are impoverished and destructed by overgrazing mainly by goats. ...
Article
In northern Morocco, forest and silvopastoral areas have always formed an integral part of goat feeding and consequently of extensive livestock systems. However, it was reported that these areas are now going through a gradual degradation mainly due to overgrazing, resulting in land use-land cover (LULC) changes. Doubts persist about actual goat grazing impacts on forest and silvopastoral cover changes. Detecting and understanding drivers of LULC changes has become a central component of current strategies for managing natural resources to implement appropriate development policies. The objectives of this study were to assess the forest and silvopastoral cover changes and transition among five major land cover classes that took place in the last three decades (1984–2014), to verify the hypothesis that goats act as a main driver of forest and silvopastoral degradation, and to explore the perception of stakeholders based on remote sensing data, field surveys, and overall statistics. Between 1984 and 2014, forest and silvopastoral areas declined by 25% (matorral included). Farmers and local institutions all agreed that drought, fire, soil erosion, and population growth are the most striking drivers of forest and silvopastoral decreases. One being utilitarian and the other protectionist, they have conflicting perceptions about the effect of agricultural expansion, authority policy, deforestation, and overgrazing. The forest cover change is impacted by interaction among different change drivers. The levels of forest degradation depend on the intensity of this interaction. The outcomes confirm the alarming decrease in the amount of forest and silvopastoral cover. These results can be used as the first guide for future studies and decisionmakers, focusing on the real drivers of forest and silvopastoral degradation, so as to develop targeted intervention to secure sustainable and sufficient resources needed for animal and population well-being.
... Relationships among many factors are likely to exist in any region, but the relationships will be dynamic and will differ among regions (Adams et al., 2004;Wang et al., 2008). In the modern contexts of climate change, environmental degradation, and increasingly fragile ecosystems, environmental management will require more flexible solutions than traditional programs that focused on only one component of the problem, such as afforestation (Harris, 2012). To achieve this flexibility, it is first necessary to thoroughly understand the interactions between climate change, ecosystems, and human activities. ...
Article
Land degradation results from the interactions among multiple climate and human factors. Solving the problem requires a holistic strategy that deals with all significant factors simultaneously. However, it is difficult to solve such problems because few researchers have studied the simultaneous effects of these interactions, making it difficult to develop a truly holistic strategy. To help land managers find such a strategy, we have proposed and tested a new approach for ecological restoration in which we calculated the simultaneous contributions of multiple factors during vegetation cover change in Yan'an City, Shaanxi Province, China, from 2000 to 2016. After implementing the new approach, the vegetation cover increased by 35.7% during the study period, which is 2.3 times the rate in the rest of Shaanxi Province, where only the national Grain for Green program was implemented. The new approach accounted for 74.0% of the increased vegetation cover in the first year, and comparable values in the second and third years. Our results provide important information to guide sustainable development in China, and our approach can be adapted for use in other nations that are facing similar problems.
... Notes: Significance levels: ** 1%, * 5%. ecosystems, environmental management will require more flexible solutions than traditional measures that focused on only the ecological components of the problem (Harris, 2012). To achieve this flexibility, the present results show that it's first necessary to identify the key factors, both natural and human, that are driving ecosystem change. ...
... https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108355780.006 1 7 0 'degradation' narratives, by referring to the long transformation of landscapes by humans and domesticated animals (e.g. Fairhead & Leach 1996 ;Rackham 1996 ;McCann 1999 ;Vera 2000 ;Willis, Gillson, & Brncic 2004 ;Josefsson et al. 2010 ;Harris 2012 ;Ellis et al. 2013 ). ...
... Nevertheless, we must be cautious with the apparent desertification of the Mediterranean environments on larger islands. As demonstrated for the assessment of the natural environment in Cyprus between 1878 and 1960 (Harris 2012), the 'classic degradation thesis of deforestation' is often a simplified story of presumed desertification in order to justify the environmental policies of colonial authorities or centralized governments. ...
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The numerous Mediterranean islands (>10,000) are very important from a biodiversity point of view, both in term of plant species (numerous endemics, presence of ‘climate relicts’) and of ecosystems’ assemblage. These patterns can be explained by complex interactions between a highly heterogeneous historical biogeography and ecological processes related to diverse island conditions. Furthermore, most of the ups and downs of this biodiversity were closely linked with human pressures which have changed many times through the long socio-ecological history of these island landscapes since the Neolithic period. At present, insular plant biodiversity and rural landscapes are threatened by diverse global environmental changes related to urbanization, habitat fragmentation, unsustainable tourism and other practices (e.g. overgrazing, forest fires), and by other more recent drivers such as climate warming and aridification, sea-level rise and biological invasions. Some of these impacts will be exacerbated on islands because of no (or highly limited) adjacent areas of expansion, notably on the smallest ones (i.e. size < ca. 1000 ha). With regards to the biome crisis facing the Mediterranean basin and induced by human activities, islands constitute key ecological systems and ‘current refugia’ to ensure the long-term preservation of coastal plant biodiversity. They also represent fascinating ecological systems to disentangle the role of environmental versus human pressures on spatially simplified communities of the Mediterranean coastal areas. Future detailed studies of these ‘natural island microcosms’ could greatly improve our knowledge of the functional and evolutionary processes induced by rapid environmental changes in this region.
... 20 Harris 2012van Andel et al. 1990. 21 Dearing et al. 2010;Harris 2012. 22 Dotterweich 2013 negative feedback mechanisms. ...
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Results are presented on the co-evolution of agropastoralism and soils in the western Pyrenees Mountains (>800 masl) over the course of the Holocene conducted in the ethnically Basque commune of Larrau, France. Larrau presents a unique opportunity to examine the structural legacies and biotic factor in soil evolution across millennia. Multi-proxy evidence from geoarchives, archaeology, history and ethnography is analyzed to evaluate the relation between land management practices, soil characteristics and chronostratigraphy in the study area. Research indicates that the landscape of Larrau has been subject to intense human transformation through agropastoral use since at least the early Bronze age, yet there are no signs of significant degradation of the soil mantle. The place-based approach followed in this research provides the means for evaluating modal human behaviors and decisionmaking within a complex adaptive system. It details how the present is connected to the past and how contemporary land systems can contribute to a sustainable future. Nel corso della ricerca effettuata nel comune etnicamente basco di Larrau (Francia) abbiamo indagato tracce multi-proxy per esaminare le forme di domesticazione dei paesaggi montani (> 800 m slm) dei Pirenei occidentali, nel corso dell’Olocene. I nostri dati suggeriscono che in quest’area le foreste originarie sono state trasformate in pascoli diverse migliaia di anni fa, senza che questo abbia comportato un degrado significativo del paesaggio e dei suoli. Il patrimonio dei paesaggi agropastorali di Larrau offre una rara opportunità per esaminare un doppio sistema in lento cambiamento, nel quale, attraverso millenni, le attività di gestione umana hanno strutturato un paesaggio scenografico, creando un sistema di produzione agropastorale resiliente e durevole, e hanno reindirizzato i sottostanti percorsi e meccanismi di pedogenesi. Se i sistemi terrestri contemporanei mirano a raggiungere un desiderabile futuro sostenibile, la situazione attuale deve essere continuamente e fortemente collegata al suo passato.
... This has been particularly marked in Sardinia (Italy) (Beccu, 2000) and in Portugal where, during the twentieth century, fire has been used to protest against the afforestation of common lands by a dictatorial government (Devy-Vareta, 1993). Recurrent rural incendiarism is also documented (Harris, 2012) in the island of Cyprus during the period of British governorate and successively Crown Colony (1878e1960). Violent destruction of forests with fire was very frequent and well known in periods of social and political turbulence (Armiero and Palmieri, 2002). ...
Chapter
Forest fires (term used in Europe to designate the unwanted fires burning forests and wild lands) constitute a serious problem for Europe. Frequently, Thought of almost exclusively as a problem for France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, this chapter introduces how fire is now a hazard that affects most of the European countries. Although, a sharp gradient exists from the South to the North, in terms of fire regime (e.g., contributing and causing factors, fire frequency and area burned, fire behavior), the problem is common; no country seems exempt. The chapter discusses how contemporary forest fire risk can only be understood from a historical perspective and how this risk is growing exponentially as a result of high and increasing population density and a creeping urban sprawl that is increasing the extent and complexity of the wildland urban interface. This chapter also discusses how significant changes in land-use patterns are conflicting with historical land use practices are affecting the sustainable socioeconomic development in Europe. The impact of changes in critical climatic and weather conditions, such as during recurring heat waves and droughts, is discussed, as is their implications for reconciling social and economic development, environmental concerns, and living with forest fires in a sustainable and dynamic equilibrium in a European context.
... Therefore, one important improvement to China's current approach will be to give local managers more freedom to adapt centrally mandated environmental conservation programs to account for local conditions; in short, the success of the program is more important than how that success is achieved. Concerns about global warming, the degradation of fragile ecosystems, and the risks of environmental or socioeconomic collapse have led to increased interest in adopting more flexible solutions to environmental issues (Harris, 2012). However, the impact of climate change is a particular concern because it poses challenges that will be difficult to solve given human behavior (the tendency to resist uncomfortable changes) and environmental policy (institutional resistance to change), as well as the difficulty of predicting details of the effects of climate change. ...
Article
Global environmental problems have significant natural and socioeconomic consequences. However, the consequences are often evaluated independently by ecologists and social scientists. In an effort to integrate the consequences of the two types of problem during ecological restoration and thereby improve future development of environmental policy, we used regression analysis and remote sensing to calculate the relative contributions of human activities, climate change, and socioeconomic development to land use and cover change during China's huge investments in ecological restoration since the 1980s. We performed this analysis both for China as a whole, and for eight regions with distinctive ecological and social characteristics. We found that China's fast socioeconomic development and decreasing rural population were dominant factors in ecological restoration, whereas direct human intervention was a paradoxical factor that did not always lead to recovery. However, the changes in vegetation cover and the dominant causal factors differed among the regions of China as a result of differences in local conditions. Because of the complexity of ecosystem restoration, a region-specific strategy based on integrating ecological and socioeconomic factors should be developed. In particular, we urge caution when considering single, monolithic approaches (such as the afforestation that is currently the main approach) because these approaches ignore the local limits imposed by ecological factors such as climate and soils and human factors such as socioeconomic characteristics; such approaches can be dangerous if they neglect key social or natural factors.
... This has been particularly marked in Sardinia (Italy) (Beccu, 2000) and in Portugal where, during the twentieth century, fire has been used to protest against the afforestation of common lands by a dictatorial government (Devy-Vareta, 1993). Recurrent rural incendiarism is also documented (Harris, 2012) in the island of Cyprus during the period of British governorate and successively Crown Colony (1878e1960). Violent destruction of forests with fire was very frequent and well known in periods of social and political turbulence (Armiero and Palmieri, 2002). ...
Chapter
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Forest fires (term used in Europe to designate the unwanted fires burning forests and wild lands) constitute a serious problem for Europe. Frequently, Thought of almost exclusively as a problem for France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, this chapter introduces how fire is now a hazard that affects most of the European countries. Although, a sharp gradient exists from the South to the North, in terms of fire regime (e.g., contributing and causing factors, fire frequency and area burned, fire behavior), the problem is common; no country seems exempt. The chapter discusses how contemporary forest fire risk can only be understood from a historical perspective and how this risk is growing exponentially as a result of high and increasing population density and a creeping urban sprawl that is increasing the extent and complexity of the wildland urban interface. This chapter also discusses how significant changes in land-use patterns are conflicting with historical land use practices are affecting the sustainable socioeconomic development in Europe. The impact of changes in critical climatic and weather conditions, such as during recurring heat waves and droughts, is discussed, as is their implications for reconciling social and economic development, environmental concerns, and living with forest fires in a sustainable and dynamic equilibrium in a European context.
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Forest rangelands are an important component of extensive goat production in the Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to survey the floristic composition, lifespan, life forms, phytogeographic relationships, palatability degree, and forage availability of forest rangelands in Northern Morocco. To achieve this goal, a plant species inventory was carried out, and a digital herbarium was constructed. Forage availability was estimated using the quadrat method. According to the results, 358 taxa were recorded with 228 genera and 66 families. The flora is mainly dominated by Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Lamiaceae families. Six principal life forms of plants were recognized with the predominance of therophytes (48.3%). The Mediterranean floristic category was the most dominant in the flora (73.7%) with 264 species. The palatability degree was studied for 95 taxa, known by herders. The palatable plant group was highly represented with 32 species. Of these identified taxa, 93% were evaluated as potential sources of forage for grazing animals. The forage availability depended considerably on the season and the existing plant species (p < 0.01). The spring recorded the higher value with 3143 kg DM/ha. In conclusion, forest rangelands have a high biodiversity, which they need for rigorous protection to preserve their floristic composition and diversity.
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This chapter examines agro-food relations in Cyprus in the 1940s. Its starting point is the 1946 colonial propaganda documentary Cyprus is an Island. Scripted by the English writer Laurie Lee, the film’s discursive strategies work to obscure or symbolically contain the ecological fallout from the violent rationalization of Cyprus’s agricultural system. Reading the film alongside Lee’s journal of the film-making process, it shows how, by documenting things that fall outside the camera’s field of vision, the journal provides a purview that frequently runs counter to or complicates an understanding of the principle aims of the colonial administration. In particular, Lee’s text provides a fuller acknowledgement of the politics of anti-colonialism and a deeper engagement with the working lives of women on the island.
Article
With about 11,100 islands and islets of which ca. 250 are regularly inhabited by human, the Mediterranean Sea represents one of the regions of the world with the most islands and archipelagos. These numerous islands represent a significant component of the Mediterranean biodiversity, notably with the presence of range-restricted species and peculiar vegetation types. The aim of this review is to provide a balanced view of this highly diverse phytoecological heritage, but also taking into account the medium sized islands and the smaller ones that have not been highlighted so far. Mediterranean islands constitute both a museum for ancient lineages (paleoendemic taxa) and cradle for recent plant diversification. The complex historical biogeography (paleogeographical events of the Neogene, Messinian salinity crisis, climatic and eustatic changes of the Pleistocene, influence of glacial events) has profoundly influenced the current patterns of plant diversity. These insular landscapes were also precociously impacted by prehistoric man, possibly by Neanderthals. Among the 157 large Mediterranean islands (i.e. with a surface area exceeding 10 km2), 49 have a surface greater than 100 km2. The main patterns and dynamics of vegetation on the largests islands (Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Croatian islands, Greek islands, Crete, Cyprus) are summarized. Then, the specific ecosystem functioning (disturbance, plant-animal interactions) and vegetation structures of the small Mediterranean islands (i.e. a surface area less than 10 km2 or 1000 ha), are highlighted by evoking successively the small rocky islands, the volcanic ones, and the sandy and flat islands. Owing to their uniqueness and fragility, Mediterranean islands urgently need some integrated and ambitious conservation planning, aiming at the long-term preservation of their outstanding biotic and cultural heritage.
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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was founded in 1988 to provide governments with policy-relevant assessments of climate science as well as options for adaptation and mitigation. It is now recognized as providing the leading global compilation of climate science, adaptation, and mitigation research. The volunteer scientists who write these reports have carried out five complete assessment cycles, with the sixth cycle to be completed in 2022. Here, we review how information from and about archaeology and other forms of cultural heritage has been incorporated into these reports to date. Although this review shows that archaeology has not been wholly absent from work of the IPCC, we suggest that archaeology has more to offer the IPCC and global climate response. We propose five ways to more fully engage both archaeologists and knowledge from and about the human past in IPCC assessments and reports.
Article
The British took over administrative control of Cyprus in 1878 and three years later all uncultivated land was converted into State Forest. The removal of people from the forest over the following 60 years had long term social impacts—clearance is manifest in the absence of a connection and knowledge of the forest and its past inhabitants. This paper explores how clearance is resisted in rural Cyprus through the practice and performance of heritage. It is derived from the community-engaged Pathways to Heritage Project that sought to understand the places and practices of significance to the village of Nikitari located on the outskirts of the Adelphi State Forest, Cyprus. I focus on two stories of resistance. Elder Panayiotis Alexandrou Loppas grew up in the forest and spent his life resisting clearance through visiting his places of significance and performing memory. He reworks the past in order that he and his ancestors are remembered into the future. Teachers and pupils of the Asinou Regional Primary School chose the abandoned village of Asinou as the anchor for a new school identity. Their research transformed this forgotten place into a heritage site while setting the foundations for a new regional identity.
Chapter
Continuing from Chap. 7, this chapter applies one method—the resilience matrix—to a selection of cases ranging from energy grids to psychological resilience to electrical engineering. As noted in Chap. 6, the resilience matrix can utilize either qualitative or quantitative input to inform decision-making, making it flexible and adaptable to user needs. Each case below includes a general overview of how resilience might be applied to a given case area, and then continues on to include a real-world, real-data case demonstration through a resilience matrix.
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Este artículo resalta la necesidad de involucrar a la historia en la construcción de estrategias adaptativas para el presente y el futuro. También presenta un balance sobre algunas de las reflexiones sobre la adaptación frente al cambio climático en perspectiva histórica, principalmente desde el mundo anglosajón, pero con trabajos pioneros para América Latina. El texto invita a ir más allá de las historias de coyunturas y fracasos, para reconstruir visiones de mediano y largo plazo sobre la relación clima-sociedad, que incluyan los casos en los cuales el resultado no fue fatídico. Por último, señala algunas tareas y metodologías que los historiadores ambientales latinoamericanos pueden incluir en sus agendas investigativas. Abstract This article highlights how important is the participation of history in the design of adaptive strategies for the present and future. Also, it does a balance about some reflections on adaptation to climate change in historical perspective, mainly from the Anglo-Saxon academic world, but with some exceptions from Latin America. The article is an invitation to go beyond the stories of conjuncture and failures, to reconstruct medium and long-term visions about the relationship between climate and society, which include the cases in which the result was not fateful. Finally, it indicates some tasks and methodologies for research agendas of environmental historians in Latin America.
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This study examines the urban dimensions of Famagusta’s continuing conservation and development. In this report, analysis of current issues is followed by a series of recommendations. The principal finding calls for the implementation of a conservation and development framework to ensure the integrity and vibrancy of the Walled City, which will very likely be buffeted by dramatic political and economic change if, or when, the Cyprus stalemate is resolved in the future. Famagusta developed as a cultural and trading center over centuries of contact between Islamic and European peoples (see “History and Evolution of the Walled City,” page 12). Periods of Venetian, Ottoman, and British control made particularly lasting impacts on Famagusta’s architecture and urban form, all quite easily interpreted in the contemporary landscape. The well-defined Walled City remains today, having survived the sixteenth century Ottoman siege, British colonial rule, intercommunal armed conflict in the late twentieth century, and myriad other challenges and fallow periods. Lately, the Walled City has suffered from abandonment and deterioration resulting from a number of factors, including the political stalemate that followed the political conflicts after 1963, the 1974 de facto division of the island, and subsequent economic and development dynamics that have isolated northern Cyprus and Famagusta in particular. Notwithstanding a tumultuous history, Famagusta is today a richly layered historic urban place of extraordinary cultural and architectural value. The urban fabric of streets, blocks, and squares possesses a fair level of integrity and reflects several periods of development—architectural fabric has, on the whole, seen many modern alterations and additions. Of the town’s several religious buildings of great scale and distinction, some are in ruins. The walls, fortifications, and moats are in remarkably good condition and frame the town’s overall integrity. Within the walls, a remarkable collection of religious and vernacular buildings remains in varied states of repair—some of them in ruins, some inhabited, a few already the object of serious conservation efforts. The fate of individual historic resources, though, relies in significant measure on the fate of the entire historic town. Development trends outside and inside the wall (i.e. unplanned growth outside the Walled City, stasis and deterioration within the walls) threaten the viability of the entire urban fabric, and by extension Famagusta’s individual landmarks, raising the need for solutions to the urban conservation challenges addressed in this report.
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Associated with the emergence since the 1970s of an environmental consciousness and activism among the middle classes of Western Europe and North America, environmental history has been constituted as an academic field of the “core” not only institutionally but also epistemologically. For it was mainly the historical experiences of the so-called developed world, with the industrialization as central process, that laid the theoretical ground and shaped the agenda of the field. But what about environmental history writing in the “periphery”? Based on the Greek example, this paper examines the impact of specific socio-economic, political and historical realities and of the epistemological traditions on the ways historians deal with the environment. While “nature” and its derivatives has served both as one of the main categories of perceiving Greece and the Greeks in Europe since the eighteenth century and as a means of self-promotion in the world tourism market, the environment has rarely been the focus of historiographic reflection and research in Greece. Recently, and especially after the outbreak of the financial crisis in Greece, this situation seems to be changing. The rapid privatization of natural resources has provoked protests that rendered the environment and the concepts of the “commons” and the “public” into central notions of a political vocabulary and turned some scholars’ attention to environmental history. The paper presents some first samples of this new research activity and discusses the methodological and theoretical issues that a Greek environmental history is confronted with. Inscribed in the broader Mediterranean context, Greek environmental history is marked by the bipolar way in which the environmental history of the wider Mediterranean region has been conceived, namely either as a history of degradation and disaster, or as a history of continuity. Both disaster and continuity serve as keys for understanding environmental, economic, social, political and cultural phenomena in the region. In this prospect, environmental degradation or/and continuity, economic and technological backwardness, social and cultural primitivism are seen as interrelated versions of a Mediterranean essence. On the other hand, the strong impression of the modernization schema in the Greek and overall Mediterranean historiography reduces the environmental history to a search for differences and divergences from an “ideal type”, namely to a history of absences and negativities. Finally, using as case of study the Greek forests during the Ottoman era (fifteenth – nineteenth century) the paper attempts to offer an alternative reading of the environmental history of the area that rejects the disaster narrative and, instead of the idea of continuity, it promotes the study of the various adaptions to the environmental challenges of the region. In this perspective, the environmental history of the “periphery” is not conceived as “what it’s not” in comparison to the environmental history of Western Europe and North America, but as a paradigm that could enrich or question some of the fundamental assumptions of the discipline.
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Historical collapse of ancient states or civilizations has raised new awareness about its possible relevance to current issues of sustainability, in the context of global change. This Special Feature examines 12 case studies of societies under stress, of which seven suffered severe transformation. Outcomes were complex and unpredictable. Five others overcame breakdown through environmental, political, or socio-cultural resilience, which deserves as much attention as the identification of stressors. Response to environmental crises of the last millennium varied greatly according to place and time but drew from traditional knowledge to evaluate new information or experiment with increasing flexibility, even if modernization or intensification were decentralized and protracted. Longer-term diachronic experience offers insight into how societies have dealt with acute stress, a more instructive perspective for the future than is offered by apocalyptic scenarios.
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Over the last three decades, Mediterranean survey projects have established a broadly agreed methodology, a wide awareness of the invaluable contribution made by intensive survey, and a wealth of data from across the region. Where they have made less progress is in the interpretation of artefact density figures and other findings to go beyond the dots on the map and gain insights into past human lives, the complexity of past landscapes, and the relationship between people and the environment. The key to this is engaging with theories that connect humans and non-humans. In this article I use the term commotion to suggest the constant and continually changing lines of mobility and interaction that constitute the landscape. Collaboration is the ongoing creation and transformation of place through the elaborately intertwined work of people, animals, plants, soils, water, weather, rocks and landforms. Conviviality stands for the life-giving creativity and transformation that is constantly proliferating from the intricate association and interaction with other beings, both human and non-human. My examples come from the Troodos Archaeological and Environmental Survey Project, an interdisciplinary and multi-period project carried out on the northern edge of the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus. © The Fund for Mediterranean Archaeology/Equinox Publishing Ltd., 2013.
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This chapter assesses recent literature on the opportunities that create enabling conditions for adaptation as well as the ancillary benefits that may arise from adaptive responses. It also assesses the literature on biophysical and socioeconomic constraints on adaptation and the potential for such constraints to pose limits to adaptation. Given the available evidence of observed and anticipated limits to adaptation, the chapter also discusses the ethical implications of adaptation limits and the literature on system transformational adaptation as a response to adaptation limits.
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https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Karl_Butzer/publication/269112331_PNAS-ButzerEndfield/links/5481f0270cf25dbd59e914b6.pdf?origin=publication_detail
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Fuel treatments aimed at reducing both horizontal and vertical continuity in fuels are of paramount importance as a prevention measure against fire propagation. Possible techniques include pruning, thinning (mainly low thinning), mastication, prescribed burning, and prescribed (or targeted) grazing. Their main target is crown fire avoidance by treating surface fuels and promoting low density and vertically discontinuous stands, thus eliminating fuel ladders. Grazing is an effective, nearly carbon-neutral weed control technique which is cost-effective, nontoxic, and nonpolluting. Goat grazing is a very interesting solution: if confined by a metallic or electrified fence within a restricted pen, with a rather high density, goats browse the available foliage and twigs from all woody plants as well as all herbaceous vegetation. They can feed on a variety of shrubs, some of which are useless for other domestic species, and are therefore the best adapted for the consumption of all the Mediterranean shrubs which represent the fuel ladder. The appropriate choice of season of grazing, type of plant species and type and amount of biomass to be eliminated, livestock density, social structure of the herd, grazing time per day, type of fencing, and size of pens define the prescribed grazing system.
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This essay demonstrates how key concepts from ecology can be applied within historical analyses in order to gain insights regarding contemporary environmental change. We employ a coupled human and natural systems conceptual framework in a nascent historical analysis of rapid societal and environmental change in colonial New England, where European colonization led to stark and rapid transformations. Introduced diseases reduced indigenous communities to a fraction of their pre-contact levels. European agriculture and associated pest species, deforestation and overharvest of ecologically influential species were among key aspects of the rapid changes in colonial New England. Cross-continental biotic introductions initiated reinforcing feedback loops that accelerated the transition of human and natural systems into novel states. Integrating colonial history and ecology can help identify important interactions between human and natural systems useful for contemporary societies adjusting to environmental change.
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The ISAAC (the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) questionnaire has been used to standardize research on the prevalence of asthma in children since 1991. In this Phase I study, the prevalence of asthma, other allergic diseases and atopy was evaluated in North Cyprus. The ISAAC questionnaire was distributed to grades I-V schoolchildren. Data were obtained from parents of 580 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 12 years attending a primary school in Nicosia, the capital of North Cyprus. Of those, a sub-group of 97 (16.7%) randomly selected children were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT) and lung function test (LFT). The prevalence rates of asthma ever, current wheezing and SPT-positivity were 20.8%, 10% and 68%, respectively. The prevalence of atopy was significantly higher in the randomly selected subgroup of 97 (68%) patients subjected to SPT and LFT, and the house dust mite (HDM) was the allergen to which children were most frequently sensitized. In northern Cyprus, the prevalence rates of asthma, allergic diseases and atopic sensitization in 7-12-year-old children are extremely high. Sensitization to HDM is a risk factor for the development of asthma.
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The first book to integrate fully the archaeological study of the landscape with the concerns of colonial and postcolonial history, theory and scholarship, The Archaeology of the Colonized focuses on the experience of the colonized in their landscape setting, looking at case studies from areas of the world not often considered in the postcolonial debate. It offers original, exciting approaches to the growing area of research in archaeology and colonialism. From the pyramids of Old Kingdom Egypt to illicit whisky distilling in nineteenth-century Scotland, and from the Roman roads of Turkey to the threshing floors of Cyprus under British colonial rule, the case studies assist Dr. Given as he uses the archaeological evidence to create a vivid picture of how the lives and identities of farmers, artisans and labourers were affected by colonial systems of oppressive taxation, bureaucracy, forced labour and ideological control. This will be valuable to students, scholars or professionals investigating the relationship between local community and central control in a wide range of historical and archaeological contexts.
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An important component of the administration and control of a colony by an external power is the demarcation and classification of the land and its people. This was certainly the case in Cyprus under British colonial rule (1878–1960), as three case studies demonstrate: the topographical survey of the island by H. H. Kitchener in 1878–83; the cadastral survey of 1909–29; and the work of the Forest Delimitation Commission from 1881 to 1896. This was not achieved without resistance on a variety of levels. Ironically, part of the opposition came from the structure of the colonial demarcation and classification project itself.
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Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons model predicts the eventual overexploitation or degradation of all resources used in common. Given this unambiguous prediction, a surprising number of cases exist in which users have been able to restrict access to the resource and establish rules among themselves for its sustainable use. To assess the evidence, we first define common-property resources and present a taxonomy of property-rights regimes in which such resources may be held. Evidence accumulated over the last twenty-two years indicates that private, state, andcommunal property are all potentially viable resource management options. A more complete theory than Hardin's should incorporate institutional arrangements and cultural factors to provide for better analysis and prediction.
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This book argues that two conflicting styles of nationalist imagination led to the violent rending of Cyprus in 1974 and sustained that division over decades. Based on research in both southern and northern Cyprus, the work demonstrates how the conflict emerged through the Cypriot's encounters with modernity under British colonialism, and through a consequent re-imagining of the body politic in a new world in which Cypriots were defined as part of a European periphery. Rebecca Bryant demonstrates how Muslims and Christians were transformed into Turks and Greeks, and what it meant epistemologically, ontollogically and politically when they were.
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The recent Columbian polemic contrasted beneficial New World land use before 1492 with destructive Old World land management. Since archaeologists are uniquely equipped to document and model long-term settlement and land-use histories, there is both challenge and opportunity to empirically examine the ecological impact of particular agrosystems within long time frames. This paper examines the risk-minimization and ecological fine-tuning of the Mediterranean agrosystem, and its long-term ecological performance. The Mediterranean ecosystem is the product of millennia of co-evolution between the environment and human activities, but traditional land use has been conservative and ecologically adaptive, despite sporadic disequilibrium. The deviations from the norm pose a number of testable hypotheses for further examination, not only in the Mediterranean region but also in other areas such as the New World.
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One of the major challenges facing intensive surface survey, even after some 30 years of development, is how to interpret surface artefact scatters in terms of past human activities and relationships. How can we combine the wealth of systematically collected survey data with the interpretative sophistication of contemporary landscape theory? This study uses web-based GIS and database technologies to provide a complete landscape data set and a fully integrated interpretative text carefully grounded in current landscape theory. The material comes from the Troodos Archaeological and Environmental Survey Project, which carried out intensive survey in the northern foothills of the Troodos Mountains in central Cyprus between 2000 and 2004. This survey covered all periods from the Neolithic to the present day, a wide range of topographical and environmental contexts, and a broad spectrum of disciplinary and interdisciplinary expertise. In this study we focus on some core themes, particularly the relationship between farming and mining, the control of production, and the spatial differentiation of human activity across the landscape. By interpreting the material traces of routine practices such as labour and subsistence, we attempt to reconstruct social landscapes of the past. http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue20/taesp_index.html
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Detailed investigation of the alluvial deposits in the Lower Vasilikos Valley, in the vicinity of Kalavasos, Cyprus, has revealed a clearly defined sequence of terraces and fills. Four alluvial terraces are present in the Lower Vasilikos Valley, at heights of approximately 10 m, 25 m and 80 m above the bedrock floor of the valley. This sequence of terraces corresponds with the alluvial terraces of the Mesaoria Plain and the Kyrenia Range which were described previously by Ducloz (1965 and 1972). The sequence of fills in the Lower Vasilikos Valley broadly corresponds with that of the Older and Younger Fills which have been observed to be present in other parts of the Mediterranean Basin (Vita-Finzi, 1969). However, the Younger Fill in the Lower Vasilikos Valley differs from the deposits which were described by Vita-Finzi (1969) in two ways. First, it is composed of two (not one) distinct units, a coarse (channel zone) and a finer (floodplain) deposit. Secondly, radio-carbon dating suggests that overbank sedimentation in the Lower Vasilikos Valley was under way by Aceramic Neolithic times (c. 5800-5250 BC). This date is considerably in advance of any that have been advocated previously for the onset of this phase of alluviation in other parts of the Mediterranean Basin.
Article
The presence of Medieval and more recent fluvial deposits in the eastern Mediterranean has important implications for archaeological field survey and for understanding settlement patterns. They may help to explain, for example, why valley floors and terraces are devoid of any sites older than a few centuries. An extensive presence of Medieval and more recent fluvial deposits has been uncovered in western Cyprus as well as in other parts of the Mediterranean. Possible causes are investigated by correlating 'synchronous' variables in the landscape that might have had some impact on the fluvial system. Fluvial deposits tentatively dated to the Byzantine period could be a result of the drier conditions. Some deposits, however, suggest anthropogenic influence as well. The widespread river deposition on Cyprus during the Frankish Period was probably caused by wetter conditions, which increased the frequency of overbank flooding. Moreover, increased agricultural production and mining and smelting activities might have triggered erosion and subsequent deposition in the river valleys as indicated at some localities. Fluvial deposition during the Ottoman Period may be correlated with typical 'Little Ice Age' climatic conditions. © The Fund for Mediterranean Archaeology/Equinox Publishing Ltd., 2005.
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Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness in the Andean Peasant World, 18th to 20th Centuries. Steve J. Stern. (ed.). Madison and London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987. xvii. 446 pp., maps. $15.00 (paper). ISBN 0-299-11354-X.
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Journal of Modern Greek Studies 16.1 (1998) 161-162 Over the years, the Cyprus Research Center in Nicosia has produced some notable studies on the history of Cyprus, including the monumental works by G. S. Georgallides and Theodore Papadopoullos. The volume by the young Cypriot scholar Rolandos Katsiaounis, number 24 in the Center's series, follows in that tradition. The book is based on the author's doctoral dissertation at the Department of Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies at King's College London. An important addition to the historiography of Cyprus from the latter years of the Ottoman era to the turn of this century, it should be of interest not only to historians but also to anyone interested in the social, economic, and political development of the island in this critical period. The volume is unique because it analyzes the lives and actions of the common people of Cyprus, viewing labor as an essential part of the economic, institutional, and ideological structure of Cypriot society. Instead of focusing on the role of traditional political elites, the author examines neglected aspects of the island's political, social, and economic development and shows how the poor Cypriot laboring masses channeled their resentment against the ruling elite and found their way into the nationalist discourse of the early twentieth century. The contribution of this volume to Cypriot historiography is that it places historical developments in the context of the fundamental social divide of this period. Moreover, the volume provides important critical insights into the role of the Church of Cyprus in the economic, political, and social development of the island, a role that is often glorified in the traditional, generalized treatments of Cypriot history. Researching this book was clearly a challenge owing to the lack of readily available material on the laboring poor. Most of the material came from various archives, documents, consular papers, memoirs, etc. The book contains a very useful bibliography of primary and secondary sources. Dr. Katsiaounis's remarkable volume should be included in any respectable collection on Cyprus, for it is a book that must be read carefully by all those interested in Cyprus. Although it is understandable why high politics dominate the contemporary literature on Cyprus, it is refreshing to have a volume of this quality and insightfulness. The author challenges traditional interpretations of Cypriot history and provides a new understanding of political and social trends that set in motion the forces that still affect the life of this small but important island republic. Van CoufoudakisIndiana University-Purdue University, Fort Wayne .
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The governance of natural resources used by many individuals in common is an issue of increasing concern to policy analysts. Both state control and privatization of resources have been advocated, but neither the state nor the market have been uniformly successful in solving common pool resource problems. After critiquing the foundations of policy analysis as applied to natural resources, Elinor Ostrom here provides a unique body of empirical data to explore conditions under which common pool resource problems have been satisfactorily or unsatisfactorily solved. Dr Ostrom uses institutional analysis to explore different ways - both successful and unsuccessful - of governing the commons. In contrast to the proposition of the 'tragedy of the commons' argument, common pool problems sometimes are solved by voluntary organizations rather than by a coercive state. Among the cases considered are communal tenure in meadows and forests, irrigation communities and other water rights, and fisheries.
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Mediterranean vegetation is increasingly subject to high summer temperatures. Scrubland grazing by the omnivorous goat could reduce the risk of widespread fires. But goat populations have been controlled by bans and restrictions for many centuries. The political, economic and
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This article explores the criticisms levelled by the satirical illustrated newspaperPunch at the Beaconsfield Government' decision to occupy Cyprus in July 1878. The Government's public response to these in the media and Parliament will be analysed through the iconography of cartoons, poems and satirical commentaries and placed in their historical context. While historians have tended to use the cartoons as light-hearted comic relief and the poems and commentaries not at all, such material has real substance. The peculiar acquisition of Cyprus by the Beaconsfield Government excited passions, both euphoric and reproachful, in British political and newspaper circles. In order to determine the extent to which Punch's arguments were accurate, this article compares the actual policies with the views of the Beaconsfield Government and with those of Punch.
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The transfer of cattle and sheep from Spain to Mexico during the sixteenth century raises questions about regional evolution and variability of livestock economies in the source area, the regional and socioeconomic roots of the emigrants, and the ecological and economic integration of specific animals, management methods, and related products within New Spain. Such issues of diffusion, cultural adaptation and transformation must be disentangled before interpretation is attempted, and this paper focuses on the Old World antecedents. Traditional nineteenth-century patterns of livestock herding in different regions of the Iberian Peninsula were already established in Roman times and changed but little during the Islamic period. Long-distance sheep transhumance is verified prior to the Christian reconquest and was greatly amplified thereafter. Yet late Medieval Spain was not a great ranching frontier, but an agrosystem in which farming and livestock raising always formed a complementary but interlinked economy. This duality was expressed in different forms of land ownership: cultivated land was intricately subdivided and carried clear title, while pasture zones remained to some degree in the public domain. Sheep raising, both within the mixed, Mediterranean economy and in the form of long-distance transhumance (the Mesta), was broadly familiar throughout Castile and was reflected in similar counterparts on the Mexican plateau. But cattle raising was small-scale and of subordinate importance in Spain, except in the estuarine marshland below Seville. Whereas the early cattle owners in Mexico came from all over Spain, their highly extensive management style appears to derive from the Marismas of Sevilla. This evidence may be explained by the interplay of cattle owners and cattle herders as they adjusted to a new ecology in the tropical lowlands.
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Modern Forests: Statemaking and Environmental Change in Colonial Eastern India. K. Sivaramakrishnan. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999. ix. 341 pp., illustrations, tables, bibliography, index.
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Environmental history is a multidisciplinary enterprise united by shared interests in ecological change and the complex interactions between people and the environment. Its practitioners include expertise in the natural sciences, in history or archaeology, or in political ecology and related social sciences; but there is no agreement on a common agenda and limited success in bridging methodological and epistemological divisions that impede integrative and interdisciplinary research. World-systems history and environmental history also have overlapping interests in long-term change and matters of sustainability. The Mediterranean world sustained agricultural lifeways across some 8000 years, yet its environment has repeatedly been described as degraded, suggesting conceptual confusion between transformation and destruction. This paper is didactic in purpose and uses landscape histories for the Peloponnese and eastern Spain to show that the impact of recurrent, excessive precipitation events and of reduced quality of land cover are difficult to unravel, because they commonly appear to work in tandem. As a result (a) environmental change cannot be assumed or “predicted”, but must be studied inductively by experts with science skills, and (b) cause-and-effect relationships demand an understanding of ecological behavior, for which humanistic insights are indispensable. Social science models highlight systemic relationships from socioeconomic and structural perspectives, but are less suited to deal with the complexity of environmental change or the contingencies exemplified by human resilience. Near Eastern, Greek and Roman agronomic writings offer elite “voices” that speak to cumulative technological change, scientific understanding, and the context of intensification. Rural voices can be heard through ethnography, and in eastern Spain are extended into the past by archaeology and archival research. In the absence of structural constraints, they reveal collective decision-making with respect to a shifting repertoire of agricultural strategies that take into account market opportunities, demographic growth, finite resources and environmental problems. Such adaptability spells resilience, and “good farming” is culturally embedded as a civic responsibility, both in the ethnographic present and in the older, elite agronomic writings. But if the “moral economy” erodes in the wake of food stress, tax extortion, instability, insecurity, or ideological oppression, there is little incentive to pursue long-term strategies, so that behavior focuses on short-term survival. The context for this dialectic of poor versus good ecological management may be structural, but cause-and-effect in the traditional Mediterranean world ultimately depended on ecological and human resilience. Long-term sustainability is similarly non-predictive. It depends on people, rather than social theory.
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Geoarchaeology represents crossdisciplinary research focused on environmental issues and human activities, and directed primarily to social scientists. Site micro-studies are central to the enterprise, emphasizing cultural sediments and the taphonomic record of site formation, preservation, or destruction. But when expanded to include off-site investigation and watershed studies, geoarchaeology can go well beyond stratigraphy and context, to address human impacts on the environment or long-term sustainability. This paper articulates a research agenda to evaluate the largely anecdotal premise that the island of Cyprus has been degraded by millennia of improvident land use. First, it outlines Holocene settlement, land use and forest histories, as a differentiated model against which to apply specific types of investigation, and in conjunction with other archaeological sciences. Second, it applies Quaternary-style watershed study to confront commonplace misunderstandings about possible degradation, to show that most of the slope and stream deposits on Cyprus are of Pleistocene age. Third, it switches to examples of site micro-geoarchaeology to illustrate the possibilities of understanding detailed change. The purpose is heuristic, in the absence of many more site and off-site studies that incorporate bioarchaeology. Provisional inferences suggest that environmental damage may be limited, that even with heavy land-use stress, climatic triggers were critical to inaugurate change, and that the system may be more resilient than anticipated. Such caveats may encourage greater attention to environmental research design in ongoing and future excavation projects.