The Pararectus approach for anterior intrapelvic management of acetabular fractures: An anatomical study and clinical evaluation

University of Bern, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Inselspital, Bern 3010, Switzerland.
The Bone & Joint Journal (Impact Factor: 3.31). 03/2012; 94(3):405-11. DOI: 10.1302/0301-620X.94B3.27801
Source: PubMed


A new anterior intrapelvic approach for the surgical management of displaced acetabular fractures involving predominantly the anterior column and the quadrilateral plate is described. In order to establish five 'windows' for instrumentation, the extraperitoneal space is entered along the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle. This is the so-called 'Pararectus' approach. The feasibility of safe dissection and optimal instrumentation of the pelvis was assessed in five cadavers (ten hemipelves) before implementation in a series of 20 patients with a mean age of 59 years (17 to 90), of whom 17 were male. The clinical evaluation was undertaken between December 2009 and December 2010. The quality of reduction was assessed with post-operative CT scans and the occurrence of intra-operative complications was noted. In cadavers, sufficient extraperitoneal access and safe instrumentation of the pelvis were accomplished. In the patients, there was a statistically significant improvement in the reduction of the fracture (pre- versus post-operative: mean step-off 3.3 mm (sd 2.6) vs 0.1 mm (sd 0.3), p < 0.001; and mean gap 11.5 mm (sd 6.5) vs 0.8 mm (sd 1.3), p < 0.001). Lesions to the peritoneum were noted in two patients and minor vascular damage was noted in a further two patients. Multi-directional screw placement and various plate configurations were feasible in cadavers without significant retraction of soft tissues. In the treatment of acetabular fractures predominantly involving the anterior column and the quadrilateral plate, the Pararectus approach allowed anatomical restoration with minimal morbidity related to the surgical access.

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    • "The main suggested advantage in comparison to established procedures was to simplify the treatment of specific fracture patterns with less invasive tissue dissection, while being at the same time in the hands of experienced acetabular surgeons [22]. The Pararectus approach provided access to the area of interest from a more medial position. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction To present the accuracy of reduction, complications and results two years after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced acetabular fractures involving the anterior column (AC) through the Pararectus approach. Frequencies for conversion to total hip replacement in the early follow up, the clinical outcome in preserved hips, and the need for an extension of the approach (1st window of the ilioinguinal approach) are compared to the literature about the modified Stoppa approach. Methods Forty-eight patients (mean age 62 years, range: 16-98; 41 male) with displaced acetabular fractures involving the AC (AC: n = 9; transverse fracture: n = 2; AC and hemitransverse: n = 24; both column: n = 13) were treated between 12/2009 and 12/2011 using the Pararectus approach. Surgical data and accuracy of reduction (using computed tomography) were assessed. Patients were routinely followed up at eight weeks, six, twelve and 24 months postoperatively. Failure was defined as the need for total hip arthroplasty. Twenty-four months postoperatively the outcome was rated according to Matta. Results In four patients there were four intraoperative complications (minor vascular damage in two, small perforations of the peritoneum in two) which were managed intraoperatively. Fracture reduction showed statistically significant decreases (mean ± SD, pre- vs. postoperative, in mm) in “step-offs”: 2.6 ± 1.9 vs. 0.1 ± 0.3, p < 0.001 and “gaps”: 11.2 ± 6.8 vs. 0.7 ± 0.9, p < 0.001. Accuracy of reduction was “anatomical” in 45, “imperfect” in three. Five (13%) from 38 available patients required a total hip arthroplasty. Of 33 patients with a preserved hip the clinical outcome was graded as “excellent” in 13 or “good” in 20; radiographically, 27 were graded as “excellent”, four as “good” and two as “fair”. An extension of the approach was infrequently used (1st window ilioinguinal approach in 2%, mini-incision at the iliac crest in 21%). Conclusion In the treatment of acetabular fractures involving the anterior column the Pararectus approach allowed for anatomic restoration with minimal access morbidity. Results obtained by means of the Pararectus approach after two years at least parallel those reported after utilization of the modified Stoppa approaches. In contrast to the modified Stoppa approach, a relevant extension of the Pararectus approach was almost not necessary.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To present two new approaches to acetabular surgery that were established in Berne, and which aim at enhanced visualization and anatomical reconstruction of acetabular fractures. Method The trochanteric flip osteotomy allows for surgical hip dislocation, and was introduced as a posterior approach for acetabular fracture management involving the posterior column and wall. For acetabular fractures predominantly involving the anterior column and the quadrilateral plate, the Pararectus approach is described. Results Full exposure of the hip joint, as provided by the trochanteric flip osteotomy, facilitates anatomical reduction of acetabular or femoral head fractures and safe positioning of the anterior column screw in transverse or T-shaped fractures. Additionally, the approach enables osteochondral transplantation as a salvage procedure for severe chondral femoral head damage and osteoplasty of an associated inadequate offset at the femoral head–neck junction. The Pararectus approach allows anatomical restoration with minimal access morbidity, and combines advantages of the ilioinguinal and modified Stoppa approaches. Conclusions Utilization of the trochanteric flip osteotomy eases visualization of the superior aspect of the acetabulum, and enables the evaluation and treatment of chondral lesions of the femoral head or acetabulum and labral tears. Displaced fractures of the anterior column with a medialized quadrilateral plate can be addressed successfully through the Pararectus approach, in which surgical access is associated with minimal morbidity. However, long-term results following the two presented Bernese approaches are needed to confirm that in the treatment of complex acetabular fractures the rate of poor results in almost one-third of all cases (as currently yielded using traditional approaches) might be reduced by the utilization of the presented novel approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Acetabular fractures with quadrilateral plate involvement form a heterogeneous group of fractures, which are not specifically defined by any current classification system. Their incidence is increasing due to the rising number of elderly osteoporotic fractures. They have always been notoriously difficult fractures to treat. We present a systematic review of conservative and operative management and their respective outcomes over the last century.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Injury
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