Effect of Hochuekkito on Alveolar Macrophage Inflammatory Responses in Hyperglycemic Mice

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.
Inflammation (Impact Factor: 2.21). 02/2012; 35(4):1294-301. DOI: 10.1007/s10753-012-9441-x
Source: PubMed


Diabetes mellitus reduces immunological activity and increases susceptibility to various infections. Hochuekkito (TJ-41) has been reported to improve the weakened physical condition of various chronic diseases. BALB/c mice were divided into three groups; groups A and B were fed a standard diet, and group C, a TJ-41 diet. Two weeks after starting these diets, hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by injection with streptozotocin. Two weeks later, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands (TLR2: peptidoglycan, PGN; TLR4: lipopolysaccharide, LPS; TLR5: flagellin, FLG) were used to stimulate alveolar macrophages (AMs), and TNF-α production was measured. Under hyperglycemic conditions and PGN or FLG stimulation, TNF-α production from AMs was significantly reduced in group B compared with group A. However, treatment with TJ-41 (group C) significantly improved the impaired production of TNF-α. These results suggest that, under hyperglycemic conditions, TJ-41 can improve the inflammatory responses of AMs with stimulation of TLR ligands.

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Available from: Tatsuya Hosono
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    • "traditional Japanese herbal) medicine, and it has been used to improve the weakened physical condition of patients with various chronic diseases. Moreover, Hochuekkito has been reported to exhibit beneficial pharmacological immune activity [12, 13] while suppressing the inflammatory response [14]. A recent study suggests that the preoperative administration of Hochuekkito can prevent an excessive postoperative inflammatory response and prolonged postoperative immunosuppression [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) with complete remission and no relapses after therapy with steroids and Hochuekkito, a Kampo (i.e. traditional Japanese herbal) medicine. A 62-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of a retroperitoneal mass detected by computed tomography. The mass had a maximum diameter of 11.0 cm; it involved the left ureter and was associated with left hydronephrosis. After inserting a ureteral stent, we performed a biopsy by laparotomy. Histopathology revealed IgG4-related RF. The lesion disappeared after 7 months of steroid therapy. We subsequently used Hochuekkito as an alternative maintenance treatment because of steroid-related complications. The patient has not relapsed in the 3 years since starting the medication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of IgG4-related RF treated with Hochuekkito as a maintenance treatment.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Hochuekkito, a traditional herbal medicine, is occasionally prescribed in Japan to treat patients with a poor general condition. We aimed to examine whether this medicine was beneficial and tolerable for patients with progressed pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods This pilot open-label quasi-randomized controlled trial enrolled 18 patients with progressed pulmonary MAC disease who had initiated antimycobacterial treatment over one year ago but were persistently culture-positive or intolerant. All patients continued their baseline treatment regimens with (n = 9) or without (n = 9) oral Hochuekkito for 24 weeks. Results Baseline characteristics were generally similar between the groups. Most patients were elderly (median age 70 years), female, had a low body mass index (<20 kg/m2), and a long-term disease duration (median approximately 8 years). After the 24-week treatment period, no patient achieved sputum conversion. Although the number of colonies in sputum tended to increase in the control group, it generally remained stable in the Hochuekkito group. Radiological disease control was frequently observed in the Hochuekkito group than the control group (8/9 vs. 3/9; p = 0.05). Patients in the Hochuekkito group tended to experience increase in body weight and serum albumin level compared with those in the control group (median body weight change: +0.4 kg vs. −0.8 kg; median albumin change: +0.2 g/dl vs. ±0.0 g/dl). No severe adverse events occurred. Conclusions Hochuekkito could be an effective, feasible adjunct to conventional therapy for patients with progressed pulmonary MAC disease. Future study is needed to explore this possibility. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000009920
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    ABSTRACT: Hochu‑ekki‑to (HET), a Kampō herbal medicine composed of ten medicinal plants, is traditionally used to improve the general state of patients with malignant diseases such as cancer. Recent studies showed that HET had an anti‑cancer effect against several cancer cell lines in vitro by inducing apoptosis. However, high doses of HET may have cytotoxic effects attributed to saponins or detergent‑like compounds. Therefore, the present study used low doses of HET (50 µg/ml), which did not affect cell viability, to evaluate its synergistic anti‑cancer effects with cisplatin. HeLa cells were cultured for 24 h with 50 µg/ml HET, followed by cisplatin treatment for 24 h at various concentrations. Subsequently, the sensitivity of the cells to cisplatin was assessed using a colony survival and a crystal violet cell viability assay. Furthermore, cisplatin‑induced apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Proteins associated with cell viability and apoptosis, including phosphorylated (p‑)Akt, p53, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and active caspase‑3 were analyzed by immunoblotting. The present study revealed that cell survival was decreased and apoptosis was increased in HeLa cells pre‑treated with HET prior to cisplatin treatment compared with HET‑untreated cells. Furthermore, protein expression of p53 and active caspase‑3 was increased, while the expression of p‑Akt as well as the Bcl‑2/Bax ratio, an index of survival activity in cells, were decreased in the HET‑pre‑treated cells compared with those in HET‑untreated cells following incubation with cisplatin. In conclusion, the present study indicated that HET enhanced cisplatin‑induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and that the administration of HET may therefore be clinically beneficial alongside apoptosis‑inducing chemotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Molecular Medicine Reports