ArticleLiterature Review

Suboptimal magnesium status in the United States: Are the health consequences underestimated?

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Abstract

In comparison with calcium, magnesium is an "orphan nutrient" that has been studied considerably less heavily. Low magnesium intakes and blood levels have been associated with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, elevated C-reactive protein, hypertension, atherosclerotic vascular disease, sudden cardiac death, osteoporosis, migraine headache, asthma, and colon cancer. Almost half (48%) of the US population consumed less than the required amount of magnesium from food in 2005-2006, and the figure was down from 56% in 2001-2002. Surveys conducted over 30 years indicate rising calcium-to-magnesium food-intake ratios among adults and the elderly in the United States, excluding intake from supplements, which favor calcium over magnesium. The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes in the United States increased sharply between 1994 and 2001 as the ratio of calcium-to-magnesium intake from food rose from <3.0 to >3.0. Dietary Reference Intakes determined by balance studies may be misleading if subjects have chronic latent magnesium deficiency but are assumed to be healthy. Cellular magnesium deficit, perhaps involving TRPM6/7 channels, elicits calcium-activated inflammatory cascades independent of injury or pathogens. Refining the magnesium requirements and understanding how low magnesium status and rising calcium-to-magnesium ratios influence the incidence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and other inflammation-related disorders are research priorities.

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... CMER is a group of independent scholars long interested in oral magnesium therapy's effect on BP [9,10,14,18,20,[33][34][35][36][37][38][39]. Funding to sponsor the Food & Drug Administration (FDA)-qualified health claim petition was provided by the Almond Board of California, PepsiCo, Inc., Council for Responsible Nutrition, Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Premier Magnesia, and Adobe Springs. ...
... However, this categorized review of clinical trials shows that medication status, hypertensive status, and magnesium dose all must be considered in the use of this inexpensive, non-invasive, safe, readily available, "lifestyle" therapy to prevent and treat high BP as well as other conditions for which high BP is a risk factor. Pervasive low dietary magnesium status affects the health and health care systems of national and global populations [39,97]. Chronic low dietary magnesium quite likely constitutes one of the "lifestyle" components in the high risk of cardiovascular disease of our time [39,98,99]. ...
... Pervasive low dietary magnesium status affects the health and health care systems of national and global populations [39,97]. Chronic low dietary magnesium quite likely constitutes one of the "lifestyle" components in the high risk of cardiovascular disease of our time [39,98,99]. ...
Article
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Trials and meta-analyses of oral magnesium for hypertension show promising but conflicting results. An inclusive collection of 49 oral magnesium for blood pressure (BP) trials were categorized into four groups: (1) Untreated Hypertensives; (2) Uncontrolled Hypertensives; (3) Controlled Hypertensives; (4) Normotensive subjects. Each group was tabulated by ascending magnesium dose. Studies reporting statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreases in both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) from both baseline and placebo (if reported) were labeled “Decrease”; all others were deemed “No Change.” Results: Studies of Untreated Hypertensives (20 studies) showed BP “Decrease” only when Mg dose was >600 mg/day; <50% of the studies at 120–486 mg Mg/day showed SBP or DBP decreases but not both while others at this Mg dosage showed no change in either BP measure. In contrast, all magnesium doses (240–607 mg/day) showed “Decrease” in 10 studies on Uncontrolled Hypertensives. Controlled Hypertensives, Normotensives and “magnesium-replete” studies showed “No Change” even at high magnesium doses (>600 mg/day). Where magnesium did not lower BP, other cardiovascular risk factors showed improvement. Conclusion: Controlled Hypertensives and Normotensives do not show a BP-lowering effect with oral Mg therapy, but oral magnesium (≥240 mg/day) safely lowers BP in Uncontrolled Hypertensive patients taking antihypertensive medications, while >600 mg/day magnesium is required to safely lower BP in Untreated Hypertensives; <600 mg/day for non-medicated hypertensives may not lower both SBP and DBP but may safely achieve other risk factor improvements without antihypertensive medication side effects.
... Mg 2+ insufficient levels have been documented in ill patients since the end of the last century [15]. Nevertheless, despite the well-recognized importance of magnesium, Mg 2+ availability is not generally determined and monitored in patients, therefore, magnesium has been called the "forgotten cation" [16,17]. Moreover, serum magnesium levels do not usually reflect the content of magnesium in different body districts. ...
... Analogously, the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) provides Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) [115,116]. LARN ("Livelli di Assunzione di Riferimento di Nutrienti ed energia per la popolazione italiana" corresponding to "Recommended Levels of Nutrients and Energy Intakes") are the last version of the Italian DRVs, more recently released in 2014 by the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and periodically updated by the Commission of the Human Nutrition Society (SINU) and by the Ministry of Agricultural, Food, and Forestry Policies (CREA), in line with the EFSA technical reports [16,[117][118][119]. ...
Article
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Magnesium plays an important role in many physiological functions. Habitually low intakes of magnesium and in general the deficiency of this micronutrient induce changes in biochemical pathways that can increase the risk of illness and, in particular, chronic degenerative diseases. The assessment of magnesium status is consequently of great importance, however, its evaluation is difficult. The measurement of serum magnesium concentration is the most commonly used and readily available method for assessing magnesium status, even if serum levels have no reliable correlation with total body magnesium levels or concentrations in specific tissues. Therefore, this review offers an overview of recent insights into magnesium from multiple perspectives. Starting from a biochemical point of view, it aims at highlighting the risk due to insufficient uptake (frequently due to the low content of magnesium in the modern western diet), at suggesting strategies to reach the recommended dietary reference values, and at focusing on the importance of detecting physiological or pathological levels of magnesium in various body districts, in order to counteract the social impact of diseases linked to magnesium deficiency.
... A recent genome-wide DNA methylation study with 3096 participants demonstrated that tea and coffee consumption are also associated with altered methylation in two differentially methylated CpG sites (DNAJC16 and TTC17) [111]. Another study reported an association between ω-3 PUFA supplementation and vegetable and fruit consumption and lower GrimAgeAccel, DNAm PAI-1, DNAm ADM, and DNAm cystatin C which are considered epigenetic age markers enriched for DNA methylation sites that are surrogate biomarkers for blood plasma proteins related to aging [112,113]. ...
... Similarly, magnesium and selenium levels may function as potential epigenetic regulators via modulating different signaling pathways [112,113,122]. The possible epigenetic effects of selenium are the modulation of epigenetic information editors, interaction with miRNAs, as well as influence on the metabolism of a carbon, which acts as a methyl donor for DNA methylation [123,124]. ...
Article
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The rate of aging has increased globally during recent decades and has led to a rising burden of age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). At the molecular level, epigenetic modifications have been shown recently to alter gene expression during the life course and impair cellular function. In this regard, several CVD risk factors, such as lifestyle and environmental factors, have emerged as key factors in epigenetic modifications within the cardiovascular system. In this study, we attempted to summarized recent evidence related to epigenetic modification, inflammation response, and CVD in older adults as well as the effect of lifestyle modification as a preventive strategy in this age group. Recent evidence showed that lifestyle and environmental factors may affect epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and miRNA expression. Several substances or nutrients such as selenium, magnesium, curcumin, and caffeine (present in coffee and some teas) could regulate epigenetics. Similarly, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, air pollutants, psychological stress, and shift working are well-known modifiers of epigenetic patterns. Understanding the exact ways that lifestyle and environmental factors could affect the expression of genes could help to influence the time of incidence and severity of aging-associated diseases. This review highlighted that a healthy lifestyle throughout the life course, such as a healthy diet rich in fibers, vitamins, and essential elements, and specific fatty acids, adequate physical activity and sleep, smoking cessation, and stress control, could be useful tools in preventing epigenetic changes that lead to impaired cardiovascular function.
... Low magnesium intakes coupled with high calcium intakes and high calcium-to-magnesium (Ca:Mg) intake ratios can increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (1,2), colorectal cancer (3), prostate cancer (4), survival following breast cancer (5) and cancer mortality (6) as well as altered vitamin D status (7,8). Dietary magnesium intakes have declined worldwide with the processing of foods, especially grains (9), while the ratio of Ca:Mg in the diet appears to be steadily increasing worldwide (10) as traditional diets give way to the modern processed-food diet. ...
... It is possible that cytosolic calcium activation results from a magnesium deficit. Even small changes in Mg 2+ concentrations within the cell may cause disturbed Ca 2+ signaling or Ca 2+ toxicity (1,21). Small increases in dietary calcium above normal requirements have been shown to exacerbate magnesium deficiency in rats fed a low-magnesium diet (22). ...
Article
Low magnesium intakes coupled with high calcium intakes and high calcium-to-magnesium (Ca:Mg) intake ratios have been associated with increased risk for multiple chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, as well as some cancers (colorectal, prostate, esophageal), and total mortality. A high dietary Ca:Mg ratio (>2.60) may affect body magnesium status while, on the other hand, high intakes of magnesium could adversely impact individuals with an exceedingly low dietary Ca:Mg ratio (<1.70). Thus, a Ca:Mg ratio range of 1.70–2.60 (weight to weight) has been proposed as an optimum range. Data from NHANES surveys have shown the mean Ca:Mg intake ratio from foods alone for US adults has been >3.00 since 2000. One-third of Americans consume a magnesium supplement with a mean dose of 146 mg/d, and 35% of Americans consume a calcium supplement with a mean dose of 479 mg/d. Our review of Ca:Mg ratios in dietary supplements sold in the United States and listed in NIH's Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) found a mean ratio of 2.90 across all calcium- and magnesium-containing products, with differences by product form. The ratios ranged from a low of 0.10 in liquid products to a high of 48.5 in powder products. Thirty-one percent of products fell below, 40.5% fell within, and 28.3% fell above the ratio range of 1.70–2.60. Our findings of calculated Ca:Mg ratios from dietary supplements coupled with food-intake data suggest that, in individuals with high calcium intakes from diet and/or supplements, magnesium supplementation may be warranted to establish a more favorable dietary Ca:Mg ratio in their total diet. Additional research may provide greater insight into whether the Ca:Mg ratio is a biomarker of interest for moderating chronic disease and which population groups may derive benefit from moderating that ratio.
... Buckwheat has higher minerals compared to other pseudo-cereals and cereals. The most abundant minerals in buckwheat include magnesium, copper, manganese, iron and phosphorus [54]. Buckwheat is rich in various antioxidant plant compounds, including rutin, quercetin, vitexin, and D-Chiro-inositol [55]. ...
Chapter
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Grains including wheat, brown rice, millet, oat, and seeds from crops such as pumpkins, almonds, cashew, peas are important staple foods in many parts of the world. Grains and seeds contain proteins and bioactive peptides classified as nutraceuticals. Proteins and peptides are essential components in man’s diet because they provide the raw materials needed for protein biosynthesis and are also a good source of energy. Incorporating grains and seeds into the human diet provide nutritional, functional health benefits, reducing contracting some chronic diseases. They avail the body with a balanced nutrient profile such as carbohydrate, fatty-acid, fibre, B vitamins, minerals and protein. The quest at exploring staples for their functional and health benefits, as well as reducing risks to diseases, has resulted in the investigation of the potentials of grains and seeds, especially the underutilised ones (African yam bean, pigeon pea, Bambara groundnut etc.) for consumption and as an alternative therapy against diseases. This chapter discusses grains and seeds as sources of nutrition protagonist, their nutritive property, health benefits, and the pharmacological properties of bioactive peptides in grains and seeds. However, some under-utilised grain and seed proteins would also be explored for their nutritive potentials.
... Almost half of the United States population (48%) consumes less than the recommended amount of magnesium in the diet. 376 Magnesium deficiency causes inflammation, muscle spasms and cramps, weakness, and difficulty sleeping, all of which may be worsened by sciatica. ...
Chapter
• The treatment of sciatica differs according to its cause • Most cases warrant a trial of conservative treatment • Integrated programs including manual therapies and exercise may be superior to any single therapy • Surgery is indicated in the presence of red flags and/or a lack of response to conservative treatment
... Moreover, approximately half of Mg 2+ is stored in bone tissue, which directly modifies the bone-calcification process and the generation of new minerals in the human body. Mg 2+ deficiency induces the release of inflammatory factors, resulting in a series of clinical disorders such as migraine, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and atherosclerosis [46]. Additionally, Mg 2+ deficiency causes osteoporosis by reducing the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and inhibiting apatite deposition. ...
Article
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Metallic ions have been widely investigated and incorporated into bone substitutes for bone regeneration owing to their superior capacity to induce angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Exosomes are key paracrine mediators that play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. However, the role of exosomes in metallic ion-induced bone formation and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, this review systematically analyzes the effects of metallic ions and metallic ion-incorporated biomaterials on exosome secretion from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and macrophages, as well as the effects of secreted exosomes on inflammation, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis. In addition, possible signaling pathways involved in metallic ion-mediated exosomes, followed by bone regeneration, are discussed. Despite limited investigation, metallic ions have been confirmed to regulate exosome production and function, affecting immune response, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis. Although the underlying mechanism is not yet clear, these insights enrich our understanding of the mechanisms of the metallic ion-induced microenvironment for bone regeneration, benefiting the design of metallic ion-incorporated implants.
... PCOS is clearly one of the obesity-related condition but also exist mechanisms whereby the development of PCOS can lead to further weight-gain, contribute to obesity development [62]. The co-occurrence of obesity with PCOS and the association with cardiometabolic dysfunction and insulin resistance justify this close link between obesity and PCOS [63] In addition, several studies have identified and association between obesity and magnesium deficiency and increase consumption of fast food and decreased intake of fibers, whole grains, and green leafy vegetables is associated with both obesity and hypomagnesemia [64][65][66]. Both conditions exacerbate a pro-oxidant and proinflammatory state and magnesium supplementation seems to be an alternative adjuvant in the management of metabolic health, particularly on inflammatory indexes reduction. ...
Article
Magnesium is one of the most important micronutrients for the human body, is involved in many physiological pathways and is essential for the maintenance of normal cell and organ function. Magnesium deficiency in healthy individuals on a balanced diet is quite rare, but needs may change over the course of life. In women, in particular, there are various physiopathological conditions that may increase magnesium requirements, useful for both disease prevention and treatment. Indeed magnesium is well recognized in obstetrics and gynecology area. Magnesium use in women, both in terms of prevention and treatment, is extended to many health issues from PCOS to pre-menstrual syndrome, from pregnancy to menopause and beyond.
... Two conditions often occurring in the elderly. Finally, the Mg deficit is further intensified by an increased intake of calcium which is advised for osteoporosis prevention [17] . Low Mg, together with excessive calcium, predisposes an individual to cardiovascular diseases. ...
Article
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent debilitating age-related skeletal disease. The hallmark of OA is the degradation of articular cartilage that cushions the joint during movement. It is characterized by chronic pain and disability. Magnesium, a critical trace element in the human body, plays a pivotal role in metabolism homeostasis and the energy balance. Humans obtain magnesium mainly from the diet. However, inadequate magnesium intake is not uncommon. Moreover, the magnesium status deteriorates with ageing. There has been a growing body of clinical studies pointing to an intimate relationship between dietary magnesium and OA although the conclusion remains controversial. As reported, the magnesium ion concentration is essential to determine cell fate. Firstly, the low-concentration magnesium ions induced human fibroblasts senescence. Magnesium supplementation was also able to mitigate chondrocyte apoptosis, and to facilitate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. In this literature review, we will outline the existing evidence in animals and humans. We will also discuss the controversies on plasma or intracellular level of magnesium as the indicator of magnesium status. In addition, we put forward the interplay between dietary magnesium intake and intestinal microbiome to modulate the inflammatory milieu in the conjecture of OA pathogenesis. This leads to an emerging hypothesis that the synergistic effect of magnesium and probiotics may open a new avenue for the prevention and treatment of OA.
... Both were based on the distribution of serum magnesium in a normal population rather than one based on clinical outcomes. Due to funding shortages NHANES has not determined serum magnesium levels in its participants since 1974 [15]. All data is based on food frequency questionnaires. ...
Article
Full-text available
The calcium to magnesium ratio plus adequate vitamin D greatly determine success or not in the immune battle against pathogens and cancer, not to mention cardiovascular disease. Ionized calcium and magnesium in normal, healthy individuals can be calculated and a ratio determined from serum levels. Using widely accepted laboratory reference range values and NHANES data, the recommended daily allowances from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences for calcium, magnesium, and D3 (cholecalci-ferol) are objectively refuted mathematically and physiologically. Midrange values for both cations, despite RDA sufficiency, are shown to be unattainable without secondary hyperparathyroidism (high parathormone (PTH), low D) or hypoparathyroidism (low PTH, high iCa:iMg) at the officially designated level of 25(OH)D sufficiency (30 ng/mL). Calcium and magnesium utilize the same calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) not only on cell membranes but also on organelle membranes. Intra-mitochondrial hydroxylation of cholecalcife-rol can become compromised. An imbalanced intake of calcium and magnesium can impact the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation. Several pertinent articles underscoring these conclusions are analyzed in detail. The impact of an imbalanced Ca:Mg ratio on Covid-19, Long Covid and vaccination is also discussed.
... Despite the abundant distribution of magnesium in foods (1,3), studies in several parts of the world have indicated its deficient intakes, such that in US adults the dietary magnesium intake is ∼70% lower than the dietary reference intake (DRI) (4)(5)(6). Magnesium deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (7), type 2 diabetes (8), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (9), and colorectal cancer (10,11). Magnesium deficiency has also been associated with insulin resistance, inflammation, and elevated blood pressure and coagulation (3,(12)(13)(14). ...
Article
A meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted to examine the association of total, supplemental, and dietary magnesium intakes with risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and identify the dose–response relations involved in these association. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Knowledge up to April 2020. Prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for the association between total, supplemental, and dietary magnesium intakes and risk of mortality were included. Random effects models were used. Nineteen publication with a total of 1,168,756 participants were included in the current meta-analysis. In total, 52,378 deaths from all causes, 23,478 from CVD, and 11,408 from cancer were identified during the follow-up period of 3.5 to 32 years. Dietary magnesium intake was associated with a lower risk of all-cause [pooled effect size (ES): 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.97; P = 0.009; I2 = 70.7%; P < 0.001] and cancer mortality (pooled ES: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.97; P = 0.023; I2 = 55.7%; P = 0.027), but not with CVD mortality (pooled ES: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.07; P = 0.313; I2 = 72.3%; P < 0.001). For supplemental and total magnesium intakes, we did not find any significant associations with risks of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. However, linear dose–response meta-analysis indicated that each additional intake of 100 mg/d of dietary magnesium was associated with a 6% and 5% reduced risk of all-cause and cancer mortality, respectively. In conclusion, higher intake of dietary magnesium was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause and cancer mortality, but not CVD mortality. Supplemental and total magnesium intakes were not associated with the risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. These findings indicate that consumption of magnesium from dietary sources may be beneficial in reducing all-cause and cancer mortality and thus have practical importance for public health.
... Despite this, most people cannot even fully meet the recommended daily allowance (DiNicolantonio et al., 2018). The studies showed that 48% of the population could not satisfy the recommended magnesium intake from food in the United States (Rosanoff et al., 2012). According to current estimations, 45% of American population suffer from magnesium deficiency (Workinger et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Magnesium, a vital mineral for the human body, should be encapsulated before addition into foods to avoid the drawbacks related to chemical reactions. In this study, double emulsion entrapment was applied to protect magnesium. Different concentrations (15, 20, 25, 30%) of lentil flour were used as the hydrophilic surfactant, and high-speed homogenizer and ultrasonic homogenizer were applied as the first step homogenization methods for preparing the double emulsions. Double emulsions were analyzed in terms of particle size and distribution, rheology, instant stability, long-term stability, encapsulation efficiency, morphology, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Double emulsions with lower particle size, higher viscosity, and higher stability were obtained at higher lentil flour concentrations. Stability of double emulsions increased from 67.6 to 76.0% when lentil flour concentration increased from 15 to 30%. Ultrasonic homogenization also contributed to produce double emulsions with higher stability (> 99%). Moreover, double emulsions were added into cake batter and their effects on cake quality and their baking stabilities and in vitro bioaccessibilities were analyzed. Results showed that double emulsion addition did not significantly affect the quality of cakes. In addition, cakes containing magnesium encapsulated in double emulsion had similar taste with magnesium free cakes. Double emulsions had about 79–82% higher baking stability than control. In in vitro magnesium bioaccessibility, results indicated that magnesium encapsulated in double emulsion could be digested as much as the uncoated magnesium. Thus, it can be concluded that double emulsion entrapment could be used for enrichment of foods with active valuable components like magnesium.
... Other studies confirmed the fact that older populations have low dietary intake of magnesium [206][207][208]. Perhaps older adults are more likely to experience low magnesium intake for the reasons described above, but indeed, this is a problem in the whole population regardless of age [209]. The RDA of magnesium in the US is 420 mg/day for men and 320 mg/day for women, requirements that do not seem to change with age [210], but the mean intake of magnesium in the US older population is far below this recommendation (225 and 166 mg/day for men and women, respectively) [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hypertension is a complex condition in which various actors and mechanisms combine, resulting in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications that today represent the most frequent causes of mortality, morbidity, disability, and health expenses worldwide. In recent decades, there has been an exceptional number of experimental, epidemiological, and clinical studies confirming a close relationship between magnesium deficit and high blood pressure. Multiple mechanisms may help to explain the bulk of evidence supporting a protective effect of magnesium against hypertension and its complications. Hypertension increases sharply with advancing age, hence older persons are those most affected by its negative consequences. They are also more frequently at risk of magnesium deficiency by multiple mechanisms, which may, at least in part, explain the higher frequency of hypertension and its long-term complications. The evidence for a favorable effect of magnesium on hypertension risk emphasizes the importance of broadly encouraging the intake of foods such as vegetables, nuts, whole cereals and legumes, optimal dietary sources of magnesium, and avoiding processed foods, which are very poor in magnesium and other fundamental nutrients, in order to prevent hypertension. In some cases, when diet is not enough to maintain an adequate magnesium status, magnesium supplementation may be of benefit and has been shown to be well tolerated.
... According to the results of studies by other authors, the ratio of magnesium and calcium ions is of primary importance for controlling the formation and release of all known neuropetides and neurotransmitters (Rosanoff et al. 2012;Botturi et al. 2020). First of all, magnesium limits the production of catecholamines, the excess of which in conditions of magnesium deficiency potentiates expressed vasoconstriction and leads to blood pressure increase. ...
Article
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Introduction : The relevance of the issue of increasing stress resistance is due to a significant deterioration in the mental health of the population caused by the special conditions of the disease control and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, the decisive role in the severity of clinico-physiological manifestations of maladjustment to stress is assigned to magnesium ions. The aim of the work was to study the magnesium importance in the body coping mechanisms under stress for the pathogenetic substantiation of the magnesium correction in an unfavorable situation of disease control and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods : The theoretical basis of this scientific and analytical review was an analysis of modern Russian and foreign literature data posted on the electronic portals MEDLINE, PubMed-NCBI, Scientific Electronic Library eLIBRARY.RU, Google Academy, and CyberLeninka. Results and discussion : It was shown that the total magnesium level in the body plays the indicator role of the body functional reserves. Acute and chronic stresses significantly increase the magnesium consumption and cause a decrease in its body content. Magnesium deficiency is one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms of reducing stress resistance and adaptive body reserves. Arising during the COVID-19 pandemic, increased nervous and emotional tension, the lack of emotional comfort and balance can lead to the onset or deterioration of magnesium deficiency, which manifests itself in mental burnout and depletion of adaptive capacities. The inability to synthesize magnesium in the body necessitates including foodstuffs high in magnesium in the population diet during this period. The appointment of magnesium preparations is pathogenetically justified with moderate and severe magnesium deficiency. This therapy should take into account the major concomitant diseases, severity of magnesium deficiency, and a patient’s age. Conclusion : magnesium correction, carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic, will contribute to increasing stress resistance, preventing mental diseases and improving the population’s life quality.
... Magnesium intakes in modern societies, including the USA, are slightly but generally lower than current EAR-suggested magnesium requirements ( Figure 1A, D); however, they are well below measured magnesium intakes in traditional societies and the recalculated RDAs described in this article ( Figure 1B, C). Mean magnesium intakes in the US population have been lower than the 1997 magnesium EARs, especially among elderly persons and teens (26), long enough for magnesium to be deemed an underconsumed nutrient in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (27). Actual 2013-2016 mean magnesium intakes of US adults (15) at 340-344 mg magnesium/d for men and 256-273 mg magnesium/d for women are quite close to the current EARs as shown in Figure 1A. ...
Article
Adequate magnesium intakes are associated with lower diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but are low in modern diets. Magnesium DRIs, estimated using standard reference body weights (SRBWs) lower than current mean US adult body weights (BWs), need revision. Magnesium DRIs assume variance at 10% CV, whereas balance study data suggests 20–30% CV. Here, estimated average requirements (EARs), the DRI measure estimating average magnesium requirements for healthy adults, were corrected using 2011–2014 mean US adult BWs. Magnesium EARs (in mg magnesium/d) increased 17% for men (330–350 to 386–409) and 25% for women (255–265 to 319–332). RDAs, the DRI measure meant to cover the magnesium needs of 98% of healthy adults, were calculated using BW-corrected EARs given 3 CV levels: 1) 10% (assumed in 1997 DRIs), 2) 20% (model-derived variance from USDA magnesium studies), and 3) 30% (using USDA plus older human magnesium balance data). BW-corrected magnesium RDAs (in mg magnesium/d) rose from 400–420 and 310–320 for men and women, respectively, to 1) 463–491 and 383–398 (16.5% and 23.5% increases), 2) 540–573 and 447–465 (35.5% and 44.5% increases), and 3) 617–654 and 511–531 (55% and 65.5% increases). These recalculations move magnesium intakes estimated to prevent disease into ranges found in traditional diets and to intake levels shown to lower hypertension, diabetes, and CVD risk. In conclusion, mean BW rises over the last ≥20 y and data-driven estimates of CV indicate that reliable US adult magnesium RDAs are ≥60–235 and 70–210 mg magnesium/d higher for men and women, respectively, than the current 1997 RDAs. US adult BMIs are <25 kg/m2 when calculated with SRBWs but >25 with actual mean BWs. Adjustments for rising BW are necessary for magnesium DRIs to remain useful tools for defining magnesium intake adequacy/deficiency.
... A recent study by Noah et al. found that nearly half (~44%) of the subjects screened for stress had chronic latent magnesium deficiency (defined as serum magnesium <0.85 mmol/L) [78]. Moreover, subclinical, chronic magnesium depletion may contribute to various dysfunctions and diseases and the scientific literature is rich in studies highlighting the association between low dietary magnesium intake and a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and metabolic syndrome [8,79,80]. ...
Article
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Magnesium deficiency and stress are both common conditions among the general population, which, over time, can increase the risk of health consequences. Numerous studies, both in pre-clinical and clinical settings, have investigated the interaction of magnesium with key mediators of the physiological stress response, and demonstrated that magnesium plays an inhibitory key role in the regulation and neurotransmission of the normal stress response. Furthermore, low magnesium status has been reported in several studies assessing nutritional aspects in subjects suffering from psychological stress or associated symptoms. This overlap in the results suggests that stress could increase magnesium loss, causing a deficiency; and in turn, magnesium deficiency could enhance the body’s susceptibility to stress, resulting in a magnesium and stress vicious circle. This review revisits the magnesium and stress vicious circle concept, first introduced in the early 1990s, in light of recent available data.
... Suboptimale Versorgungszustände (< 0,80 mmol/l) wurden bei 33,7 % gefunden [5]. Ähnliche Daten wurden auch in anderen westlichen Ländern registriert [6]. Insofern muss in der Allgemeinbevölkerung mit Mg-Mangelzuständen gerechnet werden. ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung In der Bevölkerung und vor allem bei Risikogruppen muss mit Magnesiummangel gerechnet werden. Magnesiummangel kann zahlreiche Symptome verursachen, ist per se pathologisch und deshalb therapiebedürftig. Die Diagnostik stützt sich auf die klinische Symptomatik in Verbindung mit anamnestischen Hinweisen und Laborparametern. Eine schlechte Magnesiumversorgung ist mit einem erhöhten Risiko für zahlreiche Erkrankungen assoziiert, darunter metabolisches Syndrom, Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 und Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen. Magnesiummangel tritt häufig auch als Komorbidität auf und kann zur Exazerbation von Krankheiten beitragen. Magnesium sollte eine größere Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt werden, um Mangelzustände als Ursache vielfältiger Symptome sowie als Risikofaktor für Erkrankungen zu vermeiden. Eine Optimierung der Magnesiumversorgung kann einen wichtigen Beitrag in der Prävention leisten. Die orale Magnesiumtherapie ist unbedenklich und kostengünstig.
... This means there will be risk of high blood pressure when sodium-potassium ratio is high, resulting in possible ill-health [29,30]. Calcium:magnesium ratio is also important since there may not be optimal usage of calcium in human cells, without proper balance of magnesium, while magnesium reserve could be adversely affected in high calcium intake without commensurate amount of magnesium [31,32]. Low dietary intakes of calcium relative to phosphorus results in lower Calcium:Phosphurus ratio, which has been observed to result in some adverse health conditions such as bone loss and arterial calcification, and even death in severe cases [33]. ...
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This investigation evaluated some nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of flours from peeled, unpeeled, and blanched plantain (Musa AAB). Green matured plantain was peeled and sliced (PUF), peeled, sliced and soaked in boiled water (100°C) for 10 mins (PBF), sliced unpeeled (UUF), and sliced, unpeeled and soaked in boiled water (100°C) for 10 mins (UBF). Slices were dried at 65 ±1.5°C until constant weight was obtained and milled into flour (< 212 µm) using a grinding mill. Flours were evaluated for anti-nutritional, minerals and amino acid contents and protein quality indices. Dumplings prepared from flours were evaluated for sensory parameters. There were significant (P = .05) differences among flours for most properties evaluated, and for most sensory parameters of dumplings. Minerals, mineral-mineral ratios and anti-nutritional contents were significantly (P = .05) higher in unpeeled flours than peeled flours, but anti-nutrients and phytate-mineral molar ratios 0.013-0.016(Ca), .059-0.062(Fe) and 0.098-0.121(Zn) were within acceptable thresholds. Essential amino acids were slightly lower in unpeeled flours than peeled flours, but flour from unpeeled unblanched sample (UUF) was slightly higher in leucine, valine and isoleucine compared to other samples, with values of 6.47, 4.10 and 3.25mg/100g protein respectively. Protein quality indices were 54-66%, 1.52-2.22, 47-60.7% and 4.19-6.07 for EAAI, PER, BV and NI respectively, with samples PUF and UUF having highest and sample (UUF) having 59%, 2.22, 53% and 4.19 respectively. All dumpling samples had high acceptability mean scores (6-7) for most sensory parameters, while flour sample from unpeeled, unblanched matured green plantain (UUF) produced dough meal with high consumer acceptability and nutritional quality.
... Treatment with PMP-2 as in the spring experiments caused a drastic shift in the profile of the present bacteria. Methylobacteria decreased dramatically (15,8, and 9% PMP-2 for each replicate) compared to controlled treatments. Sphingomonas sp. was also reduced to 1% abundance. ...
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Recently, metal oxides and magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles (NPs) with high surface-to-volume ratios were shown to possess antibacterial properties with applications in biomedicine and agriculture. To assess recent observations from field trials on tomatoes showing resistance to pathogen attacks, porous micron-scale particles composed of nano-grains of MgO were hydrated and sprayed on the leaves of healthy tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants in a 20-day program. The results showed that the spray induced (a) a modest and selective stress gene response that was consistent with the absence of phytotoxicity and the production of salicylic acid as a signalling response to pathogens; (b) a shift of the phylloplane microbiota from near 100% dominance by Gram (−) bacteria, leaving extremophiles and cyanobacteria to cover the void; and (c) a response of the fungal leaf phylloplane that showed that the leaf epiphytome was unchanged but the fungal load was reduced by about 70%. The direct microbiome changes together with the low level priming of the plant’s immune system may explain the previously observed resistance to pathogen assaults in field tomato plants sprayed with the same hydrated porous micron-scale particles.
... One study found 85% of those with radicular sciatic pain were either deficient or insufficient in vitamin D. 66 Magnesium deficiency affects nearly half of the US population. 70 Deficiency in magnesium causes inflammation, muscle spasms and cramps, and weakness. The best test for magnesium is the RBC magnesium test, which shows a more long-term measure of the mineral in the body compared to serum magnesium. ...
Chapter
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• Imaging is necessary given certain signs or symptoms or a lack of response to treatment • Imaging findings should correlate with the patient’s symptoms; lack of correlation should prompt further investigation for the source of pain • Laboratory testing may help diagnose the source of sciatica and find barriers to recovery
... Authors such as Rosanoff et al. [34] have affirmed that western populations (including Spain) are characterized by a low intake of Mg, since the latter is a predominant mineral in vegetables, and current consumption trends are towards an increased intake of animal products. Our results evidenced a pattern of low Mg consumption below the RDAs, with the exception of the MG population following the Mg intervention. ...
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Menopause is a stage of hormonal imbalance in women which, in addition to other physiopathological consequences, poses a risk of deficiency of key micronutrients such as magnesium and vitamin D. A study was made of the influence of a magnesium intervention upon vitamin D status in a postmenopausal population from the province of Granada (Spain). Fifty-two healthy postmenopausal women between 44–76 years of age were included. Two randomized groups—placebo and magnesium (500 mg/day)—were treated during eight weeks. Nutrient intake was assessed using questionnaires based on 72-h recall. Vitamin D was analyzed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry. Baseline vitamin D proved deficient in over 80% of the subjects. The administration of magnesium resulted in significantly increased vitamin D levels in the intervention group versus the controls (p < 0.05). Magnesium supplementation improved vitamin D status in the studied postmenopausal women.
... Unfortunately, it is also a mineral that almost half of Americans consume in lower quantities than the required daily amount. This occurs even though low magnesium levels have been associated the type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, atherosclerotic vascular disease, sudden cardiac death, osteoporosis, migraine headaches, asthma, and colon cancer [22]. On the other hand, with new research backing magnesium's benefits for heart and mental health, magnesium supplements have been seriously growing in the USA in recent years, with 7.9% sales growth in 2017 over 2016 [15]. ...
Article
Sweet sorghum syrup is non-GMO, gluten-free, and can be produced free of additives and preservatives. Knowledge of the nutritional and dietary content of sweet sorghum syrups compared to other common food-grade syrups will expand their utilization as a natural and nutritional food ingredient. Proximate food attributes and critical minerals were measured in commercial high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), corn, honey, maple, sugarcane, agave, rice, and white grain (non-tannin) sorghum syrups and compared to ten commercial sweet sorghum syrups. Agave syrup was the highest (P < 0.05) source of fat (mean 2.1%) although fat varied (P < 0.05) with the agave brand. Protein content of sweet sorghum syrups ranged from 0.9 to 4.0%, with the mean (1.80%) nearly two-folds higher than the other syrups (0.96%). Sweet sorghum syrups contained markedly higher (P < 0.05) mean amounts of magnesium (120 mg) than the other syrups (5 mg). Potassium contents of all the sweet sorghum syrups were also very high (up to 1710 mg) and markedly higher (P < 0.05) than all the other syrups. Iron was negligible in servings of the syrups except for sweet sorghum which contained over half (52.7%) of the daily recommended value (13 mg). In this limited study, sweet sorghum syrups were rich dietary sources of magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron, and contained negligible sodium.
... Both were based on the distribution of serum magnesium in a normal population rather than one based on clinical outcomes. Due to funding shortages NHANES has not determined serum magnesium levels in its participants since 1974 (15). All data is based on food frequency questionnaires. ...
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The calcium to magnesium ratio plus adequate vitamin D largely determine success or not in the immune battle against pathogens and cancer, not to mention cardiovascular disease. Ionized calcium and magnesium in normal, healthy individuals can be calculated and a ratio determined from serum levels. Using widely accepted laboratory reference range values and NHANES data, the recommended daily allowances from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences for calcium, magnesium, and D3 are objectively refuted mathematically and physiologically. Midrange values for both cations, despite RDA su ciency, are shown to be unattainable without secondary hyperparathyroidism (high parathormone (PTH), low D) or hypoparathyroidism (low PTH, high iCa:iMg) at the o cially designated level of 25(OH)D su ciency (30 ng/mL). Calcium and magnesium utilize the same calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) not only on cell membranes but also on organelle membranes. Intra-mitochondrial hydroxylation of cholecalciferol can become compromised. An imbalanced intake of calcium and magnesium can impact the e cacy of vitamin D supplementation. Several pertinent articles underscoring these conclusions are analyzed in detail. The impact of an imbalanced Ca:Mg ratio on Covid-19, Long Covid and vaccination is also discussed. Subject Areas Pathology
... Copper (Cu) has a basic role in the immune system, energy production, and maintaining nerve cells. Cu also helps to absorb iron in the body and works with iron to aid the body make red blood cells (Rosanoff et al. 2012;Wang et al. 2019). A suitable dose of copper has the above benefits, but excessive consumption of copper is associated with morphological and metabolic changes in tissues. ...
Article
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Background To enhance the performance of radiotherapy, emerging nanoparticles that can professionally enhance X-ray irradiation to destruct cancer cells are extremely necessary. Here, we examined the potential of PEG-coated magnetite copper sulfide hetero-nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 @Cus–PEG) as a radiosensitizer agent. Methods Fe 3 O 4 @Cus–PEG nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. The toxicity of nanoparticles on HT-29 colorectal cancer cells was assessed by the MTT assay. The radio-sensitizing effects of Fe 3 O 4 @Cus–PEG nanoparticles on HT-29 cancer cells were investigated by the MTT and colony formation assays. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms for Fe 3 O 4 @Cus–PEG nanoparticles to improve the radiation sensitivity of cells were evaluated. Results The results demonstrated that nanoparticles enhanced the effects of X-ray irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of combined treatments (nanoparticles and X-ray radiation) were strongly synergistic. The sensitizing enhancement ratio (SER) of nanoparticles was 2.02. Our in vitro assays demonstrated that the nitric oxide production, the intracellular hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the expression level of Bax and Caspase-3 genes significantly increased in the cells treated with the combination of nanoparticles and radiation. Whereas, the Glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity and the expression level of the Bcl-2 gene in the combined treatment significantly decreased compared to the radiation alone. Conclusions Our study suggests that Fe 3 O 4 @Cus–PEG nanoparticles are the promising nano radio-sensitizing agents for the treatment of cancer cells to enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy through increasing the reactive oxygen species generation, nitric oxide production, and inducing apoptosis. Graphical Abstract
... Ca and Mg physiology helps to comprehend the potential impact of the Ca/Mg ratio, since one is physiologically antagonistic to the other [13]. Therefore, the cellular Ca/Mg ratio is crucial for Ca-dependent signaling events, making it possible that cytosolic Ca activation results from Mg deficiency [13,157]. The increase in the Ca/Mg ratio at the cellular level is a potentially deleterious factor and contributes to arteriosclerosis and HTN development [158]. ...
Article
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Magnesium (Mg) is an essential divalent cation involved in various enzymatic reactions that regulate vital biological functions. The main goal was to evaluate Mg status and its association with nutritional indicators in 78 children and adolescents with chronic diseases. We assessed anthropometric, biochemical, diet, body composition, and bone densitometry valuations. Serum Mg and Ca levels were determined using the standardized method and diet calcium (Ca) and Mg consumption by a prospective 72 h diet survey. Mean serum Ca (9.9 mg/dL), Mg (2.08 mg/dL) dietary Ca (102% DRI: Dietary Reference Intake), and Mg intake (105% DRI) were normal. A total of 45% had hypomagnesemia, 12% had hypermagnesemia, and 26% and 24% had inadequate and high Mg intake, respectively. Only 6% of patients had poor Mg intake and hypomagnesemia, and 54% and 90% of our series had an elevated serum Ca/Mg ratio > 4.70 (mean 4.79) and a low Ca/Mg intake ratio < 1.70 (mean 1.06), respectively. Both Ca/Mg ratios were linked with the risk of developing other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, syndrome metabolic, and even several cancers. Therefore, 79% of children and adolescents with chronic diseases were at elevated risk of having abnormal Mg status and developing other chronic illnesses.
... However, whether there is a causal relationship between magnesium deficiency and OA still remains unknown. Additionally, since magnesium is predominantly obtained from the diet through green leafy vegetables and unprocessed grains [13], the modern diet, especially the Western dietary pattern, has been rich in refined foods, causing low dietary magnesium intake to become quite common [14]. Therefore, illuminating the effect of dietary magnesium deficiency on the development of OA may help uncover new insights into pathophysiology of OA and offer beneficial recommendations for those with inadequate daily magnesium intake. ...
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Background Dietary magnesium deficiency, which is common in modern diet, has been associated with osteoarthritis (OA) susceptibility. Despite this clinical association, no study has addressed if dietary magnesium deficiency accelerates OA development, especially at molecular level. This study aimed to explore aggravating effects of dietary magnesium deficiency on cartilage damage in an injury-induced murine OA model and to determine the underlying mechanism. Methods Twelve-week-old C57BL/6J mice subject to injury-induced OA modeling were randomized into different diet groups in which the mice were fed a diet with daily recommended magnesium content (500 mg/kg) or diets with low magnesium content (100 or 300 mg/kg). Articular cartilage damage was evaluated using the OARSI score. To determine molecular mechanisms in vitro, mouse chondrocytes were treated with media of low magnesium conditions at 0.1 and 0.4 mM, compared with normal magnesium condition at 0.7 mM as control. Anabolic and catabolic factors, autophagy markers, β-catenin, Wnt ligands, and a magnesium channel transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily member 7 (TRPM7) were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Autolysosomes were detected by DALGreen staining via fluorescence microscopy and autophagosomes were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Autophagy markers, β-catenin, and TRPM7 were assessed in vivo in the mouse cartilage, comparing between dietary magnesium deficiency and normal diet, by immunohistochemistry. Results Dietary magnesium deficiency aggravated injury-induced cartilage damage, indicated by significant higher OARSI scores. Autophagy markers LC3-II and Beclin-1 were decreased both in low magnesium diet-fed mice and low magnesium-treated chondrocytes. The number of autolysosomes and autophagosomes was also reduced under low magnesium conditions. Moreover, magnesium deficiency induced decreased anabolic and increased catabolic effect of chondrocytes which could be restored by autophagy activator rapamycin. In addition, reduced autophagy under low magnesium conditions is mediated by activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The expression of TRPM7 also decreased in low magnesium diet-fed mice, indicating that downstream changes could be regulated through this channel. Conclusions Dietary magnesium deficiency contributes to OA development, which is mediated by reduced autophagy through Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation. These findings indicated potential benefits of adequate dietary magnesium for OA patients or those individuals at high risk of OA.
... Epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and North America show that Mg consumption is usually lower than recommended amounts (about 30-50%), especially as a result of inappropriate nutrition, such as so-called Western-type dietary patterns [27,28]. There are also other causes such as agronomic and environmental factors, affecting the Mg content and availability in the soil and, consequently, in the food chain [29]. ...
Article
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Magnesium (Mg) is an essential nutrient for maintaining vital physiological functions. It is involved in many fundamental processes, and Mg deficiency is often correlated with negative health outcomes. On the one hand, most western civilizations consume less than the recommended daily allowance of Mg. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence has indicated that chronic hypomagnesemia may be implicated in the pathogenesis of various metabolic disorders such as overweight and obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), changes in lipid metabolism, and low-grade inflammation. High Mg intake with diet and/or supplementation seems to prevent chronic metabolic complications. The protective action of Mg may include limiting the adipose tissue accumulation, improving glucose and insulin metabolism, enhancing endothelium-dependent vasodilation, normalizing lipid profile, and attenuating inflammatory processes. Thus, it currently seems that Mg plays an important role in developing metabolic disorders associated with obesity, although more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating Mg supplementation strategies are needed. This work represents a review and synthesis of recent data on the role of Mg in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders.
... Biostimulants maintain this positive behaviour of the grain in its accumulation of these elements, especially the WD-PG, which reached statistically the highest Mg concentration. This result is very interesting since nutritional health specialists warn us about hypomagnesaemia [46], owing to the fact that two-thirds of the world population does not consume a sufficient amount of Mg daily [47]. One of the reasons is because the concentration of these ions is decreasing in food crops over time [48], with drought events being one of the causes of this phenomenon [49]. ...
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Climate change has increased the severity of drought episodes by further reducing precipitation in vulnerable zones. Drought induces a substantial decrease in agricultural water, reducing crop yields. Consequently, addressing water consumption can increase farmers’ profits. This work describes lab-to-field research in Zea mays, using two biostimulants: glycine betaine (GB) and L-pyroglutamic acid (PG). The biostimulant optimal dosages were selected using a hydroponic system with 20% polyethylene glycol and nursery experiments under water-deficit irrigation. The established dosages were evaluated in field trials in which irrigation was reduced by 20%. Laboratory biostimulant optimisation showed in stressed treated seedlings (GB 0.1 mM; PG 1 mM) an increased dry weight, relative growth rate and water use efficiency, reducing seedling growth loss between 65 and 85%, respectively. Field trials using a GB-optimised dosage showed an increase in plants’ growth, grain yield and flour Ca content. In addition, grain flour carbohydrate content and protein remained similar to control well-watered plants. Finally, the economic aspects of biostimulant treatments, water consumption, water sources (ground vs. desalinated) and grain biomass were addressed. Overall, GB treatment demonstrated to be a valuable tool to reduce water consumption and improve farmers’ earnings.
... Dietary risk factors alone would cause nearly 11 million premature deaths worldwide [15]. The increasing consumption of industrialized "empty" calories [16][17][18][19], reflecting a high level of UPF consumption [20], may also be accompanied by the appearance of deficiencies of fiber and micronutrients such as iron [21], iodine [22], magnesium [23], calcium [24], and vitamins B12 [25,26] and D [27]. Moreover, this typical Western diet has been repeatedly reported to be unsustainable for global health, compromising human health [28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38], in addition to environmental issues, animal well-being and biodiversity, socioeconomics, culinary traditions, and the disappearance of small farmers worldwide [39][40][41][42][43][44]. ...
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In France, the evolution of dietary pattern relative to sustainability and global health remains insufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to assess dietary changes during 1998-2015 through three generic metrics potentially related to sustainability. Food consumption data were collected from three French National Individual Study of Food Consumption surveys (INCA) for children (0-17 years) and adults (18-79 years) representative of the French population. The consumed foods were converted into plant (metric 1) and non-ultra-processed (UPF, metric 2) calories, and analyzed in meeting dietary recommended intakes (metric 3). French children and adults consumed high levels of animal and UPF calories, and nutrient deficiencies were observed in adults from the 2015 survey, e.g., fiber, EPA, DHA, magnesium, retinol, and vitamin C. In children, UPF daily calories increased from 42.8 to 45.5% and decreased in adults from 39.2 to 35.0%. In children and adults, diet revegetation was observed. While the level of physical activity decreased, overweight , obesity and type 2 diabetes prevalence increased in French adults. The French dietary pattern is not sustainable for global health unless public health policy is reinforced, with at least a twofold decrease in animal and UPF calories and improved food diversity.
... It is involved in many enzyme activities, for example, reactive oxygen species homoeostasis and structural tissue stabilisation [52]. However, beyond the essential role of Mg 2+ in plants, it is noteworthy that hypomagnesaemia is known to contribute to several chronic human diseases [53]. Moreover, nearly two-thirds of the world population does not consume the recommended amount of Mg [54]. ...
Article
Among its other effects, climate change is driving humanity into water scarcity, especially in highly populated areas such as the Mediterranean. One of the best options to solve this problem is seawater desalination, but it has its environmental, social and economic impacts. The brine reject effluent from the process can be used as a rich mineral source for hydroponic culture. Indeed, stability in its composition was shown here during a one-year study. A compilation of analyses from desalination facilities located worldwide also demonstrates how reutilisation of this liquid waste can provide an opportunity to build a circular economy based on brine management. Potential profitable crops and an economic study of its implementation are discussed. Correct brine management channelled into an agricultural context can be an excellent way to improve the public and ecological reputation of desalination. It can also yield extra income beyond the fresh water yield from the proposed system.
... In doing so, we reveal the corresponding infectious risk of different population subgroups (gender, age, race, region, and population size) in low-magnesium areas of the United States during the early transmission stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. As nearly half the population of the United States has some degree of magnesium deficiency [29], our study will help to provide both new insights into the role of micronutrients in COVID-19 transmission and evidence to assess the effectiveness of magnesium supplementation as a long-term health intervention in magnesium-deficient populations. This will facilitate long-term COVID-19 prevention and control, especially in the event that COVID-19 becomes a seasonal epidemic. ...
Article
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Many studies have confirmed the important roles of nutritional status and micronutrients in the COVID-19 pandemic. Magnesium is a vital essential trace element that is involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and many other immunological functions and has been shown to be associated with the outcome of COVID-19 infection. Here, we conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in the United States involving 1150 counties, 287,326,503 individuals, and 5,401,483 COVID-19 confirmed cases as of 30 September 2020 to reveal the infection risk of the populations distributed in low-magnesium areas in the early transmission of COVID-19. Our results indicate that the average county-level COVID-19 cumulative incidence in low-magnesium areas was significantly higher than in the control areas. Additionally, a significant negative nonlinear association was found between environmental magnesium concentration and the county-level COVID-19 cumulative incidence. Furthermore, the populations distributed in low environmental magnesium areas faced a higher COVID-19 infection risk (RR: 1.066; CI: 1.063–1.068), among which females (RR: 1.07; CI: 1.067–1.073), the 0–17 years subgroup (RR: 1.125; CI: 1.117–1.134), the 65+ years subgroup (RR: 1.093; CI: 1.087–1.098), black people (RR: 1.975; CI: 1.963–1.986), populations outside metro areas, and counties with a smaller population experienced higher risk of infection by COVID-19 than other subgroups. Considering that the magnesium intake of about half the population of the United States is below the daily required dose, our study will contribute to the creation of long-term public health strategies to help protect against COVID-19.
... Some cross-sectional analyses found that Mg intake or serum Mg concentrations were lower among patients with NAFLD compared with those without NAFLD [13,14], but data from large longitudinal studies of the general population are lacking. In addition, studies indicate that moderate Mg deficiency is common in the US [15]. Therefore, we aimed to examine the longitudinal association between Mg intake and the risk of NAFLD during 25 years of follow-up using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adult (CARDIA) study. ...
Article
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PurposeHuman data are limited linking magnesium (Mg) intake to the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to examine the association between Mg intake and the risk of NAFLD among young adults in the US with a 25-year follow-up. Methods This study included 2685 participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adult (CARDIA) study. Diet and dietary supplements were assessed at baseline (1985–1986) and exam years 7 and 20 using an interview-based dietary history. NAFLD, defined as liver attenuation ≤ 51 Hounsfield Units excluding secondary causes of liver fat accumulation, was identified by non-contrast-computed tomography scanning at exam year 25. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model was used to examine the associations between cumulative average total intake of Mg (dietary plus supplemental) and NAFLD odds.ResultsA total of 629 NAFLD cases were documented. After adjustment for potential confounders, an inverse association between total Mg intake and NAFLD odds was observed. Compared to participants in the lowest quintile of total Mg intake, the odds of NAFLD was 55% lower among individuals in the highest quintile [multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.23, 0.85), p for trend = 0.03]. Consistently, whole-grain consumption, a major dietary source of Mg, was inversely associated with NAFLD odds (p for trend = 0.02).Conclusions This study suggests that higher cumulative intake of Mg throughout adulthood is associated with lower odds of NAFLD in midlife. Future studies are needed to establish a possible causal relationship.
... The Ca/Mg ratios for the flour blends were 0.54, 0.56 and 0.55 for samples GSM-1, GSM-2 and GSM-3 respectively. The standards for Na/K, Ca/P and Ca/Mg are < 1, ≤ 1 and between 1 and 2 respectively [47,48]. The values obtained for these parameters in this study were all less than these maximum standards, which indicate that consumers of the dough meal prepared from the flour blends will not suffer any adverse effect on the absorption and utilization of these minerals. ...
Article
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This study investigated effects of varying proportions of “Garri”, soy cake and whole millet flours on proximate composition, physico-chemical properties and mineral profiles of their blends as potential material for preparation of functional dough meal. Blends were optimized for protein (10-20%) and fibre (3-5%), using Design Expert Version 6.0.8. and variables “garri” (56-65%), soy cake (13-24%) and whole millet (11-22%) flours, which generated 14 blends. 100% ‘garri’ flour and three blends with highest protein and fibre contents were evaluated for proximate composition, physico-chemical properties and mineral profiles including mineral safety index of selected minerals. Protein and fibre contents of blends increased with increased proportions of soy cake and millet flours. Protein contents of blends increased (15.55–15.83%), while carbohydrate reduced (73.73–74.06% significantly (p < 0.05), compared to 100% “garri” flour (2.11% and 92%), respectively. 100% “garri” flour had significantly (p < 0.05) higher values for most functional and pasting parameters, compared to the blends, but no significant (p > 0.05) difference among the blends for most pasting properties. Swelling index correlated positively with both carbohydrate content and water absorption (r = 0.60). There was significant (p < 0.05) difference between mean calculated and standard MSI values for all minerals, while sample GSM-1 had highest calculated MSI values for all minerals except Ca and Na. Varying proportions of “garri”, soy cake and millet flours significantly (p < 0.05) altered the proximate composition, functional properties and mineral profiles of the blends but did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect most pasting parameters.
... [15][16][17] While some estimates suggest that about half of the population in the United States consume inadequate amounts of magnesium, studies have shown that magnesium is one of the most widely used supplements by fibromyalgia patients. [18][19][20][21][22][23] At the Mayo Clinic fibromyalgia treatment program, 2 studies (years 2003, 2017) were performed to evaluate the frequency and pattern of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in fibromyalgia patients. 22,23 Both studies found that magnesium was one of the most frequently used supplements in fibromyalgia. ...
Article
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Fibromyalgia, a widespread chronic pain disorder, imposes a multitude of hardships on patients and their communities. Supplements, specifically magnesium supplements, have been widely used by fibromyalgia patients in an attempt to control their symptoms. The aim of this work is to investigate if the widespread use of magnesium in fibromyalgia is supported by evidence in the literature. This review provides a layout of the studies examining the correlation between body magnesium levels and fibromyalgia. Furthermore, it elaborates on the trials testing the effectiveness of magnesium in treating different clinical parameters of fibromyalgia.
... The adult female RDA for magnesium is 310mg for years 19-30 and 320 mg for over 31 [4]. According to a study by Rosanoff, Weaver, and Rude in 2012, 48% of the United States population in 2005-2006 consumed less than the RDA for magnesium [5]. Lambe et al. reported in 2016 that low preoperative levels of magnesium can be further decreased by surgical stress, which can lead to symptomatic magnesium deficiency, increased morbidity, and longer recovery times [6]. ...
Article
Desalinated water is not suitable for direct use as it is prone to corrosion and has adverse effects on human health and the environment. Desalinated water is slightly acidic, lacks minerals and cannot be used un-buffered, thus making remineralization an important component downstream of desalination. We systematically review remineralization requirements and regulations with respect to corrosion control, human health and agriculture needs. This includes not only concentrations of specific ions, but also relative ratios. We compare and contrast existing remineralization methods with emerging, energy-efficient methods that require less chemicals. The impact of the lack of certain minerals such as magnesium, calcium and sulfate, on health and environment are evaluated in order to guide regulatory bodies towards maintaining safe standards. Emerging methods include harvesting minerals from seawater or brine through the combination of nanofiltration membranes with others (CIX, UF, Diananofiltration) and using them to re-mineralize the product stream. This reduces the need for chemicals from an external source and thus lowers the environmental impact. This review is to be used as a tool for guiding readers in proper remineralization choices depending on their application.
Article
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This study standardized and determined the proximate composition, mineral contents and mineral ratios of selected standardized indigenous soups commonly consumed in South-Western, Nigeria. Data on recipes of fifteen selected soups were obtained from 750 housewives living in major cities of Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States in South-West Nigeria, using semi-structured questionnaire. Recipe was standardized and used to prepare the soups. Soup samples were analysed for the proximate and mineral composition using standard methods. The mineral ratios of the soups were calculated. The moisture, ash, crude fibre, fat, protein and carbohydrate contents of the soups ranged from 48.67/100g to 74.83g/100g, 3.44g/100g to 7.99g/100g, 4.10g/100g to 8.65g/100g, 3.00 g/100g to 25.00g/100g, 4.22 g/100g to 6.82 g/100g and 2.52g/100g to 30.41g/100g, respectively. The calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, iron and zinc contents ranged from 4.22mg/100g to 466.84mg/100g, 400.00mg/100g to 92.47mg/100g, 88.65 mg/100g to 90.21mg/100g, 42.21mg/100g to 222.01mg/100g, 1.08 mg/100g to 9.40 mg/100g and 0.31 mg/100g to 4.30 mg/100g, respectively. All the soups had high sodium to potassium ratio and calcium to phosphorus ratio but low iron to zinc ratio in relation to the standards. Cotton seed soup and igbo soups had higher protein content while black soup and efinrin soup had higher fat content than other soups. All the soups are good sources of minerals. However, cocoyam leaf soup and cassava leaf soup had low iron content compared to other soups. Keywords: Indigenous soups, macronutrient contents, mineral contents and mineral ratios.
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the calcium/magnesium (Ca/Mg) ratio and insulin resistance in women with obesity and normal-weight women. This was a cross-sectional study with 128 women (62 women with obesity and 66 normal-weight women). We measured dietary minerals intake and analyzed magnesium and calcium biomarkers. Ca/Mg ratio in diet, plasma and urine were calculated. We have evaluated glycemic parameters. Women with obesity had low dietary magnesium, reduced plasma and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations, and elevated urinary magnesium excretion. Plasma calcium concentration was lower and urinary calcium excretion was higher in patients with obesity than in the normal-weight group. Dietary magnesium and calcium intake per kilogram of body weight per day was lower in obese women than in the control group. Ca/Mg ratio in plasma and urine were elevated in women with obesity. We found a significant correlation among magnesium biomarkers and calcium parameters. Ca/Mg ratio seems to be associated with insulin resistance in obese women.
Article
Objectives Inadequate dietary magnesium (Mg) intake is a growing public health concern. Mg is critical for diverse metabolic processes including energy production, macromolecule biosynthesis, and electrolyte homeostasis. Inadequate free Mg²⁺ ion concentration ([Mg²⁺]) in the brain is associated with several neurological and behavioral disorders. Elevating [Mg²⁺]in the brain using oral Mg supplementation has proven to be challenging due to the tight regulation of Mg²⁺ transport to the brain. This study explored the effect of short-term moderate reduction in dietary Mg intake (87% of normal Mg diet for 30 days) on [Mg²⁺] in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ([Mg²⁺]CSF) and red blood cells (RBCs) ([Mg²⁺]RBC) in adult male rats. In addition, we investigated the effectiveness of magnesium-rich blend of Swiss chard and buckwheat extracts (SC/BW extract) in increasing brain [Mg²⁺] compared to various Mg salts commonly used as dietary supplements. Methods Animals were assigned to either normal or low Mg diet for 30 - 45 days. Following this, animals maintained on low Mg diet were supplemented with various Mg compounds. [Mg²⁺]CSF and [Mg²⁺]RBC were measured at baseline and following Mg administration. Anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function were also evaluated. Results The present study showed that a short-term and moderate reduction in Mg dietary intake results in a significant decline in [Mg²⁺]CSF and [Mg²⁺]RBC and the emergence of anxiety-like behavior in comparison to animals maintained on normal Mg diet. Supplementation with SC/BW extract significantly elevated [Mg²⁺]CSF and improved animal performance in the novel object recognition test in comparison with animals maintained on reduced Mg intake and supplemented with various Mg compounds. Discussion These observations indicate that brain [Mg²⁺] is more sensitive to a short-term and moderate reduction in Mg dietary intake than previously thought and emphasizes the importance of dietary Mg in replenishing brain Mg²⁺ reserves.
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Each year, influenza virus infects 3–5 million people with over 500,000 global deaths due to influenza-related complications. Adequate nutrition is essential for both the innate and adaptive immune response to influenza infection as well as vaccination efforts to reduce disease burden. Nutritional conditions such as undernutrition, obesity, and micronutrient deficiencies increase risk for influenza infection in adults and children alike. Further, influenza infection is known to influence nutritional status in a complex and vicious cycle. This review will provide a brief overview of the complexity of viral replications and then focus specifically on influenza virus and what is known and unknown about the interaction of nutritional conditions on influenza infection and vaccination, with a special focus on micronutrient contributions. Healthy nutritional status is vital for protection and resolution of influenza infections as well as other viral infections, and further work is necessary to understand and develop the potential for beneficial nutritional interventions against viral infections.
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Magnesium participates in more than 600 enzymatic reactions in the body. Its role in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and pre-eclampsia is already well established. Magnesium`s role in preventive medicine is not very well described in medicine literature. We have carefully studied the pathophysiology of magnesium and explained its role in hypertension, chronic kidney disease, vascular calcication, metabolic syndrome and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Through this article we hope to add to the existing knowledge of magnesium metabolism, its role in cardiovascular pathology and potential benets of magnesium supplements on health.
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This chapter discusses the post‐treatment of desalinated water using conventional as well as recent technologies for remineralization of permeate produced by desalination systems. Desalted water produced by desalination facilities are unpleasant, unhealthy, and they are corrosive, cannot be utilised directly. Because of the requirement for high‐quality water, remineralization of desalinated water as part of the post‐treatment process has gotten a lot of attention recently. It gives insights on examining remineralization requirements and restrictions in terms of corrosion control, human health, and agricultural needs. The chapter also provides an summary of alternative disinfection systems and guidance for their use in desalination applications.
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Hostility is a complex personality trait associated with many cardiovascular risk factor phenotypes. Although magnesium intake has been related to mood and cardio-metabolic disease, its relation with hostility remains unclear. We hypothesize that high total magnesium intake is associated with lower levels of hostility because of its putative antidepressant mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, we prospectively analyzed data in 4,716 young adults aged 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986) from four U.S. cities over five years of follow-up using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Magnesium intake was estimated from a dietary history questionnaire plus supplements at baseline. Levels of hostility were assessed using the Cook-Medley scale at baseline and year 5 (1990-1991). Generalized estimating equations were applied to estimate the association of magnesium intake with hostility as repeated measures at the two time-points (baseline and year 5). General linear model was used to determine the association between magnesium intake and change in hostility over 5 years. After adjustment for socio-demographic and major lifestyle factors, a significant inverse association was observed between magnesium intake and hostility level over 5 years of follow-up. Beta coefficients (95% CI) across higher quintiles of magnesium intake were 0 (reference), -1.28 (-1.92, -0.65), -1.45 (-2.09, -0.81), -1.41 (-2.08, -0.75) and -2.16 (-2.85, -1.47), respectively (Plinear-trend<.01). The inverse association was independent of socio-demographic and major lifestyle factors, supplement use, and depression status at year 5. This prospective study provides evidence that in young adults, high magnesium intake was inversely associated with hostility level independent of socio-demographic and major lifestyle factors.
Article
Background Low and high concentrations of plasma magnesium are associated with increased risk of future all-cause dementia; however, the underlying reasons remain elusive. The magnesium ion is an important electrolyte serving as a cofactor in many enzymatic processes in the human organism. Magnesium affects both neuronal and vascular functions. We investigated the associations of plasma concentrations of magnesium associate with common subtypes of dementia as Alzheimer dementia and non-Alzheimer dementia, and potential pathways by which magnesium may affect risk of dementia. Methods Plasma concentrations of magnesium were measured in 102 648 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study. Cox regression and natural effects mediation analyses evaluated associations with either Alzheimer dementia or non-Alzheimer dementia. Results Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for non-Alzheimer dementia were 1.50(95% confidence interval (CI):1.21–1.87) for the lowest and 1.34(1.07–1.69) for the highest vs the fourth quintile (reference) of plasma magnesium concentrations. Diabetes, cumulated smoking, stroke, and systolic blood pressure mediated 10.4%(3.1–22.8%), 6.8%(1.2–14.0%), 1.3%(0.1–3.6%), and 1.0%(0.2–2.6%), respectively, in the lowest quintile, whereas stroke mediated 3.2%(0.4–11.9%) in the highest quintile. No associations were observed for Alzheimer dementia. Conclusions Low and high plasma magnesium concentrations were associated with high risk of vascular-related non-Alzheimer dementia, with the lowest risk observed at a concentration of 2.07 mg/dL (0.85 mmol/L). No association was observed for Alzheimer dementia. Mediation analysis suggested that diabetes may be in the causal pathway between low plasma magnesium concentrations and high risk of non-Alzheimer dementia, while cumulated smoking, stroke, and systolic blood pressure played minor mediating roles.
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Background & aims Magnesium (Mg²⁺) is able to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Mg²⁺ restriction can trigger neutrophilia, but the processes that result in this change have yet to be investigated and are not fully understood. Hematopoiesis is a complex process that is regulated by many factors, including cytokines and growth factors, and is strongly influenced by nutrient availability. In this context, our objective was to investigate the impact of the short-term restriction of dietary Mg²⁺ on bone marrow hematopoietic and peripheral blood cells, especially in processes related to granulocyte differentiation and proliferation. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a Mg²⁺ restricted diet (50 mg Mg²⁺/kg diet) for 4 weeks. Cell blood count and bone marrow cell count were evaluated. Bone marrow cells were also characterized by flow cytometry. Gene expression and cytokine production were evaluated, and a colony-forming cell assay related to granulocyte differentiation and proliferation was performed. Results Short-term dietary restriction of Mg²⁺ resulted in peripheral neutrophilia associated with an increased number of granulocytic precursors in the bone marrow. Additionally, Mg²⁺ restriction resulted in an increased number of granulocytic colonies formed in vitro. Moreover, the Mg²⁺ restricted group showed increased expression of CSF3 and CEBPα genes as well as increased production of G-CSF in association with increased expression of STAT3 protein. Conclusion Short-term dietary restriction of Mg²⁺ induces granulopoiesis by increasing G-CSF production and activating the CEBPα and STAT-3 pathways, resulting in neutrophilia in peripheral blood.
Article
Background: Clinical trials have demonstrated magnesium supplements to be effective for prophylactic treatment of migraine. Dietary magnesium intake of many Americans is known to be below nutritional recommendations, but typical magnesium intake from dietary sources in adults with migraine has not previously been evaluated. Objective: This study aimed to quantify dietary and total (diet + supplement) magnesium consumption of adults with migraine or severe headache in the United States, and to investigate the relationship between magnesium consumption levels and prevalence of migraine or severe headache. Methods: This analysis included cross-sectional data from 3626 participants, 20- to 50-years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2004. Presence of migraine or severe headache in the past 3 months was determined by questionnaire. Individuals responding affirmatively were classified as having migraine, and individuals reporting not experiencing migraine or severe headache were classified as controls. Dietary magnesium intake was determined from a 24-hour recall interview, supplemental magnesium intake was determined from the dietary supplements interview, and total magnesium intake was the sum of dietary and supplement intake. Results: Mean dietary consumption of magnesium was below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for both migraine (n = 905) and control groups (n = 2721). Attainment of the RDA through a combination of diet and supplements was associated with lower adjusted odds of migraine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 0.70, 0.99, p = 0.035). Magnesium consumption in the highest quartile (Q) was associated with lower odds of migraine than in the lowest Q for both dietary (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.63, 0.92, p = 0.006) and total (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.99, p = 0.042) magnesium intake in adjusted models. Conclusion: These results suggest inadequate consumption of magnesium intake is associated with migraine in U.S. adults ages 20-50. Further prospective investigations are warranted to evaluate the role of dietary magnesium intake on migraine.
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This report presents national estimates of usual nutrient intake distributions from food and water for vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium and compares those estimates to the Dietary Reference Intakes published by the Institute of Medicine in 1997. Estimates are based on data from 8,437 individuals ages 1 year and over (excluding breast-fed children and pregnant or lactating females) and 327 pregnant females 19-50 years of age who completed a 24-hour dietary recall in What We Eat in America, the dietary interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Data includes nutrient intake estimates from food (both naturally present and fortified) and water only and exclude nutrient intake estimates contributed by dietary supplements and medications or that obtained from sunlight. Statistics are reported for 22 gender/age/lifestage groups. The nutrient values for this report are from two sources. The vitamin D values are based on the Vitamin D Addendum to the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0, and the values for the remaining nutrients are based on the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0 (both derived from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference).
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Magnesium, potassium, and sodium, cations commonly measured in serum, are involved in many physiological processes including energy metabolism, nerve and muscle function, signal transduction, and fluid and blood pressure regulation. To evaluate the contribution of common genetic variation to normal physiologic variation in serum concentrations of these cations, we conducted genome-wide association studies of serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations using ~2.5 million genotyped and imputed common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15,366 participants of European descent from the international CHARGE Consortium. Study-specific results were combined using fixed-effects inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. SNPs demonstrating genome-wide significant (p
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Objectives: To investigate the effects of personal calcium supplement use on cardiovascular risk in the Women's Health Initiative Calcium/Vitamin D Supplementation Study (WHI CaD Study), using the WHI dataset, and to update the recent meta-analysis of calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk. Design: Reanalysis of WHI CaD Study limited access dataset and incorporation in meta-analysis with eight other studies. Data source WHI CaD Study, a seven year, randomised, placebo controlled trial of calcium and vitamin D (1g calcium and 400 IU vitamin D daily) in 36,282 community dwelling postmenopausal women. Main outcome measures Incidence of four cardiovascular events and their combinations (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, death from coronary heart disease, and stroke) assessed with patient-level data and trial-level data. Results: In the WHI CaD Study there was an interaction between personal use of calcium supplements and allocated calcium and vitamin D for cardiovascular events. In the 16,718 women (46%) who were not taking personal calcium supplements at randomisation the hazard ratios for cardiovascular events with calcium and vitamin D ranged from 1.13 to 1.22 (P = 0.05 for clinical myocardial infarction or stroke, P = 0.04 for clinical myocardial infarction or revascularisation), whereas in the women taking personal calcium supplements cardiovascular risk did not alter with allocation to calcium and vitamin D. In meta-analyses of three placebo controlled trials, calcium and vitamin D increased the risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk 1.21 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.44), P = 0.04), stroke (1.20 (1.00 to 1.43), P = 0.05), and the composite of myocardial infarction or stroke (1.16 (1.02 to 1.32), P = 0.02). In meta-analyses of placebo controlled trials of calcium or calcium and vitamin D, complete trial-level data were available for 28,072 participants from eight trials of calcium supplements and the WHI CaD participants not taking personal calcium supplements. In total 1384 individuals had an incident myocardial infarction or stroke. Calcium or calcium and vitamin D increased the risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk 1.24 (1.07 to 1.45), P = 0.004) and the composite of myocardial infarction or stroke (1.15 (1.03 to 1.27), P = 0.009). Conclusions: Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D modestly increase the risk of cardiovascular events, especially myocardial infarction, a finding obscured in the WHI CaD Study by the widespread use of personal calcium supplements. A reassessment of the role of calcium supplements in osteoporosis management is warranted.
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USDA food surveys from 1977 through 2007-8 show a rising food Ca:Mg ratio for all USA adult age-gender groups. Food Ca:Mg intake ratios rose from 2.3-2.9 in 1977 to 2.9-3.5 in 2007-8. The % rise in mean Mg intakes compared closely with % rise in mean energy intakes while % rise in mean Ca intakes were substantially higher in all groups, suggesting the rising Ca:Mg comes from higher Ca intakes via food selections, rising food Ca contents or both. Original intake data from these surveys need to be accessed to calculate each individual's Ca:Mg for statistical assessment of this ratio rise. Ca:Mg rose from largely below 3.0 in 1994-5 to generally above or approaching 3.0 after 2000, coinciding with a sharp 2% rise in type 2 diabetes incidence and prevalence in the USA population and a 1994-2005 rise in colorectal cancer incidence among young white, non-Hispanic adult men and women in the USA. The intracellular Ca activation response to low Mg is discussed as a possible mechanism linking metabolic and inflammatory syndromes with low dietary Mg and rising dietary Ca:Mg ratio. Adequacy of both Ca and Mg as well as the Ca:Mg ratio are important in assessing study outcomes. Health consequences should be considered for the USA's 64-67% adults not meeting their Mg requirement from foods, many also consuming below their Ca requirements, and their increasing Ca:Mg ratio from foods.
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This article summarizes the new 2011 report on dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). An IOM Committee charged with determining the population needs for these nutrients in North America conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence for both skeletal and extraskeletal outcomes. The Committee concluded that available scientific evidence supports a key role of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health, consistent with a cause-and-effect relationship and providing a sound basis for determination of intake requirements. For extraskeletal outcomes, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders, the evidence was inconsistent, inconclusive as to causality, and insufficient to inform nutritional requirements. Randomized clinical trial evidence for extraskeletal outcomes was limited and generally uninformative. Based on bone health, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs; covering requirements of ≥97.5% of the population) for calcium range from 700 to 1300 mg/d for life-stage groups at least 1 yr of age. For vitamin D, RDAs of 600 IU/d for ages 1-70 yr and 800 IU/d for ages 71 yr and older, corresponding to a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/liter), meet the requirements of at least 97.5% of the population. RDAs for vitamin D were derived based on conditions of minimal sun exposure due to wide variability in vitamin D synthesis from ultraviolet light and the risks of skin cancer. Higher values were not consistently associated with greater benefit, and for some outcomes U-shaped associations were observed, with risks at both low and high levels. The Committee concluded that the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in North America has been overestimated. Urgent research and clinical priorities were identified, including reassessment of laboratory ranges for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, to avoid problems of both undertreatment and overtreatment.
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Hypomagnesemia continues to cause difficult clinical problems, such as significant cardiac arrhythmias where intravenous magnesium therapy can be lifesaving. Nutritional deficiency of magnesium may present with some subtle symptoms such as leg cramps and occasional palpitation. We have investigated dietary-induced magnesium deficiency in rodent models to assess the pathobiology associated with prolonged hypomagnesemia. We found that neuronal sources of the neuropeptide, substance P (SP), contributed to very early prooxidant/proinflammatory changes during Mg deficiency. This neurogenic inflammation is systemic in nature, affecting blood cells, cardiovascular, intestinal, and other tissues, leading to impaired cardiac contractility similar to that seen in patients with heart failure. We have used drugs that block the release of SP from neurons and SP-receptor blockers to prevent some of these pathobiological changes; whereas, blocking SP catabolism enhances inflammation. Our findings emphasize the essential role of this cation in preventing cardiomyopathic changes and intestinal inflammation in a well-studied animal model, and also implicate the need for more appreciation of the potential clinical relevance of optimal magnesium nutrition and therapy.
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To investigate the long-term associations of magnesium intake with incidence of diabetes, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance among young American adults. A total of 4,497 Americans, aged 18-30 years, who had no diabetes at baseline, were prospectively examined for incident diabetes based on quintiles of magnesium intake. We also investigated the associations between magnesium intake and inflammatory markers, i.e., high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and fibrinogen, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). During the 20-year follow-up, 330 incident cases of diabetes were identified. Magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential confounders. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of diabetes for participants in the highest quintile of magnesium intake was 0.53 (95% CI, 0.32-0.86; P(trend) < 0.01) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Consistently, magnesium intake was significantly inversely associated with hs-CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen, and HOMA-IR, and serum magnesium levels were inversely correlated with hs-CRP and HOMA-IR. Magnesium intake was inversely longitudinally associated with incidence of diabetes in young American adults. This inverse association may be explained, at least in part, by the inverse correlations of magnesium intake with systemic inflammation and insulin resistance.
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To investigate whether calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Patient level and trial level meta-analyses. Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1966-March 2010), reference lists of meta-analyses of calcium supplements, and two clinical trial registries. Initial searches were carried out in November 2007, with electronic database searches repeated in March 2010. Eligible studies were randomised, placebo controlled trials of calcium supplements (>or=500 mg/day), with 100 or more participants of mean age more than 40 years and study duration more than one year. The lead authors of eligible trials supplied data. Cardiovascular outcomes were obtained from self reports, hospital admissions, and death certificates. 15 trials were eligible for inclusion, five with patient level data (8151 participants, median follow-up 3.6 years, interquartile range 2.7-4.3 years) and 11 with trial level data (11 921 participants, mean duration 4.0 years). In the five studies contributing patient level data, 143 people allocated to calcium had a myocardial infarction compared with 111 allocated to placebo (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.67, P=0.035). Non-significant increases occurred in the incidence of stroke (1.20, 0.96 to 1.50, P=0.11), the composite end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (1.18, 1.00 to 1.39, P=0.057), and death (1.09, 0.96 to 1.23, P=0.18). The meta-analysis of trial level data showed similar results: 296 people had a myocardial infarction (166 allocated to calcium, 130 to placebo), with an increased incidence of myocardial infarction in those allocated to calcium (pooled relative risk 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.59, P=0.038). Calcium supplements (without coadministered vitamin D) are associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction. As calcium supplements are widely used these modest increases in risk of cardiovascular disease might translate into a large burden of disease in the population. A reassessment of the role of calcium supplements in the management of osteoporosis is warranted.
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Epidemiological data shows low dietary magnesium(Mg) may be related to incidence and progression of asthma. To determine if long term(6.5 month) treatment with oral Mg would improve asthma control and increase serum measures of Mg status in men and women with mild-to-moderate asthma. 55 males and females aged 21 to 55 years with mild to moderate asthma according to the 2002 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute(NHLBI) and Asthma Education and Prevention Program(NAEPP) guidelines and who used only beta-agonists or inhaled corticosteroids(ICS) as asthma medications were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 340 mg(170 mg twice a day) of Mg or a placebo for 6.5 months. Multiple measures of Mg status including serum, erythrocyte, urine, dietary, ionized and IV Mg were measured. markers of asthma control were: methacholine challenge test(MCCT) and pulmonary function test(PFT) results. Subjective validated questionnaires on asthma quality of life(AQLQ) and control(ACQ) were completed by participants. Markers of inflammation, including c-reactive protein(CRP) and exhaled nitric oxide(eNO) were determined. The concentration of methacholine required to cause a 20% drop in forced expiratory volume in in minute(FEV(1)) increased significantly from baseline to month 6 within the Mg group. Peak expiratory flow rate(PEFR) showed a 5.8% predicted improvement over time(P = 0.03) in those consuming the Mg. There was significant improvement in AQLQ mean score units(P < 0.01) and in overall ACQ score only in the Mg group(P = 0.05) after 6.5 months of supplementation. Despite these improvements, there were no significant changes in any of the markers of Mg status. Adults who received oral Mg supplements showed improvement in objective measures of bronchial reactivity to methacholine and PEFR and in subjective measures of asthma control and quality of life.
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Although magnesium may favorably affect metabolic outcomes, few studies have investigated the role of magnesium intake in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in humans. Among 3,713 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes at baseline, we measured plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), turnor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 (TNF-alpha-R2), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and E-selectin. Magnesium intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, clinical center, time of blood draw, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, energy intake, BMI, and diabetes status, magnesium intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP (P for linear trend = 0.003), IL-6 (P < 0.0001), TNF-alpha-R2 (P = 0.0006), and sVCAM-1 (P = 0.06). Similar findings remained after further adjustment for dietary fiber, fruit, vegetables, folate, and saturated and trans fat intake. Multivariable-adjusted geometric means across increasing quintiles of magnesium intake were 3.08, 2.63, 2.31, 2.53, and 2.16 mg/l for hs-CRP (P = 0.005); 2.91, 2.63, 2.45, 2.27, and 2.26 pg/ml for IL-6 (P = 0.0005); and 707, 681, 673, 671, and 656 ng/ml for sVCAM-1 (P = 0.04). An increase of 100 mg/day magnesium was inversely associated with hs-CRP (-0.23 mg/l +/- 0.07; P = 0.002), IL-6 (-0.14 +/- 0.05 pg/ml; P = 0.004), TNF-alpha-R2 (-0.04 +/- 0.02 pg/ml; P = 0.06), and sVCAM-1 (-0.04 +/- 0.02 ng/ml; P = 0.07). No significant ethnic differences were observed. High magnesium intake is associated with lower concentrations of certain markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women.
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Magnesium (Mg) is the second most abundant intracellular cation where it plays an important role in enzyme function and trans-membrane ion transport. Mg deficiency has been associated with a number of clinical disorders including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is common problem accounting for 2 million fractures per year in the United States at a cost of over $17 billion dollars. The average dietary Mg intake in women is 68% of the RDA, indicating that a large proportion of our population has substantial dietary Mg deficits. The objective of this paper is to review the evidence for Mg deficiency-induced osteoporosis and potential reasons why this occurs, including a cumulative review of work in our laboratories and well as a review of other published studies linking Mg deficiency to osteoporosis. Epidemiological studies have linked dietary Mg deficiency to osteoporosis. As diets deficient in Mg are also deficient in other nutrients that may affect bone, studies have been carried out with select dietary Mg depletion in animal models. Severe Mg deficiency in the rat (Mg at <0.0002% of total diet; normal = 0.05%) causes impaired bone growth, osteopenia and skeletal fragility. This degree of Mg deficiency probably does not commonly exist in the human population. We have therefore induced dietary Mg deprivation in the rat at 10%, 25% and 50% of recommended nutrient requirement. We observed bone loss, decrease in osteoblasts, and an increase in osteoclasts by histomorphometry. Such reduced Mg intake levels are present in our population. We also investigated potential mechanisms for bone loss in Mg deficiency. Studies in humans and and our rat model demonstrated low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D levels, which may contribute to reduced bone formation. It is known that cytokines can increase osteoclastic bone resorption. Mg deficiency in the rat and/or mouse results in increased skeletal substance P, which in turn stimulates production of cytokines. With the use of immunohistocytochemistry, we found that Mg deficiency resulted in an increase in substance P, TNFalpha and IL1beta. Additional studies assessing the relative presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), found a decrease in OPG and an increase in RANKL favoring an increase in bone resorption. These data support the notion at dietary Mg intake at levels not uncommon in humans may perturb bone and mineral metabolism and be a risk factor for osteoporosis.
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Bone is a dynamic tissue that is continuously being remodeled throughout life. Specialized cells called osteoclasts transiently break down old bone (resorption process) at multiple sites as other cells known as osteoblasts are replacing it with new tissue (bone formation). Usually, both resorption and formation processes are in balance and thereby maintain skeletal strength and integrity. This equilibrium is assured by the coordination of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and secretory functions of the osteoblasts, which are essential for adequate formation and resorption processes. Disturbances of this equilibrium may lead to decreased bone mass (osteoporosis), increased bone fragility, and susceptibility to fractures. Epidemiological studies have linked insufficient dietary magnesium (Mg(2+)) intake in humans with low bone mass and osteoporosis. Here, we investigated the roles of Mg(2+) and melastatin-like transient receptor potential 7 (TRPM7), known as Mg(2+) channels, in human osteoblast cell proliferation and migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which has been involved in the bone remodeling process. PDGF promoted an influx of Mg(2+), enhanced cell migration, and stimulated the gene expression of TRPM7 channels in human osteoblast MG-63 cells. The stimulation of osteoblast proliferation and migration by PDGF was significantly reduced under culture conditions of low extracellular Mg(2+) concentrations. Silencing TRPM7 expression in osteoblasts by specific small interfering RNA prevented the induction by PDGF of Mg(2+) influx, proliferation, and migration. Our results indicate that extracellular Mg(2+) and TRPM7 are important for PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of human osteoblasts. Thus Mg(2+) deficiency, a common condition among the general population, may be associated with altered osteoblast functions leading to inadequate bone formation and the development of osteoporosis.
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Magnesium is an important intracellular element that is involved in numerous cellular functions. Deficiencies in magnesium may play an important role in the pathogenesis of migraine headaches by promoting cortical spreading depression, alteration of neurotransmitter release and the hyperaggregation of platelets. Given this multifaceted role of magnesium in migraine, the use of magnesium in both acute and preventive headache treatment has been researched as a potentially simple, inexpensive, safe and well-tolerated option. Studies have shown that preventive treatment with oral magnesium and acute headache treatment with intravenous magnesium may be effective, particularly in certain subsets of patients. In this review, the pathogenesis of migraine will be discussed, with an emphasis on the role of magnesium. Studies on the use of intravenous and oral magnesium in migraine treatment will be discussed and recommendations will be made regarding the use of magnesium in treating migraine headaches.
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Diet plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but little is known about the contributions of specific nutrients in populations in which dietary patterns differ from Western populations. We examined associations between calcium and magnesium intakes and the risk of T2D in a Chinese population. We used data from a population-based, prospective study of 64,191 women who were free of T2D or other chronic diseases at study recruitment and were living in urban Shanghai, China. Dietary intake, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were assessed through in-person interviews. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association of the exposures under study with the risk of T2D. An inverse association between calcium and magnesium intakes and T2D risk was observed. The relative risks for the lowest to the highest quintiles of calcium intake were 1.00, 0.82, 0.73, 0.67, and 0.74 (P for trend < 0.001), and for magnesium they were 1.00, 0.84, 0.84, 0.79, and 0.86 (P for trend < 0.001). Milk intake was also inversely associated with the risk of T2D. Our data suggest that calcium and magnesium intakes may protect against the development of T2D in this population.
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Ion channel transient receptor potential membrane melastatin 6 and 7 (TRPM6 and TRPM7) play a central role in magnesium homeostasis, which is critical for maintaining glucose and insulin metabolism. However, it is unclear whether common genetic variation in TRPM6 and TRPM7 contributes to risk of type 2 diabetes. We conducted a nested case-control study in the Women's Health Study. During a median of 10 years of follow-up, 359 incident diabetes cases were diagnosed and matched by age and ethnicity with 359 controls. We analyzed 20 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TRPM6 and 5 common SNPs in TRPM7 for their association with diabetes risk. Overall, there was no robust and significant association between any single SNP and diabetes risk. Neither was there any evidence of association between common TRPM6 and TRPM7 haplotypes and diabetes risk. Our haplotype analyses suggested a significant risk of type 2 diabetes among carriers of both the rare alleles from two non-synomous SNPs in TRPM6 (Val1393Ile in exon 26 [rs3750425] and Lys1584Glu in exon 27 [rs2274924]) when their magnesium intake was lower than 250 mg per day. Compared with non-carriers, women who were carriers of the haplotype 1393Ile-1584Glu had an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (OR, 4.92, 95% CI, 1.05-23.0) only when they had low magnesium intake (<250 mg/day). Our results provide suggestive evidence that two common non-synonymous TRPM6 coding region variants, Ile1393Val and Lys1584Glu polymorphisms, might confer susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in women with low magnesium intake. Further replication in large-scale studies is warranted.
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Hypomagnesaemia has been reported among patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Recently, a possible correlation between serum magnesium (Mg) and C-reactive protein (CRP) has been stressed. This correlation has been attributed to cytokine production and oxidative stress processes. In this study we aimed to determine the relationship between serum Mg and hs-CRP levels in patients undergoing HD. This is a cross sectional study based on data collected from 58 HD patients in the Sahraee Center of Shiraz, Iran in 2007. Data were analyzed by SPSS.15, using Mann-Whitney test, Pair t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The present study included 58 HD patients (33 M and 25 F). The mean age of our patients was 51 +/- 17.5 years old. At the start of HD, 39% of our patients had hypomagnesaemia and 60% had high hs-CRP, and 31% had both. There was a significant negative correlation between serum Mg and serum hs-CRP (p < 0.04). Also, in those who had hypomagnesaemia, hs-CRP was higher (p < 0.02). The results of this research support our hypothesis that hypomagnesaemia in pre-dialysis patients is a risk factor for sub-clinical inflammation due to hs-CRP elevation, although further studies are clearly required.
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Mg deficiency may be an important factor leading to cardiovascular disease. Diabetic subjects show an increase in platelet reactivity that can enhance the risks of vascular disease. In addition, diabetic patients have been reported to be at risk of developing extracellular Mg deficiency. However, the intracellular free Mg concentration and its role in the enhanced platelet reactivity in diabetes is not known. We evaluated the intracellular erythrocyte (RBC) Mg2+ concentration in 20 non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetics. In addition, the effects of intravenous 3-h drip or 8 wk of oral Mg supplementation on intracellular RBC Mg2+ levels and platelet reactivity was studied. To more clearly evaluate the direct role of Mg in these effects, we induced isolated Mg deficiency in 16 nondiabetic control subjects with an Mg-free liquid diet for 3 wk. The intracellular RBC Mg2+ concentration of diabetic patients was significantly reduced compared with values in nondiabetic control subjects (166 +/- 7 vs. 204 +/- 7 microM, P less than 0.01). Serum Mg levels were also reduced in the diabetic patients compared with the control subjects (1.59 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.1 mEq/L, P less than 0.05). Oral Mg supplementation for 8 wk (400 mg/day) restored RBC Mg2+ concentration to normal without significantly changing serum Mg concentration. Both intravenous and oral Mg supplementation markedly reduced platelet reactivity in response to the thromboxane A2 analog, U46619. The Mg-free diet resulted in a significant reduction in RBC Mg2+ concentration and markedly enhanced the sensitivity of platelet aggregation to U46619 and ADP. These results suggest that type II diabetic patients have intracellular Mg2+ deficiency and that Mg deficiency may be a key factor in leading to enhanced platelet reactivity in type II diabetes. Therefore, Mg supplementation may provide a new therapeutic approach to reducing vascular disease in patients with diabetes.
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We hypothesized that serum magnesium (Mg) is associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study assessed risk factors and levels of serum Mg in a cohort of 45- to 64-year-old subjects in 1987-1989 (n = 14,232). After an average of 12 years of follow-up, we observed 264 cases of SCD, as determined by physician review of all suspected cases. We used proportional hazards regression to evaluate the association of serum Mg with risk of SCD. Individuals in the highest quartile of serum Mg were at significantly lower risk of SCD in all models. This association persisted after adjustment for potential confounding variables, with an almost 40% reduced risk of SCD (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93) in quartile 4 versus 1 of serum Mg observed in the fully adjusted model. This study suggests that low levels of serum Mg may be an important predictor of SCD. Further research into the effectiveness of Mg supplementation for those considered to be at high risk for SCD is warranted.
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Magnesium (Mg) intake is inadequate in the western diet and metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in populations around the world. Epidemiological studies suggest that high Mg intake may reduce the risk but the possibility of confounding factors exists, given the strong association between Mg and other beneficial nutriments (vegetables, fibers, cereals). The concept that metabolic syndrome is an inflammatory condition may explain the role of Mg.Mg deficiency results in a stress effect and increased susceptibility to physiological damage produced by stress. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a factor in the development of insulin resistance by increasing oxidative stress. In both humans and rats, aldosteronism results in an immunostimulatory state and leads to an inflammatory phenotype. Stress response induces the release of large quantities of excitatory amino acids and activates the nuclear factor NFkappaB, promoting translation of molecules involved in cell regulation, metabolism and apoptosis. The rise in neuropeptides is also well documented. Stress-induced HPA activation has been identified to play an important role in the preferential body fat accumulation but evidence that Mg is involved in body weight regulation is lacking. One of the earliest events in the acute response to stress is endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial cells actively contribute to inflammation by elaborating cytokines, synthesizing chemical mediators and expressing adhesion molecules. Experimental Mg deficiency in rats induces a clinical inflammatory syndrome characterized by leukocyte and macrophage activation, synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, extensive production of free radicals. An increase in extracellular Mg concentration decreases inflammatory effects, while reduction in extracellular Mg results in cell activation. The effect of Mg deficiency in the development of insulin resistance in the rat model is well documented. Inflammation occurring during experimental Mg deficiency is the mechanism that induces hypertriglyceridemia and pro-atherogenic changes in lipoprotein metabolism. The presence of endothelial dysfunction and dyslipidemia triggers platelet aggregability, thus increasing the risk of thrombotic events. Oxidative stress contributes to the elevation of blood pressure. The inflammatory syndrome induces activation of several factors, which are dependent on cytosolic Ca activation. Recent findings support the hypothesis that the Mg effect on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis may be a common link between stress, inflammation and a possible relationship to metabolic syndrome.